Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Nyeri Mocks 2021 Exams

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INSTRUCTIONS

  • Answer all Questions in Section A
  • Answer Question 6 and Any other TWO questions in section B
  1.  
    1. State three reasons why it is important to study Geography (3mks)
    2. Identify two ways in which Geography is related to Agriculture (2mks)
  2.  
    1. Name two forest reserves found in the coastal regions of Kenya (2mks)
    2. State three reasons why it is necessary to carry out afforestation programmes in Kenya (3mks)
  3.  
    1. Give two methods used to reclaim land in Kenya (2mks)
    2. State three ways in which salinity of the polders is reduced in the Netherlands (3mks)
  4.  
    1. Name two categories of fish (2mks)
    2. Identify three methods of fishing that are used for deep sea fishing (3mks)
  5.  
    1. State two reasons why some industries are located near the source of raw materials (2mks)
    2. Give three characteristics of cottage industry in india (3mks)

Answer question 6 and Any other Two questions from this section.

  1.  
    1. Study the photograph below and use it to answer the questions that follow.
            NM2021 Geo PP2 ET2 Q6
      1.  Identify the type of photograph shown(1mk)
      2. Give two reasons for your answer (2mks)
      3. Name three main counties inKenya were this photograph could have been taken (3mks)
      4. What economic activity is shown (1mk)
      5. What is the direction of wind in the photograph. (2mks)
    2. Draw a rectangle measuring 14cm x10cm. on it draw a sketch diagram of the photograph showing the main features:
      1. On the foreground (2mks)
      2. On the middle ground (2mks)
      3. On the background (2mks)
    3. State four physical conditions favouring maize growing in Kenya (4mks)
    4. Explain how maize farming contributes to the growth of the Kenyan economy (6mks)
    5. Name two pests that attack maize crops (2mks)
  2. The map below shows the location of some minerals in East Africa.
           NM2021 Geo PP2 ET2 Q7
    1. Name the minerals mined in the areas marked J,K and L (3mks)
    2. Explain how the following factors influence the exploitation of minerals
      1. Mode of occurrence of minerals (4mks)
      2. Transport (4mks)
      3. Level of Technology (4mks)
    3. Describe the opencast method of mining (4mks)
    4. Explain three benefits of petroleum mining to the economies of middle East countries(6mks)
  3.  
    1.  
      1. Name two non-renewable sources of energy (2mks)
      2. Explain four ways in which Kenya has benefited from the development of the seven forks hydro-electric power scheme.(8mks)
      3. State three benefits that would result from rural electrification in Kenya (3mks)
    2.  
      1. What is energy Crisis (2mks)
      2. Explain three ways in which energy crisis affects the economy of Kenya (6mks)
    3. Give four advantages of using solar energy (4mks)
  4.  
    1. What is eco-tourism. (2mks)
    2.  
      1. Give four tourist attractions found at the coast of Kenya (4mks)
      2. State five problems associated with tourism in Kenya (5mks)
    3. Explain four measures that Kenya should take in order to attract more tourists (8mks)
    4. Explain three factors why Switzerland receives more tourists than Kenya (6mks)
  5.  
    1.  
      1. Give two primary sources of population data (2mks)
      2. What information can be derived from a population pyramid (3mks)
    2. Explain how the following factors have led to population increase in Kenya
      1. Cultural beliefs (2mks)
      2. Migration (2mks)
      3. Improved medical facilities (2mks)
    3.  
      1. What is fertility rate (2mks)
      2. Explain three factors that have contributed to the reduction in fertility rate in Kenya (6mks)
    4. Describe three ways in which the population of Kenya differs from that of Sweden (6 mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1.  
    1. Reason why it is important to study Geography
      • Helps learners to develop the skills of observing reading and analyzing statistical data.
      • Enables the learners to understand and appreciate different environmental influences at work on different societies
      • Encourages international awareness
      • Through fieldwork, learners are able to manage time properly.
      • It is a career subject – gives a firm foundation for advanced studies in specialized fields
      • Enables one to acquire basic skills and knowledge Any 3x1
    2. relationship between Geography and Agriculture
      • Agriculture involves the growing of crops and the rearing of livestock. Geography studies farming systems, their distribution and the factors affecting farming activities.
      • Geography studies the relief/topography of an area which helps identify suitable areas for various agricultural activities.
      • Geography deals with types of soils which influences the types of crops.
      • Geography looks at both positive and negative impact agriculture has on the environment eg soil erosion and conservation practices Any 2x1
  2.  
    1. Forest reserves found in the coastal regions
      • Shimba hills
      • Mangrove
      • Arabuko Sokoke forest
      • Kaya forest
      • Boni/Dodori Forest
    2. Reasons why it is necessary to carry out afforestation programmes.
      • To protect water catchment areas
      • To protect soil from erosion by wind/water
      • To ensure sustainable supply of forest products
      • To put more land under forest cover
      • To check the extinction of indigenous trees
      • To regulate climate Any 3x1
  3.  
    1. Methods used to reclaim land in Kenya
      • Irrigating dry land
      • Draining of swamps
      • Adding manure to infertile soils
      • Planting of trees/afforestation
      • Controlling of pests.
      • Introducing drought resistant crops Any 2x1
    2. Ways in which salinity of the polders is reduced in the Netherlands
      • Soils are treated with chemicals to lower the salinity
      • The drained land is flushed with fresh water to remove salt from the soil.
      • Reeds are planted to reduce salinity 3 mks
  4.  
    1. categories of fish
      • Salt water/marine fish
      • Fresh water fish
      • Anadromous fish
      • Pelagic
      • Demersal    Any 2x1
    2. Methods of deep sea fishing
      • Trawling
      • Purse seining
      • Drifting
      • Long line fishing
      • Harpooning   Any 3x1
  5.  
    1. Why industries are located near the source of raw materials
      • The raw materials may be too bulky and thus expensive to transport
      • Some raw materials are perishable so they have to be processed before transportation
      • Processing reduces transport costs. Any 2x1
    2. Characteristics of cottage industry
      • The industry relies on simple equipment.
      • It is labour intensive
      • Uses locally available raw materials
      • Industry produce goods mainly for local markets
      • The industry is widespread in the country.
  6.  
    1.  
      1. Ground general view photograph.
      2.  
        • Features in the foreground are bigger in size with features becoming smaller towards the background.
        • It focuses on many objects and not a particular one.
        • Captures the general appearance of the area
        • The camera is focused level and horizontal to the object on the ground   Any 2x1
      3. Main areas where this photograph could have been taken
        • Uasin Gichu county
        • TransNzoia county
        • Nakuru county
        • Laikipia county
        • Bungoma county   Any 3x1
      4. Large scale Maize farming (1 mk)
      5. Right to Left
    2.  
      NM2021 Geo PP2 ET2 Ans6
    3. Physical conditions favouring maize growing inKenya
      • moderate to high rainfall annually
      • Hot dry period for ripening and harvesting and to prevent rotting of maize
      • Deep well drained volcanic/Loam soils
      • Frost free conditions.
      • Gently sloping/undulating land for good drainage
      • Warm or hot conditions Any 4x1
    4. Economic significance of maize in Kenya
      • It provides sample food for over half of the population saving Kenya’s currency
      • Provides income for the farmers and employment on the large farms raising the people’s living standards.
      • Many industries use maize as a raw material for processing, thus leading to industrialization.
      • The use of maize as animal feed has led to the development of livestock farming.  Any 3x2
    5. Pests that attack maize crops
      • Maize stock borer
      • Birds
      • Weevils
      • Beetles
      • Corn ear
      • Worms
      • Rodents Any 2x1
  7.  
    1.  
      • J- Limestone
      • K – soda ash/Trona
      • L- Diamond
    2.  
      1. mode of occurrence of minerals
        • Minerals that occur in small quantities may limit exploitation since they are of low commercial value.
        • Minerals of high value will be exploited as they are likely to be profitable
        • Minerals at or near the surface are extracted using open cast while those that occur deep in the ground are extracted using underground method   (4mks)
      2. Transport.
        • Minerals that are bulky require railway or cheap transport system to reduce the total cost of production.
        • Mineral deposits in remote areas are less likely to be exploited
        • Efficient transport links allow mineral products to be moved from the mining site to the ports or markets without delay   (4mks)
      3. Level of technology.
        • Advanced technology has improved mining operations
        • Advanced technology boost effectiveness in production hence reducing wastage
        • Low level of technology limits exploitation
        • High level technology in mining operations reduces the destruction of the environment  (4mks)
    3. Opencast method of mining.
      • The unwanted materials laying on top of the mineral are removed.
      • The soft mineral ore is removed by digging
      • Any hard rock / mineral ore is broken up by blasting.
      • Huge power shovels are used to dig up mineral deposits.
      • The mineral ore is loaded on to trucks to the processing plant (4mks)
    4. Benefits of Petroleum mining to the economies of middle East countries.
      • It leads to creating of employment opportunities raising the standard of living
      • Income from petroleum mining has led to development and growth of town.
      • It has led to development of infrastructure and social amenities
      • It is used as raw materials leading to growth of petroleum related industries.
      • The countries earn foreign exchange which is used to develop other sectors of the economy. Any 3x2
  8.  
    1.  
      1. Non renewable sources of energy
        • Petroleum/oil
        • Natural gas
        • Uranium
        • Coal/peat Any 2x1
      2. Ways in which Kenya has benefited from the development of the seven forks H.E.P scheme.
        • It has led to control of floods in the lower parts of river Tana.
        • The Reservoirs are used for generating electricity which is used for industrial and domestic purposes.
        • The dams and reservoirs are tourist attractions which generates foreign exchange for the country.
        • The schemes have led to development of industries thus creating employment opportunities
        • Some reservoirs provide water for domestic and agricultural production
        • Has led to improvement of roads making the area more accessible.
        • The dams reservoirs have provided useful sites for educational purposes.
          Any 4x2
      3. Benefits that would result from rural electrification in Kenya.
        • It would improve social amenities in the rural areas.
        • Most people would invest in rural areas resulting to higher standards of living
        • Establishing a diversity of tourist attractions to avoid depending entirely on the traditional attractions.
        • Modernizing tourist facilities in areas that have high potential such as western Kenya
        • Intensify domestic marketing to reduce reliance on foreign tourists
        • Improving security to ensure the safety of tourists is guaranteed. Any 4x2
    2.  
      1. Energy crisis refers to a situation where the prices of fossil fuels rises uncontrollably as a result of short supply relative to demand (2mks)
      2. Ways in which energy crisis affects the economy of Kenya
        • Increase in oil prices triggers the increase in the prices of commodities leading to low standards/high cost of living
        • Increase in oil prices leads to increase in the prices of farm inputs leading to food crisis.
        • High cost of fuels increases the cost of production
        • It leads to increase in transport costs.    Any 3x2
    3. Advantages of using solar energy
      • It is free
      • It is a cheap source of energy
      • It is clean
      • It is safe to use
      • It can be stored for future use
      • It can be found everywhere. Any 4x1
  9.  
    1. Ecotourism is the development and management of tourism while conserving the environment/enjoying what nature provides while protecting it. (2mks)
    2.  
      1. Tourist attractions found at the coast of Kenya.
        • Marine parks
        • Historical sites
        • Sandy beaches
        • Warm climate
        • Water sports
        • Wildlife
        • Traditional culture Any 1x1
      2. Problems associated with Tourism in Kenya
        • Tourism has led to increase in drug abuse
        • School drop outs to become tour guides and beach boys/curio sellers
        • Has led to pollution of environment
        • Has led to increase in crime
        • Has encouraged poaching
        • Has led to international terrorism
        • Erosion of some social values/culture  Any 5x1
    3. Measures Kenya should take in order to attract more tourists.
      • Improving infrastructure to all tourist sites in order to make them easily accessible
      • Marketing the country aggressively to improve its image abroad.
      • It would encourage setting up of industries in the rural areas.
      • It would reduce cutting down of trees and electricity would be available for domestic use.   Any3x1
    4. Factors why Switzerland receive more tourists than Kenya
      • Switzerland is located in Central Europe making it easily accessible to tourists of European origin while Kenya is far from Europe.
      • Some of the tourist attractions in the two countries are Similar, hence tourist prefer to visit those that are near home.
      • Political neutrality in Switzerland encourages tourists as opposed to Kenya where there are reports of insecurity which scare away tourists.
      • Well developed transport network in Switzerland provides easy access to tourists sites while in Kenya roads are poorly maintained.
      • In Switzerland tourists are charged fairly for services while in Kenya charges are relatively high Any 3x2
  10.  
    1.  
      1. primary sources of population data.
        • National census
        • Vital statistics/registration of births/deaths
      2. Information derived from the population pyramid
        • The size of the population
        • The proportion of males to females
        • Proportion of the youth
        • The different ages (age groups)
        • Proportion of the youth/working/ageing/dependency ratio.
          Any 3x1
    2. How the following factors have led to population increase in Kenya
      1. Cultural beliefs
        • some cultures encourage large families, in almost all culture, there is a tendency of people preferring male children. This may lead to those who are not getting male children to have a large family as they hope to get a boy.
        • Some cultures/religions discourage use of contraceptives   (2mks)
      2. Migration
        • Due to political instability in the neighbouring countries eg Sudan, Somalia, there was an increase of refugees hence high population increase. (2mks)
      3. Improved medical facilities.
        • This leads to higher chances of survival for both the mothers and infants as well as the general population thus increasing the survival rates.  (2mks)
    3.  
      1. Fertility rate is the number of live births in a given population in a year  (2mks)
      2. Factors that have contributed to the reduction in fertility rate in Kenya
        • Education – More girls are attending school so they take longer to marry thus have fewer children.
        • People are opting smaller families since the cost of living is quite high.
        • Most of the educated ladies pursue careers hence leading to delayed marriages reducing the number of children one can have.
        • Increase use of birth control measures has also lowered the number of children women are having in their lifetime.
        • There increased in the number of women opting to remain single, thus reducing fertility rate. Any 3x2
    4. Ways in which the population of Kenya differs from that of Sweden
      • The birth rate in Kenya is high while the birth rate in Sweden is low
      • The death rate in Kenya is relatively high while the death rate in Sweden is low
      • The fertility rate in Kenya is high while the fertility rate in Sweden is low.
      • Kenya has a Large number of young people below 20 years of age while in Sweden the number of mature and ageing population is larger.
      • Kenya’s population has a lower life expectancy while Sweden population has a high life expectancy.
      • Population growth rate in Kenya is high while population growth rate in Sweden is low.   Any 3x2

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