History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2021 Past Papers

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SECTION A (25 marks)
Answer all questions in this section in the space provided after question 24.

  1. Identify two forms of government. (2 marks)
  2. State two basic methods which the early human beings used to obtain food. (2 marks)
  3. Define the term 'Agriculture'. (1 mark)
  4. Give the main reason why the Atlantic Ocean was important in the Trans-Atlantic trade. (1 mark)
  5. Highlight two types of indirect democracy. (2 marks)
  6. Give two limitations of using motorcycle as a means of transport. (2 marks)
  7. Highlight one factor that led to the growth of the ancient city of Athens. (1 mark)
  8. Give one reason why Lobengula was defeated by the British (1 mark)
  9. Identify two racial groups that competed for the control of South Africa during the apartheid (2 marks) 
  10. Give the method of administration that was used by the British in Northern Nigeria during the colonial period. (1 mark)
  11. Identify two types of nationalism in South Africa during the struggle for majority rule. (2 marks)
  12. Name the person who initiated the formation of Triple Alliance in 1882. (1 mark)
  13. Name the body that was formed after the Second World War to promote world peace. (1 mark)
  14. Highlight two organs of the East African Community, 2001. (2 marks)
  15. State two common functions of the early urban centres in Africa. (2 marks)
  16. State the main function of the House of Commons in Britain. (1 mark)
  17. Name one ideological bloc which was involved in the Cold War. (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 marks)
Answer three questions from this section in the space provided after question 24.

  1.      
    1. State five factors which contributed to the development of agriculture in ancient Egypt. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five effects of Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (10 marks)
  2.      
    1. State five similar effects of early agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt. (5 marks)
    2. Discuss five characteristics of the Industrial Revolution in Europe. (10 marks) wnload more here: https://kcserevision. 20. (a)
  3.      
    1. State five limitations of written records as a source of information in History and Government (5 marks)
    2. Explain five results of African collaboration with the European in the late 19th century. (10 marks)
  4.      
    1. Identify five senior positions in the Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period. (5 marks)
    2. Discuss five political challenges experienced by the nationalists during the liberation struggle in Mozambique (10 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)
Answer two questions from this section in the space provided after question 24.

  1.      
    1. Highlight three causes of the Second World War. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six achievements of the Pan African Movement. (12 marks)
  2.      
  3.      
    1. State three aims of the Non-Aligned Movement (3 marks)
    2. Explain the main role of each of the following specialised agencies of the United Nations.
      1. The World Health Organisation (WHO) (2 marks)
      2. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) (2 marks)
      3. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) (2 marks)
      4. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). (2 marks)
      5. The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). (2 marks) 
      6. United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)(2 marks)
  4.      
    1. Identify the three arms of government of India. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six ways through which the powers of the President of the United States of America (USA) are checked. (12 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (25MARKS)

  1. Identify two forms of government(2 marks)
    1. Democratic/Democracy
    2. Dictatorial/Authoritarian/Totalitarian/Dictatorship/Autocracy
    3. Aristocratic /Aristocracy/Oligarchy
    4. Monarchical /monarchy
    5. Theocratic /Theocracy
    6. Plutocratic /Plutocracy
  2. State two basic methods in which the early human beings obtained food(2 marks)
    1. They hunted wild animals
    2. They gathered wild fruits/roots
    3. They cultivated crops
    4. They carried out fishing
    5. They kept livestock
  3. Define the term Agriculture (1 mark)
    Is the cultivation of crops and rearing/keeping of livestock
  4. Givethe main reason why the Atlantic ocean was important in the Trans Atlantic Trade(1 mark)
    It enabled the movement/transportation of goods/people by ships from Europe/Africa/America
  5. Highlight two types of indirect Democracy (2 marks)
    1. Parliamentary
    2. Presidential
    3. Composite/local authority
  6. Give two limitations of using motorcycle as a means of transport(2 marks)
    1. Frequent accidents Download more here : https://kcserevision.com
    2. Limited carrying capacity
    3. Affected by adverse weather conditions/Wet weather
    4. It is expensive to use/purchase/maintain
    5. It is prone to attacks
  7. Highlight one factor that to the growth of the ancient city of Athens(1mark)
    1. Its proximity to the port/water transport
    2. Participation in trade/commerce
    3. Its strategic position/surrounded by water/defence site
    4. Cultural centre
    5. Educational centre
    6. Religious centre
  8. Give one reason why Lubengula was defeated by the British(1 mark)
    1. The British had superior weapons than him
    2. Lack of unity among his people/lack of support from his neighbors e.g Shona
    3. British army was batter trained/well organized
    4. Lubengulas soldiers were weakened by small pox
    5. British army got reinforcement from South Africa
    6. The fleeing of Lubengula demoralized his people
  9. Identify two racial groups who competed for the control of South Africa during the Apartheid Era(2 marks)
    1. The Europeans/the Dutch/Afrikaners/boers/Whites/British
    2. The Asians/Indians
    3. The Africans/the Blacks
    4. The coloured
  10. Give the method of administration by the British in Northern Nigeria (1 mark)
    Indirect rule Download more here : https://kcserevision.com
  11. State two types of nationalism in South Africa during the struggle for majority rule(2 marks)
    1. African
    2. Afrikaner
    3. British
  12. Name the person who initiated the formation of the Tripple Alliance in 1882(1 mark)
    Otto Von Bismark (accept Bismark)
  13. Give the body that was formed after the second World War to promote world peace(1 mark)
    The United Nations Organization/United Nations
  14. Highlight two organs of East African Community 2001.(2 marks)
    1. The secretariat
    2. The Summit
    3. The East African Legislative Assembly
    4. Coordinating committee
    5. Council of Ministers
    6. The East African Court of Justice
    7. Sectoral Committee
  15. State two common functions of early urban centres in Africa (2 marks)
    1. They were administrative centres
    2. They were trade/commercial centres
    3. They were cultural/recreational centres
    4. They were defence centres/security
    5. They were transport/communication centres
    6. They were educational centres
    7. They were religious centres
    8. They were mining/industrial centres
  16. State the main function of the House of Commons in Britain
    It legislates/makes/amends laws
  17. Name one ideological bloc which was involved in the Cold War(1 mark)
    1. Communist
    2. Capitalist

SECTION B(45 MARKS)

  1.      
    1. State five factors that contributed to the development of agriculture in ancient Egypt(5 marks)
      1. The close proximity to Mesopotamia
      2. Availability of water from river Nile /water for irrigation
      3. Existence of indigenous crops/animals
      4. They had visionary leaders
      5. Invention of farming tools/ox plough/bronze hoes
      6. Invention of irrigation methods
      7. Availability of fertile soils/silt on the Nile Valley
      8. High demand for food
      9. Availability of labour
      10. The Nile Valley was well protected against foreign invasion
    2. Explain five effects of Agrarian Revolution in Britain(10 marks)
      1. The farmers abandoned subsistence farming in favour of large scale farming
      2. It contributed to industrial Revolution by providing the raw materials required in industries.
      3. There was increased food production due to improved farming methods
      4. It led to mechanization of farming which enabled tilling of large tracts of land.
      5. Food was produced in large quantities which boosted food security
      6. It led to rural urban migration as poor peasants sold their lands to the rich 
      7. It boosted trade as surplus Agricultural products were sold locally/internationally
      8. It enhance research /scientific innovation which improved Agricultural production/Royal Agricultural Society
      9. High quality livestock breeds like Fressian cow/Leicester/Suffolk sheep were reared
      10. It stimulated the expansion of the transport network thereby easing movement of farm produce
      11. It led to migration of some landless people to USA/Canada/New Zealand/Australia/South Africa in search of opportunities
      12. It led to increase in land prices due to high demand
      13. It led to population increase due to availability of food
      14. It led to the emergence of the social classes in the society e.g the poor and the rich
      15. It led to improved living standards due to increased income from Agriculture
      16. It led to unemployment due to farm mechanization
  2.      
    1. State five similar effects of early Agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt(5 marks)
      1. It led to sedentary life/settled life
      2. It led to increased food production
      3. Trading/commercial activities developed
      4. It led to development of urban centres/towns
      5. Specialization/division of labour was realized
      6. It led to the discovery of writing/arithmetic/geometry
      7. It caused population increase
      8. It led to stratification in the society
      9. It led to the development of religion
    2. Describe five characteristics of industrial Revolution in Europe (10 marks)
      1. Development of better of transport/road/railways/water which enabled faster movement of goods/services
      2. There was large scale production of goods due to use of machines
      3. The increased use of steam power led to efficiency in production of goods/services
      4. There was rise in capitalism as a class of wealthy people emerged/social stratification
      5. There was application of scientific knowledge leading to mass production
      6. There was development of trade as surplus manufactured goods were exchanged
      7. There was increased use of iron/steel in the construction of industries/machines
      8. The use of machines replaced human labor thereby lowering cost of production
      9. There was rise of factory system as many industries were established in towns
      10. Trade unionism/movement developed as workers agitated for better wages/working conditions/rights
      11. It improved living standards of the people due to income
      12. Factory workers were organized in shifts for continuous production
  3.         
    1. State five limitations of written records (5 marks)
      1. It takes/consumes a lot of time to read /write
      2. The information may be biased/exaggerated /distorted
      3. They are expensive to buy
      4. Vital information may be omitted
      5. It is prone to misinterpretation
      6. Their use is limited to the literate in the society
    2. Explain five results of African collaboration with Europeans in late 9th century (10 marks)
      1. They acquired western Education/cultural civilization as they embraced western lifestyle/Material wealth e.g clothes and glassware
      2. They were protected against their enemies,provided with ammunition/gun to protect themselves
      3. Their leaders were given special recognition as they were made paramount chiefs/lost authority/lost power
      4. The collaborators were used to conquer other African communities who were resisting European invasion
      5. African communities were dispossessed their land,rendering them squatters/pushed them to reserves
      6. Trade intensified as European goods were acquired by Africans
      7. They lost independence /were colonized
      8. Africans were subjected to forced labour
      9. There was introduction of taxation
  4.      
    1. Identify five senior positions in Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period(5marks)
      1. Katikiro /Prime Minister
      2. Omulamuzi/ Chief Justice
      3. Omwanika /Treasurer
      4. Kabaka /king
      5. Mugema /senior chief among the Bataka/Saza Chiefs
      6. Mfumbiro /Chief Bakers
      7. Queen Mother
      8. Queen sister/Ubunga
      9. Musenero/Chief Bakers
    2. Discuss five political challenges experienced by the nationalists during the liberation struggle in Mozambique (10 marks)
      1. The negative attitude of the church towards FRELIMO /nationalists limited the support by the faithful.
      2. The apartheid administration in South Africa /Unilateral Declaration of Independence(UDI) in Southern Rhodesia helped the Portuguese to fight the nationalists
      3. FRELIMO experienced internal division as a result of ideological differences among the leaders
      4. The Portuguese applied methods of brutal/cruel methods of suppressing nationalist/arrested/detained/impro\isoned/captured/tortured/killed. Download more here : https://kcserevision.com
      5. There was disunity among nationalists therefore were unable to forge a common front
      6. The Portuguese had strict laws which outlawed political movement thereby forcing nationalists to operate from other countries/Banned political parties
      7. The assassination of Eduardo Mondlane demoralized the nationalists

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

  1.      
    1. Highlight three causes of Second World War(3 marks)
      1. The policy of Appeasement
      2. The Great Depression
      3. Violation of the Versailles Treaty
      4. Growth of nationalism in Europe
      5. Failure of the League of Nations to prevent war
      6. Formation of Alliances
      7. The emergence of dictators in Europe
      8. Rise of Adolf Hitler/his ambition
      9. Arms race/rearmament/militarization
    2. Explain six achievements of Pan African Movement (12 marks)
      1. It laid the basis of the formation of the Organization of African Unity(OAU)which enabled Africa to speak in one voice in international fora
      2. It provided a forum for African nationalists to articulate /discuss anti-colonial sentiments
      3. It restored the dignity of the African people which had been eroded by slave trade/colonization/racism
      4. It created political awareness among the people of African descent
      5. It laid the foundation for research on African culture/history/literature which enabled them to understand their status
      6. It strengthened the Africans resolve to struggle against colonialism in Africa Download more here : https://kcserevision.com
      7. It condemned Italian invasion of Ethiopia through protests in major cities/towns across the world
      8. It put pressure on international community to act against the apartheid regime in South Africa
      9. It created a sense of unity among the people of Africa origin as they had a common origin
  2.      
    1. State three aims of the Non Aligned Movement(3 marks)
      1. To promote economic independence of member countries
      2. To safeguard sovereignty of member states
      3. To promote neutrality among members
      4. To fight racism
      5. To avail funds for improvement in Agriculture
      6. To fight decolonization of the Third World Countries
      7. To pursue an independent policy of peaceful coexistence
      8. To promote active participation of members in UN programs
      9. To work for disarmament
      10. To discourage military Alliance by super powers
      11. To ensure favorable terms of trade
      12. It led to the establishment of world economic order to ensure favorable terms of trade
    2. Discuss the main role of each of the following specialized agencies of the United Nation(12 marks)
      1. The World Health Organization(WHO)
        It promotes health in the world by fighting/preventing spread of diseases
      2. The International Minetary Fund(IMF)
        It stabilizes currencies of different countries in the World through short term loans
      3. The United Nation Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO)
        It promotes education/science/cultural activities in the world through research/sponsorship.
      4. Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO) 
        it promotes food security by coordinating programmes which enhance food production in the world
      5. United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)
        It promotes conservation of the environment
      6. the United Nations High Commission for Refuges (UNHCR)
        It deals with the needs of refugees/ provide shelter/resettlement of refugees
  3.          
    1. Identify three arms of government of India (3 marks)
      1. The Legislature
      2. The Executive
      3. The Judiciary
    2. Explain six ways through which the powers of the president of the United States of America are checked(12marks)
      1. The supreme court may declare a decision /action by the president unconstitutional thereby rendering it invalid.
      2. Presidential appointees are approved by the congress before assuming office to ascertain their suitability
      3. A sitting president may be impeached by the congress if his/her conduct is deemed unconstitutional.
      4. The congress may disapprove the budget to support foreign policy if it disagrees with it .
      5. The presidential term is limited to two four year terms by the constitution in order to inject new thinking/dynamic leadership
      6. The president is obliged to consider public opinion/pressure groups in marking decisions
      7. The press/mass media monitors president’s speeches so as to inform the public accordingly
      8. The pressure groups act to check on the president power/action

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