- Categories of Tawheed
- Shirk (Polytheism)
- Belief in Angels
- The literal meaning of Iman is to belief in or to have faith in something.
- There are six pillars of Iman as mentioned in the Quran: “The messenger believes in what has been revealed to him from his Lord as do men of faith. Each one (of them) believes in Allah, His Angels, His books and His messengers. We make no distinctions (they say) between one and another of His Messengers. ‘And they say ‘We hear and we obey :( we seek) Your forgiveness our Lord and to you is the end of all journeys.” [Q: 2:285]
- The prophet (saw) said “Iman is to believe in God, and His Angels, and His Scripture, and His apostles, and to believe in the resurrection and the last day and the divine pre- measurement of good and evil, and to have faith in all these things.”(Muslim)
- Literally Tawheed comes from the word Wah-hada,which means to make something Waahid(singular).
- Technically-Tawheed means attributing oneness to Allah and describing Him as being one and unique.
- It is the first pillar of the six pillars of Iman and the most fundamental and important teaching of all the prophets and messengers who all taught the believe in the oneness of Allah.
- It is expressed in the primary Kalima“LA ILLA ILA LLAH”
- Meaning there is no God but Allah, or there is no one who has the right to be worshipped except Allah.
- Tawheed differentiate between a Muslim and a Kafir.
- Allah says – “Say (O Muhammad). He is Allah the one. Allah, th eself-sufficient master, whom all creatures need. He begets not, nor was he begotten. And there is none equal or comparable unto Him.”[Q112]
- Allah says:“There is nothing like unto him and He is the All-Hearer, the All-seer.” [Q: 42: 11]
Categories of Tawheed
1. Tawheed ar-rubabiyah.
- This concept of Tawheed is based on the belief of unifying Allah(SWT) as the sovereign Lord(Rabbi).
- And that He is the sole Lord of the universe who sustains and maintains all creation with any need for it or for it.
- According to this category, since God is the real power in existence, it is He Who gives all things the power to move and to change.
- Allah mentions this concept in many Quranic verses:
“Say: “who is it that sustains you (in life) from sky and from the earth? Or who is it that has power over hearing and sight? And who is it that brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living? And who is that rules and regulates all affairs? They will soon say “Allah” say, “Will you not then show piety (to him)?”[Q: 10:31]
Allah (S.W.T) says “And if indeed thou ask them who it is that sends down rain from the sky, and gives life therewith to the earth after its death, they will certainly reply “Allah” say “praise be to Allah!” But most of them understand not.”[Q: 29:63]
2. Tawheed al-Uluhiyah
- This means to believe that Allah (Swat) the most High is the one worth of true worship.
- Therefore all acts of worship like Salat, working, fasting, among others should be dedicated to Allah alone.
- Hence it’s not permissible to associate anything in worship with Him.
Allah says,“To the ‘Aad people (we sent) Hud, one of their (own) brethren: He said,” O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other god but him. Will you not fear (Allah)?”[Q: 7:65]
- Allah (SWT) also says, “Say; Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death, are (all) for Allah, The cherisher of the worlds”.[Q: 6:162]
3. Tawheed al-asma wasifat. (Names and attributes).
- This category helps us to understand who our creator is through His names and qualities through which we know that Allah (SWT) is beyond our imagination and bears no resemblance.
- Allah says “And (All) the most beautiful names belongs to Allah, so call on him by them.”[Q: 7: 180]
Attributes of Allah
- The Prophet said “Allah has ninety nine names, i.e. one hundred minus one, and whoever guards [or counts] them (i.e. believes in their meaning and acts accordingly), will enter paradise: And Allah is witr (one) ‘and loves the witr.’
# Name Transliteration Meaning 1 ٱلْرَّحْمَـانُ AR-RAHMAAN The Most or Entirely Merciful 2 ٱلْرَّحِيْمُ AR-RAHEEM The Bestower of Mercy 3 ٱلْمَلِكُ AL-MALIK The King and Owner of Dominion 4 ٱلْقُدُّوسُ AL-QUDDUS The Absolutely Pure 5 ٱلْسَّلَامُ AS-SALAM The Perfection and Giver of Peace 6 ٱلْمُؤْمِنُ AL-MU’MIN The One Who gives Emaan and Security 7 ٱلْمُهَيْمِنُ AL-MUHAYMIN The Guardian, The Witness, The Overseer 8 ٱلْعَزِيزُ AL-AZEEZ The All Mighty 9 ٱلْجَبَّارُ AL-JABBAR The Compeller, The Restorer 10 ٱلْمُتَكَبِّرُ AL-MUTAKABBIR The Supreme, The Majestic 11 ٱلْخَالِقُ AL-KHAALIQ The Creator, The Maker 12 ٱلْبَارِئُ AL-BAARI’ The Originator 13 ٱلْمُصَوِّرُ AL-MUSAWWIR The Fashioner 14 ٱلْغَفَّارُ AL-GHAFFAR The All- and Oft-Forgiving 15 ٱلْقَهَّارُ AL-QAHHAR The Subduer, The Ever-Dominating 16 ٱلْوَهَّابُ AL-WAHHAAB The Giver of Gifts 17 ٱلْرَّزَّاقُ AR-RAZZAAQ The Provider 18 ٱلْفَتَّاحُ AL-FATTAAH The Opener, The Judge 19 ٱلْعَلِيمُ AL-‘ALEEM The All-Knowing, The Omniscient 20 ٱلْقَابِضُ AL-QAABID The Withholder 21 ٱلْبَاسِطُ AL-BAASIT The Extender 22 ٱلْخَافِضُ AL-KHAAFIDH The Reducer, The Abaser 23 ٱلْرَّافِعُ AR-RAAFI’ The Exalter, The Elevator 24 ٱلْمُعِزُّ AL-MU’IZZ The Honourer, The Bestower 25 ٱلْمُذِلُّ AL-MUZIL The Dishonourer, The Humiliator 26 ٱلْسَّمِيعُ AS-SAMEE’ The All-Hearing 27 ٱلْبَصِيرُ AL-BASEER The All-Seeing 28 ٱلْحَكَمُ AL-HAKAM The Judge, The Giver of Justice 29 ٱلْعَدْلُ AL-‘ADL The Utterly Just 30 ٱلْلَّطِيفُ AL-LATEEF The Subtle One, The Most Gentle 31 ٱلْخَبِيرُ AL-KHABEER The Acquainted, the All-Aware 32 ٱلْحَلِيمُ AL-HALEEM The Most Forbearing 33 ٱلْعَظِيمُ AL-‘ATHEEM The Magnificent, The Supreme 34 ٱلْغَفُورُ AL-GHAFOOR The Forgiving, The Exceedingly Forgiving 35 ٱلْشَّكُورُ ASH-SHAKOOR The Most Appreciative 36 ٱلْعَلِيُّ AL-‘ALEE The Most High, The Exalted 37 ٱلْكَبِيرُ AL-KABEER The Greatest, The Most Grand 38 ٱلْحَفِيظُ AL-HAFEEDH The Preserver, The All-Heedful and All-Protecting 39 ٱلْمُقِيتُ AL-MUQEET The Sustainer 40 ٱلْحَسِيبُ AL-HASEEB The Reckoner, The Sufficient 41 ٱلْجَلِيلُ AL-JALEEL The Majestic 42 ٱلْكَرِيمُ AL-KAREEM The Most Generous, The Most Esteemed 43 ٱلْرَّقِيبُ AR-RAQEEB The Watchful 44 ٱلْمُجِيبُ AL-MUJEEB The Responsive One 45 ٱلْوَاسِعُ AL-WAASI’ The All-Encompassing, the Boundless 46 ٱلْحَكِيمُ AL-HAKEEM The All-Wise 47 ٱلْوَدُودُ AL-WADOOD The Most Loving 48 ٱلْمَجِيدُ AL-MAJEED The Glorious, The Most Honorable 49 ٱلْبَاعِثُ AL-BA’ITH The Resurrector, The Raiser of the Dead 50 ٱلْشَّهِيدُ ASH-SHAHEED The All- and Ever Witnessing 51 ٱلْحَقُّ AL-HAQQ The Absolute Truth 52 ٱلْوَكِيلُ AL-WAKEEL The Trustee, The Disposer of Affairs 53 ٱلْقَوِيُّ AL-QAWIYY The All-Strong 54 ٱلْمَتِينُ AL-MATEEN The Firm, The Steadfast 55 ٱلْوَلِيُّ AL-WALIYY The Protecting Associate 56 ٱلْحَمِيدُ AL-HAMEED The Praiseworthy 57 ٱلْمُحْصِيُ AL-MUHSEE The All-Enumerating, The Counter 58 ٱلْمُبْدِئُ AL-MUBDI The Originator, The Initiator 59 ٱلْمُعِيدُ AL-MU’ID The Restorer, The Reinstater 60 ٱلْمُحْيِى AL-MUHYEE The Giver of Life 61 ٱلْمُمِيتُ AL-MUMEET The Bringer of Death, the Destroyer 62 ٱلْحَىُّ AL-HAYY The Ever-Living 63 ٱلْقَيُّومُ AL-QAYYOOM The Sustainer, The Self-Subsisting 64 ٱلْوَاجِدُ AL-WAAJID The Perceiver 65 ٱلْمَاجِدُ AL-MAAJID The Illustrious, the Magnificent 66 ٱلْوَاحِدُ AL-WAAHID The One 67 ٱلْأَحَد AL-AHAD The Unique, The Only One 68 ٱلْصَّمَدُ AS-SAMAD The Eternal, Satisfier of Needs 69 ٱلْقَادِرُ AL-QADEER The Capable, The Powerful 70 ٱلْمُقْتَدِرُ AL-MUQTADIR The Omnipotent 71 ٱلْمُقَدِّمُ AL-MUQADDIM The Expediter, The Promoter 72 ٱلْمُؤَخِّرُ AL-MU’AKHKHIR The Delayer, the Retarder 73 ٱلأَوَّلُ AL-AWWAL The First 74 ٱلْآخِرُ AL-AAKHIR The Last 75 ٱلْظَّاهِرُ AZ-DHAAHIR The Manifest 76 ٱلْبَاطِنُ AL-BAATIN The Hidden One, Knower of the Hidden 77 ٱلْوَالِي AL-WAALI The Governor, The Patron 78 ٱلْمُتَعَالِي AL-MUTA’ALI The Self Exalted 79 ٱلْبَرُّ AL-BARR The Source of Goodness, the Kind Benefactor 80 ٱلْتَّوَّابُ AT-TAWWAB The Ever-Pardoning, The Relenting 81 ٱلْمُنْتَقِمُ AL-MUNTAQIM The Avenger 82 ٱلْعَفُوُّ AL-‘AFUWW The Pardoner 83 ٱلْرَّؤُفُ AR-RA’OOF The Most Kind 84 مَالِكُ ٱلْمُلْكُ MAALIK-UL-MULK Master of the Kingdom, Owner of the Dominion 85 ذُو ٱلْجَلَالِ وَٱلْإِكْرَامُ DHUL-JALAALI WAL-IKRAAM Possessor of Glory and Honour, Lord of Majesty and Generosity 86 ٱلْمُقْسِطُ AL-MUQSIT The Equitable, the Requiter 87 ٱلْجَامِعُ AL-JAAMI’ The Gatherer, the Uniter 88 ٱلْغَنيُّ AL-GHANIYY The Self-Sufficient, The Wealthy 89 ٱلْمُغْنِيُّ AL-MUGHNI The Enricher 90 ٱلْمَانِعُ AL-MANI’ The Withholder 91 ٱلْضَّارُ AD-DHARR The Distresser 92 ٱلْنَّافِعُ AN-NAFI’ The Propitious, the Benefactor 93 ٱلْنُّورُ AN-NUR The Light, The Illuminator 94 ٱلْهَادِي AL-HAADI The Guide 95 ٱلْبَدِيعُ AL-BADEE’ The Incomparable Originator 96 ٱلْبَاقِي AL-BAAQI The Ever-Surviving, The Everlasting 97 ٱلْوَارِثُ AL-WAARITH The Inheritor, The Heir 98 ٱلْرَّشِيدُ AR-RASHEED The Guide, Infallible Teacher 99 ٱلْصَّبُورُ AS-SABOOR The Forbearing, The Patient
Significance of Tawheed.
- It is the first fundamental principal of the Islamic Faith.
- It assures the creatures that the creator is near them and ready to answer their request.
- It distances mankind from worshipping other than Allah.
- It increases Taqwa since one is aware that Allah sees him wherever he may be and is aware of even what is hidden in ones heart and mind.
- It leads one to ensure his respect and maintain his dignity as a respect to his creator.
- It gives an attitude of peace and contentment in a person since he knows that Allah will take care of his needs if he in truly obedient and hardworking.
- It leads to unity and brotherhood amongst human beings.
- It makes a believer to be dutiful and upright, since he knows that Allah(S.W.T) will ask everybody of his responsibility on the day of the judgment. Therefore he does his duties whole heatedly and this keeps him ways from neglecting his duties and from sin.
- It removes the fear of people since one strongly believes that not only his life but everything is in the hands of Allah.
- It removes greedy and jealously and the desire to achieve success through even evil means as one believes in the powers of Allah and not one’s endeavor.
- It does not allow him to be proud or arrogant.
- It makes a believer brave and courageous.
- It makes a believer to be patient and preserving for he will know that whatever the problem Allah(S.W.T) will have to solve it for his gradually.
- The term shirk comes from the Arabic word sharaka which means to associate or form partners with.
- In the Islamic context shirk means ascribing a partner or rival to Allah (S.W.T) in worship or His names and attributes.
- Allah (S.W.T) says,“Allah forgive not that partners should set up with Him; but He forgives anything else to whom he pleases; to set up partners with god is to devise a sin most heinous indeed.”[Q: 4: 48]
- Allah (S.W.T) says “Allah has said: ‘Take not (for worship) two gods. For He is just one God. Then fear me and me alone.”[Q: 16:51]
Forms of Shirk.
There are three forms of shirk, namely:
- Shirk – al-akbar-major.
- Shirk al-asghar – minor.
- Shirk al-khafii – inconspicious/hidden.
1. shirk-akbar(major shirk)
This form of shirk is manifested in the following four ways:
- Shirk ad-dua.
- Shirk a-niyaah.
- Shirk al-Taah.
- Shirk al -mahabah.
I. Shirk ad-dua
- It implies invoking supplication or praying to others besides Allah(S.W.T) such as to supplicate to the dead in the grave or worship via the ancestors.
- Allah(SWT) Says,“And when they embark on a ship, they invoke Allah, making the faith pure for him only, but when he brings them safely to land behold, they give a share of their worship to others”.[Q:29:65]
II. Shirk an- Niyyah wal Irada wal Qasd.
- It means intention, determination or purpose in acts of worship not for Allah but towards others.
- Allah (S.W.T) says,“Whoever desires the life of the world and its glitters, to them shall pay in full their deed therein, and they will have no domination therein. They are those for whom there is nothing in the here after but fire and ruin is the deeds they did. And of no effect that which they used to do.”[Q: 11:15-16]
- Allah (S.W.T) says:
“Have you seen him whom takes for his God his own passion?”[Q: 25: 43]
III. Shirk Taah.
- This type means obeying any other authorities against the will of Allah. Allah(S.W.T) says,“They Jews and Christians took their rabbis and their monks to be their Lords besides Allah, and Messiah son of Mariam while they were commanded (in Taurat and lnjil) to worship none but Allah Lailla to Huwa. Praise and glory is to him for having the partners they associate.”[Q: 9:31]
IV. Shirk al Mahaba
- This is showing the love that is due to Allah to others other than Him.
- Allah (S.W.T) says, “And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals. They love them as they love Allah. But those who believe love Allah more. If only those who do wrong could see, when they will see the torment that all power belongs to Allah is severe in punishment.”
2. Shirk al-asghar (minor shirk).
- It also termed as Ar-riya.
- Ar-riya is any action which is performed in order to receive praise, fame or any other worldly gain.
- It is performing Ibaada to show off for example performing swalat so that you can be seen or praised.
- Any actions that are done out of showing off will not be rewarded by Allah(S.W.T) “Those who want but to be seen.”[Q: 107:6]
- Allah says “The hypocrites seek to deceive Allah but it is Allah who deceives them. When they stand up to prayer, stand without earnestness, to be seen of men, But little do they hold Allah in remembrance.”[Q: 4:142]
3. Shirk al khafi i.e Inconspicous Shirk.
- Have you ever had a feeling of dissatistfaction n something?
- What are some of the things in life that leave you dissatisfied or make you keep wishing that you had better things than what Allah (S.W.T) has provided you with?
- Having this feeling may lead you to performing Shirk al Khafi.
- This type of Shirk involves being inwardly dissatisfied with the inevitable condition that has being ordained for one by Allah (S.W.T) conscientiously lamenting that had you done or not done such and such or had you approached such and such you would have had a better status.
- It is one of the most dangerous forms of shirk as people cannot see when they are performing it.
- This Shirk is so hidden and difficult that even the one committing it cannot recognize it.
- The prophet said “ashirk alkhafii in the muslim nation is more inconspicuous than the creeping of a black ant on a black rock in the pitch darkness of the night.”
- While commenting on this Hadith Ibin Abbas said that kind of shirk is like when one tells his friends. “You and God what you wished is what happened” If it was not so and so”.
- Hadith narrated by Abu Sa‘id Al-Khudri that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wassallam) said, “Should I not inform you of what I fear more for you than Al-Masih-ul-Dajjal (the Antichrist)?” The people said, “Yes, O Messenger of Allah.” He said, “It is the hidden Shirk; a person stands up in Salah (Prayer) and tries to make it perfect when he realizes that others are looking at him.” (Related by Imam Ahmad)
Why Quran condemns Shirk
- Shirk is the highest of the wrong doing according to the instructions given by Luqman to his son. “Behold, Luqman said to his son by way of instructions: ‘o my son join not in worship (others) with Allah: for false worship is indeed the highest wrong doing.” [Q: 31:13]
- When one attaches Allah’s attributes to any of his creations, he or she undermines Allah’s sovereignty yet Allah is supposed to sovereign.
- It is of all the sins, Allah (S.W.T) vows not to forgive anyone who commits it knowingly. This is because a person who commits such a sin undermines Allah’s function as the creator, sustainer and destroyer of life. Allah (S.W.T) says,“Allah forgive not that partners should set up with Him; but He forgives anything else to whom he pleases; to set up partners with god is to devise a sin most heinous indeed.”[ Q: 4: 48]
- Belief in Shirk creates amenity in the society, since people will always be suspicious of each other and they will divot themselves with the belief in Allah as one who predetermines people’s destiny.
- Shirk makes man to have little or no confidence in God but in other things most especially in times of danger which defames the status of man as Allah’s vicegerent as the best of his creation.
- Shirk makes a person to distance him or herself from Allah (S.W.T) yet man is supposed to always be nearest to God pray to him whenever he or she has a problem. Yet those who practice other objects created by Allah. “And who is more astray than one who invokes ,besides Allah,such as will not answer to the day of judgment, and who(in fact)are unconscious of their call(to them)” [Q: 46:5]
- Shirk makes an individual not to be dutiful and upright, one who performs shirk does not his carry out or her duties whole heartedly and this makes her or him near to sinking all the time.
- Shirk makes a person behave like a coward as he or she will always be thinking that even objects which have no life can protect her or him from any danger or misfortune e.g. wearing of emulates.
Belief in Angels
- The belief in the angels is the second pillar of Iman.
- Angels are holy and pure creatures of Allah(S.W.T) to whom He Has bestowed the power to perform specific divine duties.
- “O you who believe! Save yourselves and your families from a fire whose fuel is men and stones, over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe, who flinch not (from executing the commands they receive from Allah, but do (precisely) what they are commanded.” [Q: 66:6
- From the above ayat, Angels do not execute their duties just for the sake of it but are dedicated to their duties for which they were created. They are characterized by the following main features:
- They are creatures of Allah that He created from Noor (light). Aisha(RAA)narrates that the messenger of Allah says, ‘Angels were created from light, jinns were created from smokeless fire and Adam was created from that which was described to you (in the Quran, which is clay.)’(Sahih Muslim.)
- Allah created them outside blood relationship, hence unlike human beings;they are not associated with having such relations as parental (parent to child), fraternal (brother to brother/sister) or any other blood relation.
- They are not associated with any gender like the human beings are.“And they make into females Angels who themselves serve Allah Did they witness their creation? Their evidence will be recorded,and they will be called to account.” [Q: 43:19]
- Allah has not bestowed unto them the feelings of hunger, thirst or such related desires. This is told in the story of Nabii Ibrahim when Allah(S.W.T) send messengers to him,
“There came our messengers to Abraham with glad tidings .They said, “Peace!” He answered “peace!” and hastened to entertain them with a roasted calf. But when he saw their hands went not towards the (meal), he felt some mistrust of them, and conceived a fear of them. They said, ‘Fear not: We have been sent against the people of Lut.”[Q 11:69-70]
- They were relieved by the divine powers of Allah, from fatigue, monotony and the desire to either relax or sleep.
- They have no definite bodies to be identified with but Allah has bestowed them with the ability to be in any form that is relevant with the prevailing circumstance e.g. Birds (when they appeared to Adam to teach him on burial), man (when they appeared to prophets Lut and Muhammad) or invisible (when they helped the Muslims during the battle of Badr).
- Allah has prepared their abode (the place of their convergence) in heaven.
- They diligently praise Allah and glorify Him in deeds and articulation.
Angels and their Duties
1. Jibril (Gabriel)
- He communicated the revelation to all prophets by taking the divine message with the order of Allah to the relevant recipients.
“Say, (O Muhammad) the Holy Spirit (i.e. Jibril) has brought it down from your Lord in truth in order to strengthen those who believe, and as guide and glad tidings to the Muslims.”[Q: 16:102]
- He is in charge of rain.
“Whoever is an enemy to Allah and His Angels and His Messengers and Jibril and Mikail- then indeed Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.”[Q: 2:98]
- Do you know about the day of judgement?
- On the day the horn will be blown to call every one to accont for his deeds. The Angel in charge of blowing this trumpet is known as Israfiil.
- Even though his name is not mentioned in the Quran his duty has been mentioned when Allah (S.W.T) says,
“And the horn will be blown. That is the day of the threat.”[Q: 50:20]
“The trumpet shall be sounded, behold! When people will rush forth from their graves to their Lord.”[Q: 36:51]
- Allah (S.W.T) has said in the holy Quran that every living thing shall test death.
- During the removal of the souls, a special Angel called Malakul-Maut (The Angel of death) is sent by Allah to take the soul back to its creator.
- He is in charge of removing souls at the time of death.
“And He is the subjugation over His servants and He sends over you guardian Angels until, when death comes to one of you, our messengers (i.e. Angels of death) take him and they do not fail (in their duties).”[Q: 6:61]
Say: “The Angel of death, put in charge of you, will (duly) take your souls.Then shall you be brought back to your lord.”[Q: 32:11]
5. Atid and Raqiib (Kiraman Katibun)
- Islam encourages the doing of good always thogh at times we may commit mistakes in life.
- Are we aware that all the things we do in life are recorded?
- Just as we keep our records in a diary, Allah has his Angels whom he has given the responsibility of keeping every human beings record.
- The Quran refers to them as Kiraman Katibun.
- They are angels in charge of recording good and evil deeds of individuals.
“When the two receivers (recording Angels receive), seated on the right and left….”[Q: 50:17]
“For each (such person, there are Angels in succession. Before him: they guard him by command of Allah.Verily never will Allah change the condition of a people until they change it themselves (with their own souls)” [Q: 13:11]
- He is in charge of Hell fire.
“And they will call, ’O Malik let your Lord put an end to us!’ Indeed, you will remain.”[Q: 43:77]
- He is in charge of paradise.
- In the Quran, Allah (SWT) mentions them as many Angels welcoming those who used to do good deeds in the Janna (paradise). “Gardens of perpetual bliss: They shall enter there, as well as the righteous amoung their fathers, their spouses, and their off springs: And Angels shall enter unto them from every gate (with the salutation”) [Q: 13:23-24]
8. Munkar and Nakir
- They are Angels in charge of questioning in the grave.
- They also discharge severe punishment to the dead people who had committed sin.
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