Statistics - numerical figures collected systematically and arranged for a particular purpose.
Statistical data - information presented inform of numbers e.g
- No. of students in a school
- Mean daily temperature of a place
- Amount of milk produced daily from a farm 4. Amount of money earned from exports annually.
Statistical methods - techniques of collecting, recording, analysing, presenting and interpreting statistical data.
Significance of Statistics
- Illustrates relationship between 2 or more varying quantities e.g. beans production and acreage under cultivation.
- Summarises geographical information which saves time and space.
- Makes comparison between components e.g. province with the highest number of people.
- Prediction of future trends of weather and climate.
- Prediction of natural disasters e.g. droughts and floods.
- Planning for provision of social amenities e.g. hospitals and schools.
Types of Statistical Data
First hand or original information from the field e.g.
- Mean daily temperature from a weather station
2nd hand information available in stored sources compiled by other researchers e.g.
- Reference books
- Video/audio tapes
- Census reports
Nature of Statistical Data
- Discrete Data - Which is given in whole numbers e.g. 16 elephants, 1093 tonnes of wheat
Continuous Data -Facts and figures which can take any value e.g.
- Fractions e.g.23 ¼
- Decimals e.g. 6.20 mm
- Values within range e.g. 0-30â¦c
Grouped Data -Which is non precise/exact but values range in groups e.g.
Age group Number of boys 15-19 32 20-24 8
Sources of Statistical Data
- People or places which have 1st hand or original information. The information can be collected by observation, measuring, counting, photographing etc.
- Give first hand information
- The information cant be got from other sources
-Materials in which information collected by others was stored e.g. text books, reference books, etc.
Methods of Collecting Data (statistical Techniques)
-Use of eyes to observe features or weather then information is recorded immediately e.g. cloud cover, rocks, soil, land forms, vegetation, etc.
- Gives 1st hand information which is reliable.
- Relevant material to the study is collected.
Time saving since one doesn’t have to look for data in many places.
- Data on past activities isn’t available.
- May be hindered by weather conditions e.g. mist and dust storms.
- Ineffective for people with visual disabilities.
- Tiresome and expensive as it involves a lot of travelling because physicalpresence is required.
-Gathering information from people by direct discussions then answers are recorded. It may be face to face or on a telephone. A questionnaire prepared in advance is used.
- One should be polite
- Warm and friendly
- Respondents/ interviewees should be assured information is confidential.
- Respondent should not be interrupted when answering questions.
- They should not be given clues but answers should come from them.
- Reliable first hand information is collected.
- Interviewer can seek clarification incase of ambiguity of answers.
- Can be used on illiterate.
- Interviewer can gauge the accuracy of responses.
- Time consuming since one person can be handled at a time.
- Expensive and tiresome as extensive travelling is required to meet the respondents.
- May encounter language barrier if the respondent doesn’t speak the same language as the interviewer.
- A respondent may lie, exaggerate or distort facts leading to collection of wrong information.
-Set of systematically structured questions printed on paper used on interviews or sent to respondents to fill answers.
- Open-ended questionnaire-in which respondent is given a chance to express his views. The disadvantage is that different answers are given which are difficult to analyse.
- Closed-ended (rigid) questionnaire-in which respondents are given answers to choose from.
Characteristics of a good questionnaire
- Uses simple language
- Systematically arranged from simple to difficult
- Clear questions
- Doesn’t touch on respondent’s privacy
- Comparisons can be made since questions are similar.
- First hand information which is relevant to current trends and situation is collected.
- Saves money on travelling as physical presence isn’t required.
- Saves time as all respondents are handled at the same time.
- A lot of information can be collected.
- Difficult analysis due to different answers.
- Some questionnaires may be sent back while blank by lazy respondents.
- Can’t be used on illiterate respondents.
- Some respondents may write wrong information.
- Technique of collecting data from secondary sources.
- This is by reading, watching films, viewing photographs and listening to get what is relevant.
- Easy to get data if analysed.
- Cheap as there isn’t extensive travelling
- Saves time as all information is in one place.
- Possible to get old data
- Difficult to verify accuracy of data
- Data may be irrelevant to current trends
- Up to date data may not be readily available
-Determining distances, areas, height or depth using instruments and recording.
- Distance can be estimated by pacing or taking steps of equal and unknown length.
-Getting a small part e.g. of soil, rock or vegetation to represent the whole to be used to carry out tests in the laboratory.
- Counting/census taking -Arithmetical counting and recording.
- Photographing -Capturing on film or video and still photographs.
-Using tools such as hoe pick axe, spade or soil auger to get samples of soil and rocks.
Feeling and touching
-Using fingers to feel the surfaces of soils and rocks to get their textures.
-Examining by taking a sample -a part representing the whole (population).
Types of Sampling
-Selection of members of a group haphazardly where every item has an equal chance of being selected e.g. to select 5 students to go for a tour from a class:
• Class members write their names on pieces of paper
• They are folded and put in a basket
• The basket is shaken and fives papers are taken out
-Selection of members of a sample from an evenly distributed phenomena at regular intervals e.g. after every 10 items/members.
-Selection of members of a sample by breaking the population into homogenous groups e.g. to select 6 students to go for a tour:
• Break the class into boys and girls
• Select 3 student from each group by random or systematic sampling Combine units from each group to form the required sample.
-Selection of sample by dividing the sample into clusters with similar characteristics then a sample is taken from each cluster and representative choices from each cluster are combined to form a sample e.g. to sample the housing cost an estate is chosen to represent each group and representative choices are chosen from each estate and combined to form a sample.
- It’s less expensive
- It saves time
- It avoids bias
- A poor selected sample can lead to misleading information
- Systematic sampling to an evenly distributed population
- Random Sampling
–Conducting a test or investigation to provide evidence for or against a theory e.g. to determine the chemical composition of rocks and soils.
- First hand data is obtained
- Gives accurate results if properly conducted.
- It can lead to further discoveries
- May be expensive as it involves use of expensive equipment.
- May be time consuming
- Use of defective instruments may lead to inaccurate results
- Improper handling of equipment and chemicals may lead to accidents
Methods of Recording Data
-Methods off storing information to avoid losing it.
- Writing in a note book what is being observed, answers during interviews and then notes are compiled in school or office when writing report.
Filling In Questionnaires
- Filling answers in questionnaires which are responses from a respondent by an interviewer or respondent himself which he/she then sends back.
- Making 4 vertical or slanting strokes and the 5th across the 4 to record data obtained by counting or measuring similar items.
- Drawing of tables and filling in data systematically e.g. weather recording sheets.
Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Temp(â¦c) 24 24 23 22 19 17 17 18 19 20 22 23 Rainfall(mm) 109 122 130 76 52 34 28 38 70 108 121 120
- Summarising information observed in the field by making a rough drawing of landscape and labelling the essential information.
- Drawing of a rough map of an area of study and labelling in words or symbols accompanied by key.
- Recording image of an object or landscape on a film which is processed to get a photograph then the photographs are labelled to avoid mix up during storage.
- Recording conversations during interviews on audio tapes using a tape recorder.
- Permission should be got from the respondent to record his/her responses.
- It’s used if responses are too many to be recorded on a note book.
- It allows smooth flow of discussion as asking respondents to repeat answers would irritate them.
Analysis of Data - Examining the Numerical Figures in Detail.
Techniques of Analysing Data
Calculation of Percentages
-If in the study of a farm 10 hectares are devoted to coffee, what is the % of the area under coffee?
The table below shows the number of tourists who visited Kenya from various parts of the world in 2006.
Place of origin No of tourists per year 2005 2006 Europe
Total 1159000 1247000
- Calculate percentage increase of tourists from Africa between 2005 and 2006.
Measures of Central Tendency
-Outstanding general characteristics of the data.
- Easy to calculate for a small data
- Summarises data using a single digit
- Easy to understand and interpret
Difficult to calculate for grouped data Affected by extreme values
-The middle value in a set of data arranged in order. M= (N+1)/2
(I) 20, 50, 90, 100, 150, 180, 200, 220, 240, 300, 360.
(II) 20, 50, 90, 100, 150, 180, 200, 220, 240, 300.
- Easy to calculate in a small data set
- Easy tounderstand as it’s the value at the middle
- Difficult to calculate in a large data set
- Doesn’t show data distribution
Calculation of Ranges
-Difference between the largest and smallest values. Calculate the range of for the data above.
-Most frequently recurring value in a set of data.
10, 2, 5, 9, 10, 11, 20, 15, 18, 10.
The mode is 10.
- Easy to find as no calculation is involved
- Easy to understand
Rarely used as a measure of central tendency
- Statistical Presentation of Data
- Arithmetic Mean
-Scientific study of geography using the environment as a laboratory or source of information.
Types of Field Work
-Visiting an area near or far from the school to see geographical phenomena then note down and discuss later in class.
- Reinforce what has been learnt in class
- Gain more geographical knowledge
- Identify and appreciate geographical features
- Identify problems of geographical interest
- Field Research
-Systematic problem solving done by experts in which scientific methods of collecting, recording and analysing data are used.
-Study conducted within a neighbourhood in which one theme is pursued e.g. ‘A study of a local farm’.
Importance of Field Work
- Reinforces what has been learnt in class.
- Enables one to gain more geographical knowledge.
- It breaks the monotony of classroom work.
- It provides learner with practical skills of collecting, recording and analysing data and report writing.
- Gives students an opportunity to go out and practise what they have learnt in class.
- Enables students to familiarise themselves with the environment and develop a positive attitude towards it.
- Enables students to develop a positive attitude towards manual work.
- Promotes development of virtues like cooperation by working in groups.
Field Work Procedure (Steps Followed)
Identification of Topic/Theme
- Reason why you want to carry out field study e.g. ‘A study of rocks around the school’
Identification of the Area of Study
- Determining the area to be used for study.
- Should be chosen carefully to ensure that the field study is successful.
Conditions It Should Meet
- Should contain sufficient information
- Should be within a convenience distance to reduce expenses
Statement of Objectives
- Stating aims of carrying the field study.
- Act as guidelines to activities to be undertaken during field work.
- They should be simple, brief, testable and achievable. E.g. for the topic ‘A study of a local farm’ objectives could be stated as follows:
- To find out methods of farming in a local farm To identify the cattle breeds in the farm
- To investigate the problems facing the farm.
Formulation of Hypotheses
-Assumptions set before field work whose validity or acceptance is to be proved.
Types of Hypotheses
- Null Hypothesis (Ho)
-One stated in negative form e.g. ‘There is no relationship between rainfall and crop yield’.
- Alternative/Substantive hypothesis (H1)
-One stated positively e.g. ‘most foodstuffs sold in the neighbourhood don’t come from the immediate neighbourhood’.
- Quantitative words should be used e.g. more, most, majority. It should not be obvious.
- Null Hypothesis (Ho)
Preparation of the Field Study
- It involves:
Seek Permission from Relevant Authorities
- Seeking permission from school and authority in the area you are visiting.
- It is important to:
- To avoid being denied permission to enter there
- Enables individuals to set early the suitable date and time of visit
- Helps to arrange for a guide to conduct you around
Conduct Reconnaissance (Pre-Visit)
-A familiarisation tour of the intended area of study.
- It is important to:
- To determine appropriate routes to be taken
- Enables to get documents from officials
- Helps one to identify the appropriate methods of data collection
- Helps to identify appropriate equipment to be used
Hold Discussion In Class
- Looking through formulated objectives and hypotheses.
- It’s important to:
- Determine their suitability
- Make adjustments
- Decide upon data recording methods
Preparation of a Questionnaire
-Important where the interviewer is not able to be with respondents for a long time.
Dividing Into Groups
- To ease congestion in the area of study
- To create order during field work
- To reduce fatigue among participants
- To help participants collect data within the time given
Preparation for Documents
- Topographical maps to show the routes you will follow
- Tables for filling in information
- Permission documents
Reading Through Relevant Books
- Reading about the topic and the area of study
- Important in that it helps participants to know:
- The kind of data they need to collect
- The techniques to be employed in the field.
Preparation of a Work Schedule
- A timetable to be followed on the day of field study.
- It is important to:
- Indicate the specific time when each activity should take place
- Reduce time wastage by ensuring proper time management
- Ensure all important areas are covered and none is forgotten
- Provide an estimate of total time required for study
Selection of Important Tools and Equipment
-Tapemeasure and rulers for measuring, pencils for drawing sketch maps, notebooks for writing notes, polythene bag for sorting and carrying samples, cameras for taking photographs, geological hammer getting rock samples and hoe for digging to get soil samples, etc.
- Seek Permission from Relevant Authorities
Carrying Out the Field Study
-Setting off to go to the area of study to look for data where techniques of collecting and recording data are applied.
Follow Up Activities
-After data is collected and recorded it’s summarised in the following ways:
- Discussing the findings in class giving reports through group leaders
- Writing reports in essay form
- Calculation of percentages, means, medians and modes
- Laboratory testing of samples
- Presentation of data using methods such as graphs, pie charts, etc.
Problems Encountered in Field work
-Inability to communicate due to the interviewer and the respondent not sharing the same language or respondents may be illiterate and thus unable to fill questionnaire.
- The problems are:
- Data may not be collected
- lliterate people may give wrong answers while attempting questionnaires
- An interpreter may have to be engages who would be paid which would raise costs.
- Answers may be distorted by the interpreter
- Those being approached to give answers may become harsh due to feeling that their time is being wasted which would cause the field study to be unsuccessful.
-Respondents giving wrong information due to suspicion fear of shame or superstition.
- Raining heavily making it impossible to proceed with data collection and difficulty in movement.
- Becoming very hot making participants uncomfortable and thus unable to proceed with data collection smoothly.
- Becoming misty or foggy causing invisibility problems.
Accidents in the Field
- One may fall and get inured when walking on rugged areas.
- Injuries may result when using tools to get samples by cutting using pangas or knives and digging using hoes.
Attacks by Wild Animals
-Participants may encounter wild animals when carrying out the study in bushy areas e.g. snakes which may bite them, rhinos which may charge at them, etc.
-physical barriers such as swamps, rivers without bridges, steep slopes and thick vegetation may hinder participants from reaching areas with vital information.