Solubility - Chemistry Practicals

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The patterns of solubility for various types of salts

Salts

Soluble Insoluble
Sodium salts All are soluble None
Potassium salts All are soluble None
Ammonium salts All are soluble None
Chlorides Most are soluble Silver chloride, lead (II) chloride
Nitrates All are soluble None
Sulphates Most are soluble Barium sulphate, lead (II) sulphate, calcium sulphate
Ethanoates All are soluble None
Carbonates Sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonates Most are insoluble
     
     

KEY

  • Ppt = precipitate
  • Sol = solution
  • Insol = insoluble
  • Xs = excess
  • Dil = dilute

1.HYDROGEN CHLORIDE

Physical Properties 

Colour Colourless
Odour Pungent odour
Poisonous
Density compared to air (heavier or lighter) Heavier than air.

Chemical Properties

Solubility in water Very soluble in water. It reacts with water to form hydrochloric acid.
Burning Does not support combustion
Moist pH paper Acidic reaction
Red rose petals No reaction
Specific test It will fume in moist air

Footnotes:

  • Dilute hydrochloric acid is one of the three common dilute acids used in the laboratory.
  • Concentrated hydrochloric acid is used in the manufacture of many chemicals.

2.CARBON DIOXIDE

Physical Properties

Colour Colourless
Odour Odourless
Density compared to air (heavier or lighter) Heavier than air

Chemical Properties

Solubility in water Fairly soluble in water. It reacts with water to form a weak acid called carbonic acid.
Burning Does not support combustion.
Moist pH paper Shows a weak acidic reaction (around pH6)
Red rose petals No change
Specific test Turns lime water “cloudy”

Footnotes:

  • Makes up 0.04% of the gases in the air. Rainwater is slightly acidic because carbon dioxide dissolves in it.
  • Needed by green plants during photosynthesis.
  • Product of respiration in living things.
  • Product of combustion
  • Is one of the “greenhouse” gases present in the atmosphere.
  • Used in fire extinguishers since it is heavier than air and forms a “blanket” around the fire. This prevents combustion since carbon dioxide does not support it and the presence of carbon dioxide stops oxygen reaching the combustible material.

3.CHLORINE GAS

Physical Properties

Colour Greenish-yellow
Odour Pungent odour
Poisonous
Density compared to air (heavier or lighter) Heavier than air

Chemical Properties

Solubility in water Soluble in water. Most of it reacts with water to form acids.
Burning Does not support combustion.
Moist pH paper Shows a strong acidic reaction
Red rose petals Would bleach and lose their colour
Specific test None

Footnotes:

  • One of the “family” of halogen gases (iodine and bromine are in the same family)
  • Used in water purification.
  • Used to make bleaching powder, disinfectants and antiseptics
  • Also used to make some explosives, poison gases and pesticides.

4.HYDROGEN CHLORIDE GAS

Physical Properties

Colour Colourless
Odour Pungent odour
Poisonous
Density compared to air (heavier or lighter) Heavier than air.

Chemical Properties

Solubility in water Very soluble in water. It reacts with water to form hydrochloric acid.
Burning Does not support combustion
Moist pH paper Acidic reaction
Red rose petals No reaction
Specific test It will fume in moist air

Footnotes:

  • Dilute hydrochloric acid is one of the three common dilute acids used in the laboratory.
  • Concentrated hydrochloric acid is used in the manufacture of many chemicals.

5.HYDROGEN GAS

Physical Properties

Colour Colourless
Odour Odourless
Density compared to air (heavier or lighter) Lighter than air. Can escape through the atmosphere into space.

Chemical Properties

Solubility in water Insoluble
Burning Explodes when a burning match is placed into it. Reacts with oxygen gas to form water.
Moist pH paper No reaction
Red rose petals No reaction
Specific test A lighted match will produce a “squeak” sound. This is a small explosion.

Footnotes:

  • The lightest gas known.
  • Once used in airships but replaced by helium which is not explosive.
  • Used to make ammonia which is needed in the manufacture of fertilizers and explosives.

6.NITROGEN

Physical Properties

Colour Colourless
Odour Odourless
Density compared to air (heavier or lighter) Same as air

Chemical Properties

Solubility in water Slightly soluble
Burning Does not support combustion
Moist pH paper No reaction
Red rose petals No reaction
Specific test None

Footnotes:

  • Makes up around 79% of the gases in the air.
  • Used to make ammonia gas, which in turn is used to make explosives and fertilizers.
  • Used in light bulbs and thermometers because it is not reactive.
  • Also used as the atmosphere in rooms where explosives are stored.

7.OXYGEN

Physical Properties

Colour Colourless
Odour Odourless
Density compared to air (heavier or lighter) Slightly heavier than air

Chemical Properties

Solubility in water Slightly soluble in water
Burning Oxygen gas is needed for burning or combustion. Something that burns in air will burn five times more ferociously in pure oxygen gas.
Moist pH paper No change
Red rose petals No change
Specific test A glowing match or wooden spill will relight when placed in oxygen gas.

Footnotes:

  • Makes up 20% of the gases in the air.
  • Needed by the majority of living organisms for respiration

Is produced by green plants as a by-product of photosynthesis.

8.SULPHUR DIOXIDE GAS

Physical Properties

Colour Colourless
Odour Pungent odour
Density compared to air (heavier or lighter) Heavier than air

Chemical Properties

Solubility in water Soluble. It reacts with water to form a strong acid.
Burning Does not support combustion
Moist pH paper Acidic reaction
Red rose petals Are bleached and lose their colour
Specific test None

Footnotes:

  • It is used as a bleaching agent.
  • It is one of the gases responsible for air pollution.

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