Water Supply, Irrigation and Drainage: Irrigation - Form 1 Agriculture Notes

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Irrigation

- It is the artificial application of water to crops in dry areas or where water is not enough.

- It is one of the methods of land reclamation in case of arid and semi arid areas.

Factors to Consider in Identifying and Assessing the Potential of Land for Irrigation Development

  • Topography of the land
  • Soil type
  • Type of crop to be grown
  • Water availability
  • Human factors such as skill, capital availability and economic activities.

Types of Irrigation

Surface irrigation:

  • This includes flood irrigation and basin irrigation.
  • It is used in flat areas.
  • The problem with this method is loss of water through seepage.
  • It also increases soil salinity.

Sub-surface Irrigation:

  • This involves the use of porous pipes or perforated pipes.
  • It is used in slopy areas and where water is inadequate.

Overhead or Sprinkler Irrigation:

  • It is used in any area which is not steep.

Drip or Trickle Irrigation:

  • It is used where water is little and in relatively sloppy and flat areas.

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