- Uses of Water in the Farm
- Sources of Water in the Farm
- Collection and Storage of Water
- Pumps and Pumping of Water
- Conveyance of Water
- Water Treatment
- Water is a very important natural resource.
- It is necessary for both crops and livestock.
Uses of Water in the Farm
- Cleaning equipment.
- Irrigation in dry areas.
- Processing farm produce, for example, coffee.
- Drinking by livestock and man.
- Mixing agro-chemicals such as acaricide, fungicides and herbicides.
- Providing power in water mills to grind grain crops.
- Cooling engines.
- Construction work.
Sources of Water in the Farm
Three major sources of water in the farm:
- Surface water:
Includes water from;
- Ground water:
Includes water from;
- Rain water:
This is water tapped in various ways such as;
- Rock surface, when it is raining and stored in various ways.
Collection and Storage of Water
- These are structures constructed across rivers and channels.
- They collect and store water for use during the dry season.
- These are structures constructed across rivers to raise the water level for easy pumping.
- Unlike in the dams water flows over the barrier created across the river.
- Water Tanks:
- These are structures made of concrete, stone, metal sheets and plastics.
- They store water from rain or that which has been pumped from other sources.
- Tanks should be covered to prevent contamination from dust.
Pumps and Pumping of Water
- Pumping is the lifting of water from one point to another by use of mechanical force.
- Water is pumped from the various sources and then conveyed to where it is required for use or storage.
Types of Water Pumps
Used to lift water from its source.
- Centrifugal pumps
- Piston or reciprocating pumps
- Semi-rotary pumps and
Conveyance of Water
- This is the process of moving water from one point, usually the source or point of storage to where it will be used or stored.
- This is where water is moved through pipes.
- The common types of pipes include:
- Metal pipes
- Plastic pipes
- Hose pipes
Use of Containers:
- In this case water is drawn and put in containers .
- drums, jerry cans, pots, gourds, tanks and buckets.
- Which are carried by animals, bicycles, human beings and vehicles.
Use of Canals:
- In this case water is conveyed from a high point to a lower one along a gradual slope to avoid soil erosion.
- Water conveyed through this way is mostly used for irrigation and livestock.
- Raw water contains impurities which may be dissolved, floating or suspended in water.
- These impurities are grouped into three categories, namely:
- Physical impurities: these are dissolved impurities detected by colour, taste and smell.
- Chemical impurities: these are dissolved impurities detected by use of chemical analysis.
- Biological impurities: these are microorganisms in water such as bacteria, viruses and algae.
Importance of Treating Water
- To kill disease causing microorganisms such as cholera and typhoid bacteria that thrive in dirty water.
- To remove chemical impurities such as excess fluoride which may be harmful to human beings.
- To remove smells and bad taste.
- To remove sediments of solid particles such as soil, sand and sticks.
Methods of Treating Water
- Aeration: this is the removal of smell and odour from water by fine spraying or bubbling of air.
- Sedimentation: this is where water is put in large containers so that solid particles such as sand, metal and others can settle at the bottom.
- Filtration: this is passing water through fine granular materials to remove solid particles and biological substances.
- Coagulation: addition of chemicals which precipitate impurities and help in softening of hard water.
- Chlorination: Sterilization to destroy disease causing organisms.
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