English Paper 2 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2022 Prediction

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Instructions to Candidates

  1. Answer all the questions in this paper.
  2. Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.
  3. Candidates must answer the questions in English.


Questions 

  1. Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow. (20 marks)

    In my previous piece, I argued that there were various obstacles or handbrakes on economic development and job creation that should be tackled along with more proactive measures. We hear a lot about creating infrastructure to pave the way for more economic activity and jobs but, we need to look at the impediments confronting economic and commercial activity. Arguably, the biggest of these is corruption, which spans the economic, social and political landscape like a colossus.
    One needn’t go further than the recent release of Transparency International’s 2017 East African Bribery Index. Unsurprisingly, the highest ranked institution in the Kenyan context is the Kenya Police Service, where 69 per cent of respondents said they either offered a bribe or were induced to pay one. The recent cartoon of a police officer telling the Central Bank Governor that the new Sh 50 note should carry “the images of our traffic police officers” is a cynical reminder of the reality. Other institutions where bribery in the public service is rampant are the Judiciary and various land services at 44 per cent and 41 per cent, respectively. Even more depressing is that the study concluded that the size of the bribe had increased significantly. Let us go beyond the figures and remind ourselves that corruption is like a debilitating disease that eats away at a country and its institutions. This, in turn, reduces the effectiveness and capacity of many of these very institutions that are in theory there to serve people.
    On a more anecdotal level, how many times have we heard people saying that they failed to ask the police to investigate some irregularity or misdemeanor because it was largely a waste of time? Indeed, in many cases, any report that is made to the police is largely for the purpose of getting a signed and stamped abstract form. Another way to look at it is to see how much time, energy and money is diverted to paying for even the minimum of public services that are simply not delivered or are way below standard. These are often services being funded by the taxes of the very same citizenry. Purely and simply, this is negative energy and the blatant hijacking of resources, which literally should be going into more productive activities.
    There is the argument that it takes two to tango and the average Kenyan is compliant enough to participate in such activities to get by. That has some truth in it, but so does the fact that it is often very difficult to get on with one’s life without giving in to extortion. The end result is that it reduces economic growth by a percentage point or two, which in turn, affects job creation opportunities.
    The president must lead from the front and ensure that all those working for him operate in an honest and dedicated manner. Any deviance from this simple principle should be met with dismissal. This may appear an obvious thing to say but there have been too many instances where it happened later rather than sooner or not at all. Much more needs to be put into the methods of lifestyle audits and forensic information on public servants. Section 27(5) of the Public Officers Ethics Act needs to be beefed up.
    The principle of random lifestyle audits on public servants needs to become the norm. For all its weaknesses, the vetting of police officers showed the value of such an exercise. We have seen a flurry of county government appointments and some questions on the suitability of several of them. This is why the audit of Public officers should become more holistic preferably by an independent entity. The price paid for corruption should be made high enough so that it becomes a deterrent and it should be paid by both the ‘giver’ and the ‘taker’. The country faces huge challenges and hurdles; one of the greatest is corruption. We need to take steps to reduce the former so the latter is much less attractive. The dividend in terms of a more vibrant economy would be enormous.
    (Adopted from the Daily Nation, 21st November, 2017)
    1. Identify the two contradicting opinions about what is hindering economic growth and job creation in Kenya. (2 marks)
    2. State any two effects of corruption highlighted in this passage. (2 marks)
    3. Why do you think the writer mentions the cartoon of the police officer? (2 marks)
    4. Discuss the use of imagery in the second paragraph. (3 marks)
    5. Describe the tone of the passage. (3 marks)
    6. In about fifty words, summarise the recommendations that the writer gives to eliminate corruption. (4 marks)
      Rough copy

      ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

      …………………………………………………………….…………………………………………

      Fair copy

      …………………………………………………………………………………………………………

      …………………………………………………………….……………………………………………

    7. We need to take steps to reduce the former so the latter is much less attractive. (Rewrite beginning: Steps…) (1 mark)
    8. Give the meaning of the following expressions as used in the passage. (3 marks)
      1. proactive measures
      2. takes two to tango
      3. deterrent
  2. A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen (25 marks)
    Read the excerpt below and answer the questions that follow.

    Krogstad: I am not asking your husband for a penny.
    Nora: What do you want, then?
    Krogstad: I will tell you. I want to rehabilitate myself, Mrs. Helmer; I want to get on; and in that your husband must help me. For the last year and a half I have not had a hand in anything dishonourable, amid all that time I have been struggling in most restricted circumstances. I was content to work my way up step by step. Now I am turned out, and I am not going to be Satisfied with merely being taken into favour again. I want to get on, I tell you. I want to get into the bank again, in a higher position.
    Your husband must make a place for –
    Nora: That he will never do!
    Krogstad: He will; I know him; he dare not protest. And as soon as I am in there again with him, then you will see! Within a year I shall be the manager’s right hand. It will be Nils Krogstad and not Torvald Helmer who manages the bank.
    Nora: That’s a thing you will never see!
    Krogstad: Do you mean that you will - ?
    Nora: I have courage enough for it now.
    Krogstad: Oh, you can’t frighten me. A fine, spoilt lady
    Like you –
    Nora: You will see, you will see.
    Krogstad: Under the ice, perhaps? Down into the cold, Coal-black water? And then, in the spring, to float up to the surface, all horrible and unrecognisable, with your hair fallen out –
    Nora: You can’t frighten me.
    Krogstad: Nor you me. People don’t do such things, Mrs. Helmer. Besides, what use would it be? I Should have him completely in my power all the same.
    Nora: Afterwards? When I am no longer-
    Krogstad: Have you forgotten that it is I who have the Keeping of your reputation? (NORA stands speechlessly looking at him). Well, now, I have warned you. Do not do anything foolish. When Helmer has had my letter, I shall expect a message from him. And be sure you remember that it is your husband himself who has forced me into such ways as this again. I will never forgive him for that. Goodbye, Mrs. Helmer. (exit through the hall)
    Nora: (goes to the hall door, opens it slightly and listens) He is going. He is not putting the letter in the box. Oh no, no! that’s impossible!
    (opens the door by degrees) what is that? He is standing outside. He is not going downstairs. Is he hesitating? Can he - ? (A letter drops into the box: then KROGSTAD’S Footsteps are heard, until they die away as he goes downstairs. NORA utters a stifled cry, and runs across the room to the table by the sofa. A short pause.)
    1. Explain why Krogstad visited Nora in this excerpt. (2mks)
    2.                        
      1. People don’t do such things. (Provide a question tag) (1mk)
      2. “I will never forgive him for that.” (Write in reported speech) (1 mk)
    3. “I want to rehabilitate myself…” From the context of this drama, explain what Krogstad means by this assertion. (3 mks)
    4. Discuss the character of Krogstad as brought out in the excerpt. (4mks)
    5. Address any two themes evident in this excerpt. (4mks)
    6. With clear illustrations, give any two stylistic devices found in this excerpt. (4mks)
    7. Why does Krogstad say that he keeps Nora’s reputation? (3mks)
    8. What is the content of the letter that Nora fears Krogstad would drop in Helmer’s letter box? (3 mks)
  3. Read the story below and answer the questions that follow. (20 marks)

    Hare, the cleverest and funniest of animals, was once on good terms with Elephant and Hippo. He knew very well that he was weaker than his mighty friends, yet oddly enough he was always seeking ways of showing that he was, in fact, much stronger than they.
    While drinking at the lakeshore one day, he met Hippo, “How are you, brother, you big –for –nothing brute?” He began. “I’ve been waiting a long time to prove how much stronger than you I am. It’s time you recognized your betters and gave me the respect I deserve.”
    “What!” Hippo retorted, unable to believe his ears, “do you really dare to address me like that, you worthless little creature? Have you forgotten I’m the biggest and strongest of all the water creatures?”
    Hare’s reply was deliciously cool. “You may well be,” he said, “but I’m the strongest of all animals wherever they live; and from now on be sure you remember it. If you want to see how weak you are, let‘s meet here in three days’ time and try a little tug-of-war. I promise you I’ll haul you clean out of the lake into the forest.” Such imprudence infuriated Hippo.
    “Stop this idle prattle!” he retorted. “Go home and eat for a few years. You‘ll need to before you start dreaming of pulling me from the lake.”
    And so they parted. Now as it happened, Hare, as yet, had no idea how he could outwit Hippo. He spent the remainder of the day deep in thought. By late afternoon the rather obvious idea of tying one end of a rope to a tree-trunk was taking root in his mind when suddenly his friend Elephant appeared.
    His mind raced like the wind. “Hello, you long-eared oaf!” he shouted. “Why on earth do you keep swinging your snout like that?”
    Elephant was not amused. He replied in rather hurt tones. “What’s wrong with you today, Hare?” he asked. “Have you taken leave of your senses? You sound like someone who’s never slept a night in his grandfather’s house. Have you forgotten how to respect your elders?”
    Hare pretended that he had. “Stump- footed fool!” he roared. Don’t talk such nonsense. It’s you who should recognize your betters and one day I’ll teach you how.”
    Elephant was growing weary. “Look, I’ am busy today,” he said, “run along and find a child to play with – someone like yourself.”
    Hare now pushed out his tiny chest, quite swollen with self-confidence. “All right,” he shouted, “I’ll offer you challenge. Come here in three days and I’ll prove I’m stronger than you by dragging that great carcass of yours out of the forest and into the lake.” And without more ado, he turned on his heels and bounced off into the forest.
    Three days later, Hare took the longest rope he could find and ran to the shore to find Hippo. He gave his friend one end, saying, “Here, catch this and hold tight. Do nothing until you hear a horn blowing then pull as hard as you can.” Taking the rope, Hippo sank back complacently into the water, his big eyes twinkling merrily on the surface of the lake. The rope’s other end Hare carried to Elephant who reliable and punctual as ever, was waiting in the forest. Raising his voice to his huge friend, Hare shouted, “Hold this and stay put. Don’t pull until you hear a horn blowing. Now I’m off to drag you into the lake.”
    And away he sped, hiding himself in a clump of bushes where he enjoyed a clear view of both animals. In the forest, elephant waited patiently; in the lake, Hippo smiled to himself, convinced in his heart that it was all just a bad joke. Hare now blew his horn, and with a crashing of trees and a wild cascading of water, the colossal beasts began their tug-of-war. Hour upon hour the struggle went on, forest and shore echoing to the noise of their furious grunting and trumpeting.
    At last, seeing his friends reduced to complete exhaustion, Hare again blew the horn and told them to stop.
    Then quickly rolling in the dust, he ran down to the shore and addressed himself to Hippo. “Brother”, he began, “I hope you now realize your mistake. You see, I ‘m not only clever but remarkably strong as well. From now on perhaps you’ll respect me.” They shook hands and parted, Hare leaving his friend to go to Elephant. “Well, you wouldn’t believe me,” he said, speaking boldly to Elephant, “Now you’ve learnt your lesson. You may be as big as a mountain, but basically you’re a weakling.” Puzzled and dumbfounded, Elephant shook his head, and after reluctantly shaking hands, lumbered away into the forest.

    (From Keep My Words by Onyango - Ogutu and A. A. Roscoe) EAEP Ltd.
    1. From the first paragraph, how can we tell that Hare was not contented with his state? (2 marks)
    2. Why is it ironical that Hare is asking to be respected? (2 mks)
    3. From the information in paragraph 5, explain what Hippo’s attitude towards Hare is. (3 mks)
    4. Rewrite the following sentence in your own words:
      “Now as it happened, Hare, as yet, had no idea how he could outwit Hippo. (1 marks)
    5. Classify this narrative. (2 marks)
    6. How can we tell that this is an oral narrative? (4 marks)
    7. Both Hippo and Elephant do what Hare says. What does this prove? (3 marks)
    8. Explain the meaning of the following expressions as they are used in the story: (3 marks)
      1. imprudence
      2. taking root
      3. lumbered
  4. Grammar (15 marks)
    1. Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given after each. (3mks)
      1. If I were the Minister for National Security, I would ensure tighter security checks at the borders. (Begin: Were ...)
      2. They had handled the case so carelessly that we were not satisfied. (Begin: So ...)
      3. Illiteracy can impede development. (Rewrite in interrogative form)
    2. Fill in the following blanks with the correct form of the words in brackets. (3mks)
      1. Their bodies had suffered ………………………………………… as a result of malnutrition. (contort)
      2. The manager made several ……………………………………….on the original invoice. (delete)
      3. .……………………………….. beliefs are discouraged in urban areas. (sect)
    3. Complete the following sentences with phrasal verbs beginning with the word given in brackets. (2mks)
      1. Chapia normally looks ……………………………………., so do not worry about him. (run)
      2. The County Commissioner and the Governor ……………………………………….. after the public rally. (fall)
    4. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate ‘time’ preposition. (2mks)
      1. Could we meet in the office ………………………… exactly nine in the morning?
      2. .…………………………… Tuesday next week, we shall have completed the task.
    5. Combine the following sentences into one using correlative conjunctions. (3mks)
      1. Sarah was devoted to her family. Sarah was kind to her neighbours.
      2. The boys lost their match. The girls lost their match.
      3. Kendy refused to sing. Kendy refused to say a word.
    6. Give two different meanings of the following sentence. (2mks)
      I, as the president, am committed to fighting corruption.


 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



Marking Scheme

  1. Comprehension   
    1. There are those who are of the opinion that a better infrastructure would pave way for economic growth and job creation. However, a different opinion is that corruption is the biggest impediment.
      N/B: A contrast word is mandatory to score full marks; otherwise ½ marks for each side.
    2.                            
      1. It reduces the effectiveness of institutions meant to serve the people.
      2. It affects credibility and leads to apathy from the public – the public believes reporting to the police is a waste of time.
      3. A lot of energy and money is diverted to pay for services not delivered/or way below its standard.
      4. Reduces economic growth which in turn affects jobs creation.
        (Any two correct points=1 mk each)
    3. To reveal the contemptuous attitude towards the police (2 mks)/ satirize the police for specializing in Kshs. 50 bribes.
    4. Simile (1 mk)-corruption is like a debilitating disease that eats away at a country and its institutions.(1 mk) It helps to show the destructive effect of corruption to the country’s growth just the way a disease weakens the body.(1 mk)
      N/B: (Identf.=1mk;Illustr.=1mk & effect=1mk)
    5. Satirical (2 mks)- The writer satirizes the development agenda greatly hindered by corruption(1 mk)/government officers are satirized eg. Police officers & the president and their failure to curb corruption.
    6.                      
      1. Proactive measures-result oriented strategies.
      2. The president should ensure those working for him are honest and dedicated.
      3. Audit of public officers to be done in a holistic way and by an independent body.
      4. Price paid for corruption should be punitive to deter.
      5. Both the giver and receiver should be punished.
        (1mk each for any 4 pts=4 mks; award ½mk for each point in note form. Deduct ¼mk for any grammatically incorrect sentence)
    7. Steps need to be taken to reduce the former so that the latter is much less attractive. (1 mk)
    8.                      
      1. Result oriented strategies.
      2. requires two parties(the giver and the taker)
      3. Discouragement
        (Each correct explanation=1mk; Total= 3 mks)
  2.                          
    1.                 
      • Krogstad aims at blackmailing Nora into persuading Helmer not to dismiss him from the bank.
      • e equally aims at acquiring a higher position at the bank. (1 mk @ = 2 mks)
    2.                                    
      • People don’t do such things, do they? (Ensure a comma, small d in the question tag and a question mark) (1 mk)
      • He/Krogstad said that he would never forgive him/Helmer for that. (1 mk)
    3. Krogstad meant that he wanted to correct his former past without engaging in any indiscretion/Having been involved in forgery which ruined his reputation, he sees the opportunity to work in the bank as a means of mending his past/redeeming his image. (Any explanation = 3mks)
    4.                    
      • Manipulative – he uses his secret weapon about the forgery to force Helmer to retain him at the bank.
      • Opportunistic – He takes advantage of Nora’s desperate situation to force his way back to the bank.
      • Scheming - He plans to take a higher position at the bank by force. He threatens to expose Nora’s crime if this is not done.
        (Any 2 illustrated traits = 4 mks; No mark without illustration/with wrong illustration)
    5.                      
      • Blackmail – Krogstad backmails the Helmers to retain him in the bank because failure to do so will make him expose Nora’s forgery thereby ruining the family’s reputation.
      • Opportunism – Krogstad takes advantage of Nora’s past mistake to force his way in the bank and also aims to acquire a higher position at the bank.
      • Conflict – Nora and Krogstad disagree strongly as to whether Krogstad would expose the forgery or not.
      • Corruption – Nora fears the exposition of her forgery. Krogstad struggles to mend his reputation.
        (Any 2 illustrated themes = 4 mks; No mark without illustration)
    6.                      
      • Interior Monologue/monologue/soliloquy – Nora engages in a stream of consciousness as she hopes Krogstad doesn’t drop the letter that would expose the forgery. This brings out the stress in her.
      • Suspense – The audience is left wondering what would happen after Helmer has known the truth. This makes the play interesting.
      • Metonymy – Krogstad says that within a year he will be the manager’s right hand. (meaning that he will be the one in control). This brings out Krogstad’s desire to climb up the leadership ladder.
      • Use of ellipsis – use of – This intensifies the conflict resulting from blackmail and counterargument. (Any 2 illustrated points = 4 mks; No mark without illustration)
    7. Krogstad keeps the secret that Nora forged her father’s signature. (1 mk) If this information goes public, Nora will not only face the public shame (1 mk) but also lose trust from Helmer who does not know about the secret. (1 mk)
    8. This letter bears information about Nora’s forging of her father’s signature. (1 mk) With the forgery, Nora was able to secure a loan of two hundred and fifty pounds from Krogstad (1 mk) without Helmer’s knowledge. (1 mk)
  3.                                
    1. We know that Hare was not contented because we are told he was always trying to show that he was stronger than his friends. (2 mks)
    2. It’s ironical that Hare is asking to be respected because he himself is treating others with a lot of disrespect and, therefore, he does not deserve it. (2 mks)
    3. Hippo’s attitude towards Hare is contemptuous. Hare’s gloating is childish and laughable that is why he says, “Go home and eat for a few years … before you start dreaming…” (3 mks)
    4. Up to that moment, Hare had no clue about what he would do to trick/ outsmart/outdo Hippo. (1 mk)
    5. Trickster narrative-Hare tricks Elephant and Hippo into a tug of war. (Identification= 1 mk; illustration =1 mk. Total= 2 mks)
    6.                                    
      1. Timelessness – “Hare… was once on good terms…”
      2. Personification/Use of animal characters – Hare, Hippo and Elephant; all act as human beings and dialogue.
      3. Direct speech/ use of dialogue – Hare talks to Hippo and then later on to Elephant
      4. Element of fantasy/ use of Hyperbole – The animals talk and shake hands.
        (Any 2 illustrated points = 4 marks)
    7. By doing what Hare tells them, Hippo and elephant prove that they are gullible / the fact that they believe that Hare is actually involved in the tug of war is surprising hence they are simple-minded. It also proves that Hare is no match for them/ he is cunning. It clearly shows that size and intelligence aren’t synonymous. (3 mks)
    8.                                    
        1. imprudence - folly/ senselessness (1 mk)
        2. taking root - becoming attractive/ appealing/ germinating/developing/ establishing (1 mk)
        3. lumbered - walked with difficulty/staggered (1mk)
          (NOTE: The answer must be in the same part of speech and tense for it to score)
  4. Grammar
    (N/B: Strictly observe punctuation and spelling rules; for any such a mistake, underline and give a cross [X] for the whole sentence.)
    1.   
      1. Were I the Minister for National Security, I would ensure tighter security checks at the borders.
      2. So carelessly had they handled the case, that we were not satisfied.
      3. Can illiteracy impede development? (3mks)
    2.                                      
      1. contortion
      2. deletions
      3. Sectarian (3mks)
    3.                              
      1. run down
      2. fell out (2mks)
    4.                  
      1. at
      2. By (2mks)
    5.                        
      1. Sarah was not only devoted to her family but also kind to her neighbours. / Not only was Sarah devoted to her family but (she) was also kind to her neighbours.
      2. Both the boys and the girls lost their matches.
      3. Kendy neither sang nor said a word. (3mks)
    6.                          
      1. The speaker is the president and is committed to fighting corruption.
      2. The speaker is not the president but is also committed to fighting corruption just the way the president is.
        (1mk for each correct explanation; total=2mks)

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