- Organic Manures
- Green Manure
- Farm Yard Manure (FYM)
- Compost Manure
- Manures are derived from plants and animal remains.
- They supply organic matter to the soil which after decomposition releases plant nutrients.
- The end product of this decomposition is known as humus.
- It influences soil chemical properties and soil temperature.
- Manures supply a wide range of essential plant nutrients.
- Increases the soil water holding capacity of the soil.
- Improves soil fertility by releasing a wide range of nutrients into the soil.
- Provides food and shelter for soil micro-organisms.
- Improves the soil structure.
- Buffers soil pH/moderates soil pH.
- Reduces the toxicity of plant poisons in the soil.
- Moderates soil temperature by its dark colour.
- They are bulky - low nutritive value per unit volume.
- Laborious in application and transport.
- They spread diseases, pests and weeds.
- Loss of nutrients if poorly stored.
- If not fully decomposed crops may not benefit from them.
- Green manure.
- Farm yard manure.
- Compost manure
- Made from green plants which are grown for the purpose of incorporating into the soil.
- Have fast growth rates.
- Have high nitrogen content.
- Capable of rotting quickly.
- Capable of growing in poor conditions.
- Plant the green manure crop in the field.
- Allow the crop to grow up to flowering stage.
- Incorporate it into the soil through ploughing.
- Allow the crop to decompose for two weeks.
- Prepare the field for planting the major crop.
- Most of the plants used as green manure are food crops.
- Green manure crops may use most of the soil moisture.
- Most of the nutrients are used up by soil micro-organisms in the process of decomposing the green manure.
- Planting of the major crop is delayed.
- Is a mixture of animal waste and crop residues used as beddings in animal houses.
- The types of the animals used.
- Types of food eaten
- Types of litter used.
- Method of storage.
- Age of farmyard manure.
- Age of the animals used.
- Provide beddings in the houses of farm animals.
- Animals deposit their droppings and urine on the beddings.
- Animals mix them through trampling.
- The beddings together with dung are removed and heaped under shed to decompose.
- After sometime, the materials decompose and FYM is formed.
- It can then be used in the farm
- Is manure prepared from heaped (composted) organic materials.
- A well drained place.
- Direction of the prevailing wind.
- Size of the farm.
- Four heaps method
- Indore Method (Pit Method)
Indore Method (Pit Method)
- Select a sheltered place with a shade and near the field.
- Dig a pit with the dimension 1.2m x 1.2m x 1.2m.
- Place the materials in the following order:
- Hedge cuttings or maize stalks to a depth of 30cm as a foundation
- A layer of grass, green weeds or leaves and kitchen wastes to 30cm.
- A well rotten manure/poultry droppings.
- Wood ash and phosphatic fertilizers.
- A layer of topsoil to introduce micro¬organism for the decomposition of organic remains.
- Note: Some water should be sprinkled to the materials to initiate the decomposition process and regulate temperatures.
Four heaps method:
- Clear the site.
- Level the site
- Four posts 2m high are fixed 1.2m apart from four corners of the heap.
- Fix wood planks on the sides.
- Materials are placed in two heaps as in the pit method,
- The two heaps make up heap 1.
- After 3-4 weeks, the decomposed material from heap 1 is transferred to heap II.
- After another 3 - 4 weeks the material is transferred to heap III.
- After 3-4 weeks it is ready for use in the farm.
Indicators of well decomposed manure
- Absence of bad odour.
- Materials are lighter.
- Manure is brown in colour.
- One does not have to own livestock in order to prepare it.
- A lot of manure can be produced within a short time.
- A variety of materials can be used in its preparation.
- Uses locally available materials thus cheaper than the artificial fertilizers.
- Improves the soil structure.
- It releases nutrients slowly into the soil.
- Large quantities of compost manure are required to supply enough plant nutrients.
- Its preparation is labour intensive.
- It may induce soil-borne pests and diseases.
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