Explain the role of the following hormones during homeostasis - KCSE Biology Essays

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  1. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    Secreted by the (posterior lobe/end) pituitary gland; in response to an increase in the osmotic pressure of blood; the hormone stimulates the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting ducts; to increase their permeability to water; this increases the reabsorption of water into the bloodstream; concentrated and less urine is excreted; when the osmotic pressure decreases, less or no hormone is produced; hence the tubules become impermeable to water; less water is reabsorbed into the bloodstream; hence more dilute urine is excreted; fluctuations in the osmotic pressure is detected by the hypothalamus;

  2. Insulin
    Secreted by the pancrease; in response to a rise in blood sugar level; it stimulates liver cells to convert the excess glucose into glycogen and fats for storage in the liver and muscle cells; increases the oxidation of glucose in respiration to yield water energy and carbon (IV) oxide/increases metabolism in the body; this leads to a fall in blood glucose to normal level;

  3. Glucagon
    Secreted by the pancrease; in response to a decline in blood glucose level; it stimulates liver cells to convert the stored glycogen and fats back to glucose; stimulates the conversion of amino acids to glucose; and stops the oxidation of glucose in the body cells; the glucose formed is released to the bloodsteream causing a rise of blood glucose level to normal;

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