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Pre-Islamic Arabia

  • Pre Islamic Arabia refers to the period before the prophet started preaching Islam.
  • This period was characterized by acts of Jahiliya which means the age in which ignorance, barbarism, darkness from God’s guidance were witnessed in the Arabian peninsula before the introduction of Islam.
  • The lives of the Arabs can be discussed in the following areas: Religious, social/moral, economic and political.

Religious Conditions

  • The following religious groups and worship practices prevailed in Arabia during the pre-Islamic era;
    • Idolatry (Idol worship). Most of the Arabs were idolatrous. They used to curve idols from wood and stone which they used to worship. Each clan had its own idols to worship. They offered sacrifices to them and sought their blessings and guidance. There were 360 idols in Makkah alone. The leading idols were Al –Lata, Uzza, Manata and Hubbal.
    • Christians. These were the followers of Prophet Issa (A.S) and had settled at Najran and followed the teachings of the Injil.
    • Magicians. These were the people who worshipped fire. These fire worshippers originated from Persia.
    • Hanifs or Hunafaa. These were the followers of prophet Ibrahim (A.S). These people worshiped and believed in one God as they embraced the teachings of prophet Ibrahim and Ismail. Most of them accepted Islam when the prophet started peaching.
    • Jews who practiced Judaism. These were the followers of prophet Musa (A.S) and were the descendants of Israel (Banu Israil). They followed the teachings of the book of Taurat which was revealed to prophet Musa (A.S)They mostly dwelt in Yathrib and Khaybar.

Social and Moral Conditions.

  • During pre-Islamic Arabia, the following social conditions were evident:
    • The Arabs engaged in leisure activities such as drinking, intoxication and gambling. These activities were done mostly during social gatherings.
    • Women were denied their rights such as inheritance from their parents and husbands but instead were inherited as property and when a man died his son would inherit all his wives except his own mother.
    • Women were denied the right to life since baby girls were buried alive because they were considered as weak and could not beable to defend their community from external aggression.
    • The women were also forced into sexual pervasions like prostitution and subjected to rape. They were also forced to marry more than one husband (polyandry).
    • Women were taken as articles of trade as they could be sold and be exchanged with goods or merchandise in the market.
    • The art of poetry was highly cherished by the Arabs. They organized poetry competitions in open places where poems with vulgar language were recited.
    • The Arabs practiced polygamy without any limits and they would marry and divorce women at will.

Economic Conditions

  • They practiced Agriculture near the oasis where they used irrigation. This was done in areas of Yathrib, Taif and Southern parts of Arabia.
  • Tourism. Makkah had many historical sites which included the Kaaba. People from several parts of the world toured those sites making the Arabs earn profit.
  • Nomadism: During this period the Arabs lived a nomadic life and wandered in the desert with their animals in search of water and pasture. Most of them kept sheep, camels and goats as there source of livelihood.
  • Barter trade. Those who settled in the town(town dwellers) practiced barter trade. They used to exchange goods and commodities.

Political Conditions

  • Arabia did not have a centralized government.
  • There was a chieftainship political system where each tribe was led by a tribal chief.
  • The tribal chief was appointed on the basis of merit while age was considered as one of the important factors.
  • This was because the Arabs associated old age with wisdom and experience.
  • The Bedouins who were in the desert led and independent life under tribal leaders.
  • Tribal clashes were very common among the Arabs of that time.
  • Most of the conflicts were as a result of revenge missions.
  • In some of the parts, there were Kings who ruled their subjects.

Life History of Prophet Mohammad

Family Tree of the Prophet

prophet muhammad family tree

  • It is important to note that apart from Khadija, the prophet married other wives as we have seen in the previous chapter.
  • Among them Marria al Qibtiyya bore him a son by the name Ibrahim who died at infancy.

The Year of the Elephant

  • The coming of the settler to Kenya and other parts of East Africa brought several changes to the country.
  • Some of which were adopted while others were unfriendly to the natives who reacted to them leading to the struggle for independence.
  • The country wanted to govern itself and control its resources without any interference from the foreign contries like Britain.
  • It so happened that in the year the prophet was born, Makka had been known as a center for pilgrimage in the entire Arabian peninsular.
  • The city was therefore growing rapidly which caused the neighbouring territories to start envying it.
  • The Ethiopian governor of Yemen, Abraha al-Ashram was among those who envied the fame of the Ka’aba among the Arabs.
  • He therefore constructed a big cathedral in Sanaa (the capital of Yemen) and ordered the Arabs to go there for pilgrimage instead.
  • The order was ignored and this angered Abraha who in fury decided to demolish the Ka’aba. He set off with a large army of 60,000 soldiers and 13 elephants towards Makka.
  • He was riding on a huge elephant.
  • It was an animal which the Arabs had not seen before, thus the year came to be known as 'Amul-Fil (the year of the elephant), and it started an era for reckoning the years in Arabia.
  • When news of the advance of Abraha's army reached Makka, the people of Makka were frightened by the large well, equipped army and of course the elephants which they had never seen before.
  • Abraha sent a message to Banu Hashim who were the custodians of the Kaaba at that time led by Abdul Mutwalib and advised them to demolish the Kaaba or he would destroy the whole city.
  • 'Abdul-Muttalib replied to this ultimatum in these words: "By Allah, we do not want to fight him. So far as this House (the Ka'bah) is concerned, it is the House of Allah; if Allah wants to save His House, He will save it, and if He leaves it unprotected, no one can save it."
  • On the second day, Abraha ordered his army to enter the Holy city of Makka and destroy the Kaaba.
  • 'Abdul-Muttalib told the Makkans to leave the city and to seek refuge in the surrounding hills.
  • But he, together with some leading members of Quraish, remained within the precincts of the Ka'bah.
  • Abraha advanced with his army.
  • Seeing the walls of the Ka'bah, he ordered its demolition.
  • No sooner had the army reached near the Ka'bah than a dark cloud of small birds (known in Arabic as Ababil) overshadowed the entire army of Abraha.
  • Each bird had three pebbles: two in its claws and one in its beak.
  • A rain of the pebbles poured down from the birds, and in a few minutes, the whole army was destroyed.
  • Abraha himself was seriously wounded; he fled towards Yemen but died on the way.
    Allah (S.W.T)explains this event in the following chapter of the Quran:
    Have you not seen how your Lord dealt with the companions of the Elephant? Did He not make their treacherous plan go astray? And He sent against them birds in flocks, striking them with stones of baked clay, so He rendered them like straw eaten up. [Qu'ran, 105]

Birth and Early Life of the Prophet

  • Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) was born on 12th of Rabiul-Awwal/22nd April 570 CE in Makkah in the year of elephant.
  • He belonged to the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe.
  • Abdul Mutalib, his grandfather was the chief of Makkah at that time.
  • He had five sons:Hamza, Abu Talib, Abdullah, Abbas and Abu Lahab.
  • The prophet’s father was Abdullah Ibn Abdul Mutalib.
  • He died a few days before the prophet’s birth in eathrib while he was coming from a business journey in Syria.
  • His mother was called Amina binti Wahab of the Banu Zuhras clan of Madina.
  • She died on the return journey from Madina where they had gone to visit the grave of the prophet’s father at a place called ‘Abwa’ when he was six years old.
  • After a few months, according to the age-long custom of the Arabs, the child was entrusted to a Bedouin woman Halima Bint Dhuib by name, of the tribe of Bani-Sa'd, for his upbringing.
  • It was the practice of the Arabs to send their children to the country-side so that they would grow up strong, healthy and learn the refined language of the Bedouin.
  • He lived with the Banu Sa’d clan for four years before his mother took him back under her care.
  • After the death of his mother, he was raised by his paternal grandfather ‘Abdul Muttalib who was 80 years of age.
  • 'Abdul-Muttalib died two years later at the age of 82, leaving the care and custody of the orphaned Muhammad (P.B.U.H) to Abu Talib his uncle who showed him affection even more than his own children.
  • He always kept the child in his company and travelled with him through the caravan routes to Syria and Egypt in the north and northwest and Yemen in the south.
  • It was during one of this trade journeys that a Christian monk by the name Bahira noticed an apple like seal of prophet hood below the shoulder of Muhammad (P.B.U.H).
  • He advised his uncle to take great care of the young Muhammad who was only twelve years and take him back to Makkah.
  • As a young boy he looked after his uncle’s herds and he was also fond of sitting in the circles of the elders to gain wisdom unlike other youths who indulged in social evils.
  • Muhammad was popularly known as ‘al-Ameen’ for his unimpeachable character by the Makkans and visitors alike.
  • The title Al-Ameen means the Honest, the Reliable and the Trustworthy, and it signified the highest standard of moral and public life.

Marriage to Lady Khadija

  • Upon hearing of Muhammad’s good character, Khadija Bint Khuwaylid, a rich merchant widow, asked Muhammad (P.B.U.H) to take some merchandise for trade to Syria.
  • It is written that in the trade caravans, her merchandise usually equaled that of the whole tribe put together.
  • She was the daughter of Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn 'Abdul-'Uzza ibn Qusayi.
  • Soon after this trip Khadija realized that Muhammad had brought more profits than she had been getting previously.
  • Muhammad was twenty-five when Khadija proposed marriage to him through her friend Nafisa who immediately went to inform him.
  • He accepted the proposal and requested his uncle to discuss the matter with Khadija’s uncle Umar ibn Asad.
  • At that time, Khadija was twice widowed and forty years old. They got six children; four daughters and two sons.
  • His first son Qassim died at the age of two. His second son Abdullah died in infancy. The four daughters were: Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and Fatimah (R.A)

Baath and First Revelation

  • The prophet’s life attracted everybody’s respect and honor.
  • He won the confidence of Khadija, his wife, as well as other people in Makka from his positive character.
  • For the next fifteen years, he dedicated his life to meditation and worship contrary to the norms of social evils practiced at that time.
  • Unknowingly, he was protected by Allah (S.W.T) from the evils that prevailed and occupied the culture of the people.
  • He used to go to the cave Hira at Jabal Nur (Mt. Nur) in the outskirts of Makka.
  • In this place, he would pray to Allah (S.W.T) for deliverance from the dirty practices that were common and the darkness of worshipping idols.
  • Every aspect of creation gave him the hope of a way of life that would exclude him from the immoral practices.
  • He would stay there for a number of days before going home.
  • This practice continued and became part of his programme.
  • One night during the month of Ramadhan, at the age of forty, while in the cave, Jibril (S.A) came in human form and told him, “I am Jibril, and you are Allah’s messenger …” Then he told the prophet, “Read!” The prophet answered him, “I cannot read,” Jibril squeezed him hard and repeated the same words while the prophet gave the same answer.
  • On the third time the prophet asked, “What shall I read?” Jibril told him:
    Read in the name of your lord who created,
    Who created man from a clot.
    Read: And the Lord is the most Bounteous,
    Who teaches by the pen,
    Teaches man that which he knew not… [Q: 96:1-5]
  • Muhammad repeated the words until they permanently stuck in his memory before the disappearance of Jibril (A.S).
  • These verses marked the first revelation of the Quran that would continue for the next twenty three years of his life.
  • After the sudden disappearance of Jibril (A.S), he could still re-visualize him and could recall the words.
  • A mixture of fear and shock had engulfed him.
  • He could not stay in the cave, so he went back home while still having this vision his mind.
  • At home he related what had happened to Khadija. She had a strong belief that her husband could neither be injured nor harmed by evils and spirits because of the record of virtues that he practiced.
  • He was quite depressed by the occasion.
  • More often he would see Jibril in his vision wherever he was and he would tell Khadija, “dathiruni i.e. cover me up.”
  • There was a duration in which the revelation paused after the first verses of Surat ul Alaq this period is known as Fatra, but still the prophet would see the vision of Jibril (A.S) and say, “dathiruni i.e. cover me up.” After a while Jibril appeared again, and this time with the first seven verses of Surat ul Mudathir:
  • O you wrapped up (in a mantle).
    Stand and warn (the people) Arise and deliver thy warning!
    And thy Lord do you magnify!
    And thy garments keep free from stain!
    And all abomination shun!
    But for thy Lord’s (cause) be patient and constant...” [Q: 74:1-7]
  • This was an indicator of a turning point to the life of Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) from an ordinarily viewed Muhammad of the Banu Hashim clan, to a globally esteemed and divinely distinguished role model in the service of Allah (S.W.T).
  • Unlike the other men of Makka, he had been anointed as the last messenger of Allah (S.W.T.), an opportunity that never before or after would be shared with, or seized by any other creature.
  • He had received the honor of undertaking the divine responsibility of leading others in the worship of Allah (S.W.T).
  • He had a mission of delivering the rest of mankind from idolatry and directing them towards the worship of Allah (S.W.T).
  • The shape of the moral pattern of life lay in his effort as per the will of Allah (S.W.T).
  • It was inclusions of his name into the chain of prophets of Allah (S.W.T), and above that a seal of that chain of Prophet Hood.
  • Above all, he had been bestowed with the great honor of receiving the Quran, which is the seal of the divine books of Allah (S.W.T), for the guidance of mankind and a testimony to all creatures.

Early Muslim Community

  • After receiving Wahyi, the prophet’s mission was to preach Islam to the entire Ummah.
  • It was his obligation to preach the oneness of Allah to the Quraish who were worshipping Idols and offering sacrifices to them.
  • Most of the people were unbelievers and practiced polytheism.
  • The prophet started preaching in secret and mostly to his family members and close friends.
  • He managed to get a few followers who accepted to convert to Islam.
  • Among the very first people to convert came from his family household.
  • These included
    • Khadija Binti Khuwaylid (prophet’s first wife)
    • his cousin Ali bin Abi Talib (RA)
    • and Abubakar Assidiq(R.A)
    • the prophets dearest friend
    • Zaid bin Harith (R.A), his adopted son.
  • Several other people in Makka embraced Islam and strengthened the religion making it gain popularity.
  • The first early converts included among others;
    • Uthman Bin Affan
    • Saad Bin Abi Waqas
    • Zubeir Bin Awwam
    • Talha Bin Ubaidullah
    • Abdurrahman Bin Auf
    • Az-Zuhri
  • After three years of preaching the religion in secrecy nearly forty people had converted to Islam and accepted to follow the Islamic teachings.
  • Allah (S.W.T) commanded the prophet (P.B.U.H) to preach to the people openly and warn them against polytheism.
  • Almighty Allah (S.W.T) says, “Therefore expound openly what you are commanded, and turn away from those who join false gods with Allah.” [Q: 15:94]
  • After the prophet was commanded to preach openly, he gathered the Makkan people at Mount Safa and addressed them on the Oneness of Allah(S.W.T). The prophet thus said, “you see if I were to tell you that there were some horse men in the valley planning to raid you, will you believe me?
  • They said: “yes, we have only witnessed the truth from you.”
  • He said, “I am a Warner to you before a severe torment.”
  • Although the people had known the prophet as a very honest person, they refused to accept him as a prophet.
  • His own uncle called Abu Lahab cursed the prophet by telling him, “May you Perish this day. Have you called us here for such a thing (believing in one God) that you made us to gather here?
  • Allah was angered by Abu Lahab’s remarks on the prophet (P.B.U.H) and a Surah was revealed called Suratul- Lahab.
  • In this surah, Allah the Almighty condemned Abu Lahab together with his wife.
    Allah says in the Quran,
    Perish the hands of the father of flame! Perish he!
    No profit to him from his wealth, and all his gains!
    Burnt soon will he be in a fire of blazing flame!
    His wife shall carry the (cracking) wood as fuel!
    A twisted rope of palm leaf fibre round her (own) neck!”[Q: 111]


  • Persecution refers to the subjection of pain to an individual or group of people in order to discourage them from carrying out their endeavors.
  • The Quraish were not pleased to see that several people were embracing Islam.
  • They held meetings to plan how they would stop the prophet and his companions from preaching and practicing Islam.
  • Under the leadership of Abu Lahab, the prophet’s own uncle, plans were put in place to stop the spread of Islam.
  • The new and weak converts were to be subjected to intimidation, threats and physical torture.
  • Several other methods were used to punish and discourage the Prophet of Allah and his companions for accepting Islam as the true and only religion.

Methods of Persecution

  • Each of the leaders among the Quraish began persecuting any one in their clan who was following Islam.
  • They used various methods among them were the following:
    • The prophet and the early Muslims were pelted with stones as they walked in the streets of Makka.
    • Abu Lahab forced his two sons who had married Ruqayyah and  Ummu Kulthum (daughters of the prophet) to divorce them.
    • UmmuJamil Bint Harb, who was Abu Suffiyyan’s sister and the wife of Abu Lahab,used to tie bundles of thorns with ropes and place them on the prophet’s path.
    • The Makkan’s used to rebuke the Muslims and abuse them whenever they saw them.
    • UmmulJamil recited the follwing words of disrespect;” We have disobeyed the dispraised one, rejected his call and alienated ourselves from his religion.”
    • Uqbah bin AbiMu’ait put the intenstines of the camel on the shoulders of the prophet while he was in Swalat.
    • Walid ibn Mughira would speak ill about the prophet’s character Allah (S.W.T) says, “Heed not the type of despicable man,ready with oaths, a slanderer going about with calumnies, (habitually) hindering (all) good, transgressing beyond bounds,deep in sin.” [Q:68:10 – 12]
    • The Quraish barred the prophet and the Muslims from offering prayers in the public and in the Kaaba.
    • Some companions of the prophet like Bilal bin Rabah and Ammar bin Yassir were tied on donkeys and dragged through the town in the scorching sand.
    • In other cases, iron armors were put on the companions who would then be left in the hot sun to fry. This happened to Bilal bin Rabah.
    • Female slaves like An-Nahdiyah and Zanirah were mistreated by their masters and denied food for embracing Islam until Abubakar paid for their freedom.
    • Khabbab bin Al-Arath, who was a slave would be dragged by her hair, and her neck was twisted then she was thrown into the fire until her back was burnt.
    • Muslims were also killed cruelly. Summaiya was bayoneted with a red hot iron by Abu Jahal until she died.
    • Ammar and his parents were forced to repeatedly lie on burning sand as they were severely beaten.
    • Bilal bin Rabah was severely beaten by his master Umayyah bin Khalaf. He would be dragged through the streets on bear chest.A heavy stone was placed on his chest to force him to denounce Islam.
    • Uthman bin Affan used to be wrapped in a mat of palm leaves then fire would be set under him.
    • Mus’ab bin Umair was denied food and water by her mother and when she saw that he was not ready to denounce Islam, she expelled him from her house.

Migration to Abyssinia (615 C.E)

  • Abyssinia is the current Ethiopia.
  • Islam was getting many converts day by day despite the torture they got from the Quraish.
  • When the persecutions became unbearable to the newly converted Muslims, the prophet (P.B.U.H) advised them to migrate to Abyssinia.
  • It was a Christian King called Negus(Najash Ash-ham) who was known for his tolerance and knowledge about religious issues and was very hospitable.
  • Abyssinia was a peaceful country and far away from Makkah.
  • This would help the Muslims to settle down and continue with their new faith.
  • Fourteen men and one woman sneaked through the rough desert and fled to Abyssinia.
  • Each day the number of the asylums gradually increased.
  • The prophet (P.B.U.H) was left behind to continue with the propagation of Islam.
  • The Makkans were infuriated by the news of the Muslim’s migration to Abyssinia.
  • They sent delegations to the court of King Negus to ask him to hand the Muslims back to them.
  • This was in the year 615 C.E.
  • King Negus was a good listener, wise and just.
  • He listened to both parties and disapproved the Quraish allegations against the Muslims and gave the Muslims freedom of staying in Abyssinia for as long as they would not interfere with the peace.

Results of the Muslims migration to Abyssinia

  • Muslims lived peacefully in Abyssinia.
  • There was intermarriage between the Abyssinians and the Muslims.
  • Many Abyssinians converted to Islam at that time.
  • Trade flourished in Abyssinia.
  • Muslims were able to practice their faith freely and peacefully.
  • The disappointed Quraish decided to look to intensify their persecutions against the prophet and the Muslims who had been left in Makkah.

Boycott of the Banu Hashim (617-620 C.E)

  • The pagans were not happy to see the Banu Hashim protecting the Prophet.
  • In their struggle to get rid of the prophet they met at a place called Wa’di-l Muhassab, an oath was taken and an agreement written by Bagheed bin Amir bin Hashim was signed.
  • It contained the following rules:
    • The other Arab tribes should not conduct any business dealings with the Banu Hashim.
    • No inter-marriage was to take place between them and any other tribe.
    • There should be neither social relations norinteractions like visiting them.
    • There should be no communication whatsoever.
    • The Banu Hashim should not enter the Kaaba.
    •  Food and water supply was not allowed to reach them.
  • This boycott took place between 617-620 C.E and the Banu Hashim and the sympathizers of the prophet were confined in a mountainous valley known as Shi’b Abu Talib which was hostile for human habitation.
  • This lasted for a period of three years.
  • The agreement and was attached at the Ka’aba.
  • The prophet cursed him and his hand got paralyzed
  • As time went by, the Makkans developed mixed feelings and some started sympathizing with their expelled kinsmen.
  • A special group was formed to campaign for abolishing the agreement.
  • Abu Jahal was consulted several times but he refused.
  • After a hot argument, it was discovered that the whole piece of paper on which the agreement had been written had been eaten by ants.
  • The boycott was therefore lifted and the Muslims were allowed to come back to Makka.

Circumstances that led to the Boycott of the Banu Hashim

  • Failure of the Makkans to convince the newly converted Muslims to go back to their traditional religion.
  • Failure by the Makkans to bring back the Muslims from Abyssinia.
  • Islam was against the Makkans religion.
  • Makkans were alarmed by the increasing number of Muslims.
  • The Makkans failure to stop the prophet from preaching Islam.
  • Failure of the Makkans to persuade Abu Twalib, whohad persistently promised to protect the prophet, to stop his nephew from preaching Islam.
  • The Makkans were alarmed by the conversion of Umar bin Khattab to Islam
  • Islam was rapidly spreading beyond Makka e.g. Abyssinia.

Effects of Boycott of the Banu Hashim

  • It resulted in the death of Khadija and Abu Twalib (the strong pillars of the prophet P.B.U.H).
  • Spread of Islam came to a standstill for sometime in Makka.
  • The Muslims suffered economic hardships.
  •  It inflicted mental torture to the prophet and the Muslims were psychologically affected.
  • The Muslims became weak due to hunger and starvation.
  • Others became seriously sick while others died.
  • The attention of the prophet was diverted from preaching to attending to the welfare of the Muslims.
  • It restricted the prophet’s audience to outsiders since they would not move outside the cave.
  • It strengthened the prophet’s determination to continue with his mission.

The Year of Sorrow (A’m-ul Huzn)

  • It is normal for any human being to feel a sense of lose once someone close to him or her dies.
  • This was no exception for the prophet when he lost two pillars of support; that is, his dear wife, Khadija who gave him financial and moral support, and his uncle Abu Twalib who always protected him from the malice of the Quraish.
  • The prophet as a human being was bereaved, depressed and tensed.
  • Therefore Allah (S.W.T) granted him a miraculous journey to uplift his spirit towards Islam.
  • We shall now look at the miraculous journey also known as Isra wal Mi’raaj.

Israai wal mi’raaj (620 C.E)

  • This episode is in two parts starting with the Israai.
  • This term literally means a night journey.
  • It is the famous miraculous night journey embarked by the prophet (P.B.U.H) escorted by Angel Jibril (A.S) from Makkah to Jerusalem in Masjidul Maqdas.
  • Allah (S.W.T) says:-
    Glorified be He who carried His servant by night from the inviolable place of worship (Makkah)to the far distant place of worship (Jerusalem) the neighborhood where of we have blessed that we might show him of our tokens! Lo! He only He is the hearer, the seer.”[Q: 17:1]
  • The second part which is Miiraaj literally means a ladder.
  • This is the ascension of the prophet (P.B.U.H) from Jerusalem (Baitul Maqdis) through the space to the seventh heaven.
  • This remarkable journey took place in the year 620 C.E

Reasons for Israai wal Mi’raaj

  • Allah wanted to console the Prophet (P.B.U.H) from the hardships he had been experiencing from the Quraish in terms of persecutions.
  • Allah (S.W.T) wanted to give the prophet (P.B.U.H) an opportunity to experience His great power and Might so as to fill his heart with full confidence, belief, faith and reliance on Him.
  • To prepare the prophet (P.B.U.H) for the great mission that was ahead of him such as migration (Hijra) and the everlasting confrontation with polytheism (Kufr).
  • To give the believers hope and courage to look forward tobetter days ahead from their noble religion of Islam.

Significance of Israai wal Mi’raaj

  • It signified that prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) was the leader of the two Qiblasi.e. Baitul Maqdis and Masjidul Haraam in Makkah.
  • It showed that prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) was a true successor of the messengers before him.
  • Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) was declared as the leader (Imam for the generations to come).
  • It pre-ordained that Islamic religion was to stay up to the end of time (Yaum-ul-mahshar).
  • It clearly indicated the finality of prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H)
  • It distinguished between the true believers and false ones. Some Muslims denounced Islam after the episode of Israai & Miiraaj when Abu Jahal doubted about the journey, the prophet (P.B.U.H) confronted them in the morning with facts about his whole journey.
  • It clearly strengthened the faith of Abu Bakr who was the first to believe in the prophet when he came back.
  • It signified the position and the status of Majid Aqswaa to Muslims and as the gateway to Majid Haraam.
  • It shows the prominence of Swalat and its position in a Muslims life. It was in the journey of Miiraaj that the prophet was given the five daily prayers.
  • The journey highlighted the penalties for certain social evils in the society such as backbiting, fornication (Zinaa), denying orphans their wealth, those who desist from paying Zakat; among other evils.
  • The journey underscored the importance of Masjid Aqswaa as a holy or sacred trust to all Muslims and it is their religious obligation to guard it from any form of destruction.
  • It signifies how Allah honors the prophet by bestowing upon him such a miraculous journey.

The Prophet’s Mission in Madina

Beginning of the Muslim Mission

  • Madinatu-Rasool (the city of the prophet) is the name of the settlement originally referred to as Yathrib.
  • It was inhabited by the Arab tribes of Aws and Khazraj as well as certain Jewish tribes.
  • The two tribes of Aws and Khazraj used to visit Makka during the pilgrimage season and also to attend to business affairs.
  • The prophet (P.B.U.H) used to preach to every group that came for pilgrimage or for business in his quest to present Islam to them.
  • It was during these visits that he met with six people from the tribe of Khazraj who accepted Islam.
  • The prophet then asked them if they would support him in propagating Islam in Yathrib as his base.
  • Due to the clashes between Aus and Khazraj, this group agreed with the prophet on people who would go and preach the message of Islam and peace to the other tribes in Yathrib.
  • They requested the prophet to postpone this request till the following year.
  • When they reached Yathrib, Allah (S.W.T) had willed the spread of Islam in Yathrib and the tribes of Aus and Khazraj sorted out most of their differences.
  • At the end of the year, they returned to Makka with a group of ten Khazrajites and two Aws.
  • They agreed to meet the prophet at the valley of Aqaba which is in Mina.
  • The Yathribites then promised the prophet and Muslims their support to Yathrib- a journey referred to as Hijra.

Terms of the First Covenant of Aqaba (621C.E)

  • A covenant is an agreement usually formal entered into by two or more persons to do or not to get involved in something.
  • It may contain some set of rules which we refer to as ‘terms’ that govern the conduct of those involved.
  • This happened when the prophet met some Yathribites at the valley of Aqaba.
  • They agreed on the following:
    • They should worship one God.
    • They should abstain from evils.
    • They should obey the laws of Allah (SWT) and His prophet.
  • After their discussion, the prophet chose Mus’ab bin Umair and Abdullah bin Umm Makhtum to teach the Yathribites more about Islam. When these people returned to Yathrib, they propagated Islam to such an extent that Islam was the only topic in every home.


The Second Covenant of Aqaba (622 C.E)

  • In the year 622 C.E, during the next pilgrimage, a group of 72 Yathribites including two women came to Makka.
  • They met the prophet and his uncle Abbas at Aqaba, who addressed them thus, “My nephew has always been regarded as the noblest and held in high esteem by his people. If you wish to take him to Madina, first, be sure that you are able to uphold the agreement, fulfill your covenant, and protect him against his enemies. If you are unable to do so, then do not take this responsibility and leave him with his people instead.”
  • The leader of the Athribites replied: “We are taking full responsibility. In fact this is the very reason we are pledging this allegiance to him.”
  • They, therefore, promised to defend him fully and were prepared not to break this agreement under any circumstance.
  • They also swore to worship one God and live according to the teachings of Islam. The prophet accepted their offer to migrate to Yathrib and he appointed twelve leaders from among them saying, “You are responsible to your people just as the disciples of Issa bin Maryam were responsible to him and I am responsible to my people. The twelve agreed to represent the prophet in Yathrib until his arrival.

Muslim Emigration to Madina

  • The following map illustrates the route that was used by the Muslims during Hijra.

    map of route taken by prophet muhammad hijra

  • The prophet had the responsibility of ensuring that Islam spread far and wide and had to protect the few who had converted to Islam.
  • This started when the Quraish learnt of the pledge of Aqaba and intensified their torture against the Muslims.
  • As a result of this the prophet permitted the Muslims to secretly start migrating to Madina.
  • The noble swahabas (companions) obeyed immediately and they started migrating.
  • Among the first to migrate were Abu Salama, his wife and son.
  • However, Ummu Salama was prevented by her family members from migrating until a year later.
  • Meanwhile, the other Muslims continued leaving in small groups.
  • They travelled for several days through the rocky and dusty villages until they reached the first village, known as Quba’ which is 1 km south of eathrib.
  • They were received warmly by the Yathribites and they stayed here for a period of two weeks.
  • The Yathribites welcomed them into their homes selflessly and this earned the Yathribites the title Ansaar which means ‘helpers.’
  • Abubakar (RA) and Ali (RA) were not among this first group that arrived in Yathrib.
  • This is because the prophet had planned that Abubakar should migrate with him.
  • Upon learning this, Abubakar purchased two camels in preparation for the journey.

Migration of the Prophet (P.B.U.H) to Madina

  • The Quraish sensed more danger when they realized that over one hundred Muslim families had already settled in Madina.
  • They were afraid that the Muslims would join forces with the two tribes in Madina i.e. Aus and Khazraj and become very powerful.
  • Therefore, they called for a meeting at Dar- un Nadwa to discuss measures that would be taken against the prophet.
  • In the meeting, the following three suggestions were put forward:-
    • The prophet should be tied in chains and imprisoned behind strong bars.
    • The prophet to be banished from Makkah.
    • The prophet to be eliminated by way of murdering him.
  • After a long discussion, they all agreed on Abu Jahal’s advice that the prophet should be killed.
  • In order that no single person or clan could be blamed, they chose one man from each of the twelve tribes to participate in the murder.
  • However, Allah had already informed the prophet about the evil plan of the pagans and through Angel Jibril He instructed him to Madina the same night they had plotted to kill him.
  • He therefore, asked Abubakar to prepare for their departure.
  • Meanwhile, the prophet’s house had already been surrounded by a number of youth from the various tribes of the Quraish.
  • The prophet asked Ali (R.A) to stay behind and lay on the prophet’s bed and in the morning return all the valuables that had been kept under the custody of the prophet to their owners.
  • The prophet then emerged from his house and flung a handful of sand in the direction of the pagans while reciting the opening verses of Surat Yasin.
  • This resulted in them falling asleep and they did not see the prophet leave for Abubakar’s house.
  • They then emerged from the backdoor of Abubakar’s house and headed towards the cave of Thaur.
  • They entered and hid in the cave.
  • The prophet immediately went to sleep because of the long journey they had gone through.
  • He was woken up by the tears of the Abubakar who was feeling pain because he had been stung by a poisonous insect.
  • The prophet then immediately used his saliva to apply on Abubakar’s foot and the pain stopped immediately.
  • Meanwhile the Quraish leaders were very upset upon learning that the prophet had escaped and left Ali on his bed.
  • They dispatched search parties all around Makka and promised a hundred camel reward for whoever captured the prophet dead or alive.
  • The Makkans were motivated by the reward and they started combing the entire area until some group entered the entrance to the cave.
  • They even employed a Bedouin fortune teller who had the skills of tracing footsteps.
  • He trailed the Prophet and Abubakar until he reached the entrance of the cave of Thaur.
  • Abubakar was afraid that they might be caught but the prophet comforted him by reminding him that Allah was with them.
  • Allah hid them from being seen by the pagans when he inspired a spider to weave a web across the entrance of the cave. (This is referred to as the miracle of the cave).
  • Furthermore a pigeon laid an egg at the entrance by the will of Allah and then a nearby tree bent its branches until they covered the entrance into the cave.
  • Finally, the group carrying out the search with the advice of Umayyah bin Khalaf left the place without entering the cave after arguing that there were no traces of anyone having gone into the cave.
  • This miracle of the cave teaches us that:
    • Islam is the true religion chosen by Allah(S.W.T)
    • Muslims should always rely on Allah (S.W.T) for their protection.
    • All creations obey the command of Allah(S.W.T).
  • They remained hidden in the cave for three days.
  • During this period, Abdullah, the son of Abubakar used to update them at night with the news of Makkah while Asma bint Abubakar brought them food.
  • By the end of the three days, the Makkan troupes had already given up their search.
  • On the fourth day, the freed slave of Abubakar brought them the two camels that had been bought by Abubakar.
  • He was accompanied by Abdullah bin Ariqeet who was to guide them through a secret route to Madina.

The Prophet’s Arrival at Quba

  • The Ansaars were eagerly awaiting the prophet’s arrival.
  • They kept checking every day in the plains but there was no sign until one day when one Jew who had been ascended a high tower spotted the approaching group.
  • He then shouted, “He for whom you have been waiting has arrived.”
  • The prophet was then hosted by Banu Aws.
  • He remained at Quba for a few days in which the Muslims undertook the task of constructing the first mosque called ‘the mosque of piety.’
  • The prophet worked in participation with other Muslims until the mosque was completed.
  • Ali (RA) joined them while they had camped at Quba.

Arrival in Madina

  • The prophet and the Muslims set out for Madina on a Friday of Rabiul Awwal 622 C.E.
  • The inhabitants of Madina woke up early awaiting the arrival of the prophet (P.B.U.H).
  • As he entered the city his camel was surrounded by excited Ansaar as they called out Takbeer in joy.
  • Each of the families tried to tag at the camel’s reins so that it would stop at their homes.
  • They were offering their homes, wealth and lives to the prophet (P.B.U.H).
  • The prophet thus said, ‘Leave the camel as it is, for it is guided by Allah (and will stop wherever it is ordered to stop).”
  • Finally the camel sat down in the home of Abu Ayub Khalid Al Ansaari in an area inhabited by Banu An-Najjar.
  • He stayed in this home until a house was built for him.
  • The people of Yathrib agreed to change its name to Madina tun Nabi which the city of the prophet or Madinatul Munawwara; The city of light.
  • Upon arrival in Madina, the prophet had the following tasks to perform:

i. Construction of a Mosque

  • When the Muslims came to Madina, they did not have enough land to carry out all their activities.
  • This therefore prompted Abubakar to purchase the piece of land on which the prophet’s camel had rested when they first arrived in Madina.
  • It belonged to two orphans who had decided to give it free of charge but the prophet insisted that they had to be paid.
  • The construction of the prophet’s mosque began immediately with both the Ansaar and the Muhajirun taking up various tasks.
  • The prophet actively took part by carrying bricks as he recited various verses of the Quran and Dua.
  • One of the duas he said was, “O Allah! No bliss is there but that of the hereafter I beseech you to forgive the immigrants and the helpers.”
  • The ninety square meter mosque was completed by an additional two rooms to accommodate his family and aplace was also reserved to the North to cater for thehomeless.

ii. Rehabilitation of the Muhajirun from Makkah

  • It was the main test of the prophet in ensuring that Islamic brotherhood was going to be established.
  • The Ansaar had been taking care of the Muhajirun who left most of their belongings in Makka.
  • The prophet united both the Ansaar and Muhajirun and the former were to continue sharing their wealth with the latter.
  • They even adopted some of them into their homes and built homes for others.
  • Employment was provided to them from large plantations while financial support was given to others to start up small businesses.
  • This was a very unique and historical bond and it came to be referred t as ‘Muwakhaat’.
  • The prophet had achieved in establishing the Muslim brotherhood within a few months.

iii. Fostering Unity Among the Tribes of Madina

  • The prophet had an important task of regulating the lives of all the citizen of Madina who included the Jews, Christians the paganthe two Arab tribes of Aws and Khazraj and the Ansaar and Muhajirun in order to foster unity and harmony.
  • He therefore it was necessary for him to established the Madinan charter which constituted a set of rules and regulations meant to govern all the citizens of Madina and is commonly known as “The Madinan constitution.”

Relationship between the Ansaar and Muhajirun

  • The Ansaar and Muhajirun were united by the bond of Islamic brotherhood.
  • The Ansaar showed charity by sharing their wealth with the Muhajirun.
  • The Ansaar also adapted their fellow brother into their homes.
  • They even built houses for others.
  • Some found jobs for them to do on the plantations.
  • Others gave the Muhajirun in support in starting their own businesses.

Madinan Constitution

  • Any organization will always have its own rule and regulations to govern them.
  • It is because of the individual differences of the members of the society or country that it becomes necessary to formulate laws that will harmonise all the operations of the organization.
  • These set of rules or laws are included in the document we call a constitution.
  • A constitution can be defined as a law determining the fundamental political principles of a government or an organisation.
  • In Kenya, for example, we had a refurundum in 2007 to vote for the new constitution which was passed by the Kenyans.
  • It consists of a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
  • These rules together make up or constitute, what the entity is.
  • When these principles are written down into a single collection or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to comprise a written constitution.
  • The Madinan constitution therefore was an agreement between the Muslims and the other Arabian tribes in Madina, the Jews, Christians and Polytheists to regulate relations and ensure peace between all of them.
  • It was a written agreement and the first political agreement between Muslims and non Muslims whose principles were based on the Quran and Sunnah.
  • It’s also the first constitution and the greatest political document ever known in History.

Major Terms of this Document:

  • As we have mentioned above, any constitution will comprise of rules to govern those who agree to adhere to it.
  • The Madinan constitution also had its terms as follows:
    • This is a prescript of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم), the Prophet and Messenger of God (to operate) between the faithful and the followers of Islam from among the Quraish and the people of Madina and those who may be under them, may join them and take part in wars in their company.
    • They shall constitute a separate political unit (Ummat) as distinguished from all the people (of the world).
    • Each group for their own ward; and shall pay their blood-money in mutual collaboration and shall secure the release of their own prisoners by paying their ransom from themselves, so that the mutual dealings between the believers be in accordance with the principles of goodness and justice.
    • a) And the believers shall not leave any one, hard-pressed with debts, without affording him some relief, in order that the dealings between the believers be in accordance with the principles of goodness and justice. (b) Also no believer shall enter into a contract of clientage with one who is already in such a contract with another believer.
    • And the hands of pious believers shall be raised against every such person as rises in rebellion or attempts to acquire anything by force or is guilty of any sin or excess or attempts to spread mischief among the believers ; their hands shall be raised all together against such a person, even if he be a son to any one of them.
    • And no believer shall kill another believer in retaliation for an unbeliever, nor shall he help an unbeliever against a believer.
    • And the protection of God is one. The humblest of them (believers) can, by extending his pro-tection to any one, put the obligation on all; and the believers are brothers to one another as against all the people (of the world).
    • And that those who will obey us among the Jews, will have help and equality. Neither shall they be oppressed nor will any help be given against them.
    • And the peace of the believers shall be one. If there be any war in the way of God, no believer shall be under any peace (with the enemy) apart from other believers, unless it (this peace) be the same and equally binding on all.
    • And all those detachments that will fight on our side will be relieved by turns.
    • And the believers as a body shall take blood vengeance in the way of God.
    • (a) And undoubtedly pious believers are the best and in the rightest course. (b) And that no associator (non-Muslim subject) shall give any protection to the life and property of a Quraishite, nor shall he come in the way of any believer in this matter.
    • And if any one intentionally murders a believer, and it is proved, he shall be killed in retaliation, unless the heir of the murdered person be satisfied with blood-money. And all believers shall actually stand for this ordinance and nothing else shall be proper for them to do.
    • And it shall not be lawful for any one, who has agreed to carry out the provisions laid down in this code and has affixed his faith in God and the Day of Judgment, to give help or protection to any murderer, and if he gives any help or protection to such a person, God‟s curse and wrath shall be on him on the Day of Resurrection, and no money or compensation shall be accepted from such a person.
    • And that whenever you differ about anything, refer it to God and to Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم)
    • And the Jews shall share with the believers the expenses of war so long as they fight in conjunction,
    • And the Jews of Banu ‘Awf shall be considered as one political community (Ummat) along with the believers—for the Jews their religion, and for the Muslims theirs, be one client or patron. He, however, who is guilty of oppression or breach of treaty, shall suffer the resultant trouble as also his family, but no one besides.
    • And all Jew groups shall have the same rights as the Jews of Banu ‘Awf.
    • (a) And that none of them shall go out to fight as a soldier of the Muslim army, without the permission of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم). (b) And no obstruction shall be placed in the way of any one‟s retaliation for beating or injuries; and whoever sheds blood shall be personally responsible for it as well as his family; or else (i.e., any step beyond this) will be of oppression; and God will be with him who will most faithfully follow this code (sahifdh) in action.
    •  (a) And the Jews shall bear the burden of their expenses and the Muslims theirs. (b) And if any one fights against the people of this code, their (i.e., of the Jews and Muslims) mutual help shall come into operation, and there shall be friendly counsel and sincere behaviour between them; and faithfulness and no breach of covenant.
    • And the Jews shall be bearing their own expenses so long as they shall be fighting in conjunction with the believers.
    • And the Valley of Yathrib (Madina) shall be a Haram (sacred place) for the people of this code.
    • The clients (mawla) shall have the same treatment as the original persons (i.e., persons accepting clientage). He shall neither be harmed nor shall he himself break the covenant.
    • And no refuge shall be given to any one without the permission of the people of the place (i.e., the refugee shall have no right of giving refuge to others).
    • And that if any murder or quarrel takes place among the people of this code, from which any trouble may be feared, it shall be referred to God and God‟s Messenger, Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم); and God will be with him who will be most particular about what is written in this code and act on it most faithfully.
    • The Quraish shall be given no protection nor shall they who help them.
    • And they (i.e., Jews and Muslims) shall have each other‟s help in the event of any one invading Yathrib.
    • (a) And if they (i.e., the Jews) are invited to any peace, they also shall offer peace and shall be a party to it; and if they invite the believers to some such affairs, it shall be their (Muslims) duty as well to reciprocate the dealings, excepting that any one makes a religious war. (b) On every group shall rest the responsibility of (repulsing) the enemy from the place which faces its part of the city.
    • And the Jews of the tribe of al-Aws, clients as well as original members, shall have the same rights as the people of this code: and shall behave sincerely and faithfully towards the latter, not perpetrating any breach of covenant. As one shall sow so shall he reap. And God is with him who will most sincerely and faithfully carry out the provisions of this code.
    • And this prescript shall not be of any avail to any oppressor or breaker of covenant. And one shall have security whether one goes out to a campaign or remains in Madina, or else it will be an oppression and breach of covenant. And God is the Protector of him who performs the obligations with faithfulness and care, as also His Messenger Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم)

Importance of the Madinan Constitution

  • It was an attempt to bring reconciliation of all the tribes and prevent the Madinan
    tribes from frequent tribal wars.
  • It outlined the principles for establish good relationship between the Muslims and non Muslims.
  • The prophet’s position as the supreme leader and controller of all affairs of Madina as a state and arbitrator of any dispute so as to bring peace was declared.
  • The constitution summarized the rights of all the Madina citizens such as; freedom ofspeech, thought and worship.
  • It ensured protection of life and property and discouraged all types of crimes like
    murder, stealing among others.
  • The Muslims and Islam were protected against the plots of the Jews and the
  • It proved the Prophet as a great leader. He was able to organize Madina and free it
    from tyranny, tribalism, selfishness and dictatorship.

Challenges in Madina

  • Even though the prophet was welcomed in Madina, his stay was not peaceful because of the mayhem caused by the Quraish of Makka and a few tribes in Madina.
  • They include the following:
    • A clan of Khazraj headed by Abdullah ibn Ubayy who had been expecting to take over as a king of Yathrib. He therefore pretended to revert to Islam together with his supporters (Munafiqun). They had not been happy with the prophet’s advancement and started causing mischief among the believers.
    • The Jews staying in Madina also opposed the prophet when the verse came directing Muslims to change the Qibla from Jerusalem to Makka. (Read Q: 2:146). They secretly contacted the Makkan Pagans and started to work against the interest of the Muslims. They also rejected Prophet Mohammad because the messenger they had expected to come was to be from their tribe.
    • The Quraish started sending troops to kill the prophet and his companions.
    • Often, they interfered with business activities by looting the towns and destroyed the Arab trade in the region by paralyzing all business activities.
    • They also sent raiding parties with the intention of destroying fruit trees, plantations and carrying away animals.
    • The Makkans conspired with the Munafiqun to rebel against the prophet and Muslims.
    • The Quraish went ahead to form alliances with other tribes with the aim of to dislodging Islam and the Muslims.
    • The Quraish leaders spread negative information about the prophet i.e. they said that he was a seeker chased from his motherland in order to discourage people from embracing Islam.
  • Despite all these challenges, the prophet remained patient awaiting Allah’s command

Hijra as a Turning Point in the History of Islam

  • The prophet received a warm welcome from the people of Yathrib who were eager to learn Islam as compared to the Makkan Quarish who used to persecute Muslims.
  • There was rapid spread of Islam after Hijra as opposed to earlier on.
  • After Hijra, Islam came to triumph over the pagan religions and was soon the religion for the whole of Arabian Peninsula and even expanded further.
  • Muslims were able to conduct their affairs peacefully in Yathrib Madina resulting in the expansion of trade and an organized army.
  • The first mosque “Masjidul Quba” was constructed and Muslims could pray freely.
  • Muslims were able to fight in defense of their religion and won in most of the battles because of the strength they built after travelling to Madina.
  • Hijra marks the beginning of the Islamic Calendar at the time of Umar al Khattab
  • Muslims got a city of their own and changed the name Yathrib to Madina.

Importance of Hijra in the History of Islam

  • There was rapid spread of Islam outside Makka since the Muslims were no longer in fear of Quraish attack.
  • Islam came to triumph over the pagan religion and was soon considered the religion for the entire Arabian Peninsula.
  • Muslims were living in peace and could therefore conduct their affairs without
    interference. This resulted in expansion of trade and consequently stabilizing their
  • Due to the prevailing peace, the prophet was able to organize the Muslim army in
    readiness for the defense of the religion.
  • The first mosque (Masjidul Quba) was constructed and thus the Muslims were able to freely worship.
  • The prophet got ample time to teach the new Muslim community Islamic laws and
    regulations to guide the affairs of the Muslim state.
  • The prophet and the Muslims got a city of their own and changed the name Yathrib to Madina.
  • The year of Hijra i.e. 622 AD marked the beginning of the Islamic calendar.

Battles Fought

The Battle of BADR(2A.H/624 C.E) 17th Ramadhan

  • The prophet’s effort to enter into peace treaties with the Jews and other tribes while in Madina was an attempt to have a community that was founded on security, harmony and freedom.
  • However, this did not go well with the Quraish who were bitter about the migration of the prophet and his companions.
  • They were not happy to see the Muslims settle in Madina where they were becoming famous in their ways of life while the Islamic faith was becoming more prominent.
  • Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul had been previously promised leadership by the Aus and the Khazraj of Madina.
  • However, with the migration of the prophet in Madina, majority of the in habitants
    voluntarily became Muslims and preferred the leadership of the prophet over anybody else.
  • This made Abdullah bin Ubayy together with his sympathizers to be Muslims but not absolutely dedicated.
  • They became enemies of Islam from within.
  • They pretended to be Muslims but actually did everything to spoil Islam and secretly oppose it.
  • These people came to be referred to as the Munafiqun (hypocrites).
  • They collaborated with the Quraish to give important information and also help them weaken the Muslims.
  • The Quraish, promising support to the Munafiqun, encouraged them to get rid of the Muslims in Madina by all means.
  • Abdullah bin Ubayy, driven by the failed attempt for leadership, complied with the Quraish and organized themselves to fight the Muslims, but without success.
  • The people from Madina were threatened when they went for Umra because of the presence of Muslims in their land.
  • Verbal and written provocations were sent to the Muslims in Madina with all sorts of threats and hatching of plans to expel the Muslims from this important geographical position i.e. the passage to Syria.
  • Finally, permission to fight was given to the Muslims by Allah when the ayats were sent down that:
    To those, against whom war is made, permission is given to (fight), because they were wronged-and verily, Allah is Most powerful for their aid.”[Q: 22:39]

Reasons that made the Quraish fight in the battle of Badr;

  • The Quarish were angry because the Muslims had escaped from them.
  • Islam challenged the old religion of the Quarish so the Makkans did not like the
    spread of the new faith.
  • The Quarish feared that Muslims would block their caravans to the North.
  • Confrontation between the Makkans and the Muslims who had been send to defend the caravan.
  • The Makkans were jealous of the conversion of prominent people like Hamza and
    Umar bin Khattab to Islam.

Muslims fought in the battle so as to:-

  • Assert their might and instill fear among the Quarish who had always seen them as weak.
  • Compensate for the loss the Muslims had gone through while they were in Makka.
  • Cut off the access of the Quraish traders to Syria.

Events of the Battle

  • Madina was a trade link to Syria used by all the traders.
  • In the year 624 C.E the prophet was informed of a large caravan belonging to Quraish led by Abu Sufyan that was travelling from Sham (Syria) with worthy goods and was to pass through Madina.
  • The prophet then told the Muslims, “Here is the caravan of the Quraish well loaded with wealth and merchandise. This is an opportunity which we cannot afford to miss
  • The prophet thus led to attack the caravan in revenge of what the Quraish had done to them.
  • The prophet left Abdullah Ibu UmmiMakhtum and Lubaba Bin Abdumundhir to take care of the Muslim affairs in Madina.
  • There were only forty people guarding this caravan.
  • The Muslim did not manage to intercept the caravan because the news of the Muslims plan had
    reached Abu Sufyan who managed to use a different route. He even informed the Quraish through a letter that he had managed to escape using the sea route but Abu Jahal insisted by saying that the Arabs should see, hear and understand that we are powerful people.
  • The Quraish had set out more than 1000 people with 750 camels, 100 horses, 600 of the men were wearing iron amours.
  • When he learnt about the plan of the Quraish, he then consulted with his companions and they agreed to go ahead and fight the Quraish army.
  • Muslim army had only 313 men armed with swords, 76 camels and two horses. The prophet said to his companions, “Allah promised me one of the two
    either the caravan or the army.
  • This was justified by the following revelation: ‘Just as your Lord ordered you out of your houses in truth,even though a party among the disbelievers dislike disputing with you concerning the truth after it was made clear,as if they were being driven to death and they (actually)saw it. Behold God promised you one of the two parties (enemy), that should be yours; you wished that the one unarmed should be yours but God willed to justify the truth according to his words and the roots of the unbelievers.’ [Q: 8:5-
  • The prophet then received Wahyi permitting them to fight thus:
    To those against whom war is made permission is granted to fight because they are wronged and verily God is most powerful for their aid. They are who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right (for no cause) except that they say “Our Lord is our God” [Q: 22: 29-40].
  • Fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not transgress limits, for God loves not transgressors. And slay them wherever you catch them, turn them out from where they have turned you out for tumult and oppression are worse than killing but fight them not at the sacred mosque unless they first reward of those who suppress faith. But if they cease, God is oft forgiving, most merciful” [Q: 2: 190-192]
  • The tribes of Bani Adiy and Ibn Zuhraafter learning that their trade caravans were safe, they did not participate in this battle.
  • The prophet sent Ali Bin Talib, Zubeir Bin Awwam and Saad Abi Waqqas to the wells of Badr to find out about the Quraish army.
  • They found out that it consisted of Utba and Shayba sons of Rabia, Hakim Ibu Khizam, Tuamin Bin Adiy, Nufalah Bin Khuwaylid,Abdul Baghtary bin Hisham, Iraath Bin Amr, Annadhar Bin Aswad, Umayyad Bin Khalaf and Amr Bin Hisham(Abu Jahal).
  • This was a very strong army but the Muslims had to go for war.
  • Habbab Bin Mundhir suggested that they should camp at the water source to deny the Quraish access.
  • When the Quraish reached Badr, they rushed for water but the Muslims stopped them.
  • The prophet allowed them access to the water, a move which touched Hakim Bin Hazath who suggested to Utba Rabin to give up the battle.
  • However Abu Jahal opposed him.
  • Traditionally the Arab battles used to start with a combat between a few pairs were appointed from the two armies before the main battle; this is referred to as a duel.
  • In this battle it involved Hamza Bin Abdul Muttalib, Ali Bin Abu Twalib and Ubeid Bin Harith from the Muslim’s side, against Utba bin Rabia, his brother Shayba bin Rabia and Utba’s son al Walid from the Quraish.
  • Shayba was defeated and killed by Hamza; Walid was also killed by Ali. Ubeid and Utba drew each dealt a death blow to the other but Ubeid died on the way back while Utba died on the sport.
  • As the Quraish army was advancing Prophet raised his hands and prayed to Allah (S.W.T) and said, “O Allah! Should this group (of Muslims) be defeated today, you will no longer be worshipped.”
  • As a result of this dua, Allah sent angels to assist the Muslims. Allah says in the Quran thus:“Remember you implored the assistance of your Lord and He answered you; I will assist you with a thousand Angels ranks on ranks.”[Q: 8:9]
  • The Quraish saw the number of Muslims increasing and they started retreating.
  • The Muslims fought with courage and emerged victorious in this battle.
  • The Muslims considered their victory as having come from Allah.
  • It is said in the Quran by Allah (S.W.T),‘It is not you who slew them; It was Allah: When you threw (a handful of dust) it was not your act but Allah’s: Inorder that He might test the believers by a gracious trial from Himself: For God is He who hears and knows (all things.)’[Q8:17]
  • By the end of the battle, 70 enemies were killed and 70 others taken as captives.
  • Only 14 Muslims were killed.
  • The relatives of the 70 captives were told to pay a ransom or the captives should teach Muslims how to read and write in order to get their freedom.

Importance of the Battle

  • It dealt a big blow to the dignity and honor of the Quarish who had considered themselves superior for many years.
  • It is considered as a symbol for success of the power of truth over falsehood.
  • The assistance that Muslims got from Allah (S.W.T) strengthened their faith.
  • The victory of the Muslims gave assured continuity to Islamwhich would have come to an end had they been defeated.
  • The prophet’s position as a spiritualand a state leader was confirmed by the Muslims victory.
  • It strengthened the spirit and moral of the prophet to continue with his mission of
    preaching Islam.

Reasons for the Muslims victory

  • They had complete faith and confidence in Allah despite their number being few. On this Allah (SWT) says,‘O ye who believe! If you will aid (The cause of Allah) He will aid you, and plant your feet firmly.’[Q: 47:7]
  • Unity of opinion within them. The prophet would ask for advice from the Muslim army before they decided on any matter.
  • They showed obedience, love and respect to the Prophet as their leader.
  • Muslims love for the hereafter gave them courage to keep fighting, since they knew of Allah(SWT) promise for those who fight for His course
  • They were courageous, determined and zealous to win over the Quraish.
  • Muslims were fighting for a proper reason that to ensure that the truth triumphs over falsehood.

The Battle of Uhud: (3 a.h/625 c.e)

  • This battle took place by the hill of Uhud which is about three miles outside Makka.
  • The Quraish advanced towards the Muslims in this battle due to the following reasons;
    • They wanted to revenge against the Muslims after a humiliating defeat at the battle Badr.
    • The Quarish wanted to re-establish their supremacy among the Arabs which they had lost during the battle of Badr.
    • They wanted to kill the prophet and bring Islam to an end before it was too late.
    • The Quarish wanted to guarantee the safety of its caravan route to Syria which had been the main cause for the battle of Uhud.

Events of the battle

  • Abbas, the prophet’s uncle informed him of the plan by the Quarish to attack the Muslims.
  • The prophet preferred to remain in Madina to wait for the Quarish to attack but after consultation with the majority, a force of 1000 men set out for the battle.
  • The Quarish had gathered 3000 men, well equipped and better trained than their first army.
  • This army was being led by Abusufian.
  • They also brought several women to cheer them as they fought.
  • Just before the battle began, Abdullah bin Ubayy the leaders of the hypocrites pulled out with an army of 300 men and returned to Madina in the pretence of protecting Madina from within.
  • As usual, the battle began with single combats who were involved then the general attack developed.
  • The prophet placed 50 archives to protect the entrance into the hill with clear instructions not to leave their outcome.
  • When the Quraish were being defeated, they started running away leaving their booty behind, the Muslims soldiers became greedy of the booty and they left the entrance unguarded and went for the left booty.
  • Khalid bin Walid, the commander of the Quarish army saw the unguarded passage and instructed a section of the enemy to make a surprise attack from behind the hill of Uhud.
  • This sudden attack caused confusion among the Muslims such that they thought the prophet had died until when he shouted, “I am Mohammed Bin Abdullah. I am the messenger of Allah. I have come with the truth.
  • These words gave courage to the companions who started fighting again.
  • Sayyiduna Abu-Bakr and Ali ran to the prophet and protected him from being killed.
  • He was hit on the face by falling rocks and spears and he lost two teeth.
  • When the Muslims turned the tide of the battle, the Quarish started fleeing out of fear of defeat.
  • The Muslims suffered a great loss in this battle.
  • Seventy Muslims lost their lives among them Hamza the uncle of the prophet.
  • His body was mutilated and Hind the wife of Abusufian ate his kidney.
  • The prophet vowed to revenge the death of his uncle but Allah(S.W.T) sent the following verse:
    And if you punish, inflict the same punishment as has been afflicted on you. But if you bear patiently, it is certainly better for those who are patient; be patient for the reward of your patience is from Allah (S.W.T). and not feel sad nor distress yourself because of their plotting.”[Q: 16:127]
  • Only 22 Quarish were killed. Following this verse, the prophet was patient and did not revenge.

Importance of the Battle of Uhud

  • It showed the significance of the Muslims to follow their leaders’ commands i.e. the archers left the entrance unguarded disregarding the prophet’s not to leave the passage.
  • It awakened the believers to their responsibility as protectors of their divine mission
  • It taught Muslims to bear hardships in their mission.
  • It explains the status of the prophet as the believed messenger of Allah and the love and mercy Allah had towards the Muslims.
  • The Muslims learnt that they shouldn’t be greedy for wealth
  • They learnt that victory and defeat are in the hands of Allah
  • They learnt never to under estimate an enemy.
  • The Makkans regarded it as their first defeat over the Muslims.
  • Muslims learnt to be patient and a verse was revealed telling the prophet to show
    patience to the martyrs of his uncle Hamza.
  • It clearly differentiated the hypocrites like, Abdullah Ibn Ubayy from the true Muslims.
  • Muslims learnt that Allah doesn’t grant victory without a proper cause.
  • Muslims learnt the importance of consultation.
  • It teaches leaders to accept the opinion of the majority.
  • Women are allowed to participate in battles as long as their presence doesn’t cause an alarm e.g. Ummu Ammarah who was injured while protecting the prophet.

The Battle of Khandaq (The Trench)

  • This is also called the battle of Al Ahzab (tribes) because it was planned by the Jewish tribes together with the Makkans in 5 A.H (627 C.E).
  • The defeat of the Muslims at Uhud had lowered their prestige with the Arab tribes.
  • Some tribes which had previously supported Muslims started drifting towards the Quarish.
  • They even started attacking the different small Muslim groups.
  • The Jews, despite the treaty (Madina Constitution) with the Muslims were still very bitter and showed it openly.
  • They had expected a prophet who would give them dominion and wealth, not one
    who would equate them to the Arabs.
  • When they learnt that they could not use the prophet for their own ends, they tried to shake his mission and seduce his followers.
  • They even declared the pagan religion as superior to Islam.
  • They then joined forces with the Makkans and broke the treaty.
  • The prophet had thus to take action and he expelled the two Jewish tribes; Banu Nadhir and Banu Qaynuqa from Madina.
  • A grand plan was now hatched to finish the Muslims.
  • The Jews and Makkans incited all the tribes to raise arms against the Muslims in Madina.
  • They also joined forces with the Jews of Oasis Khaybar and Banu Quraizah and had gathered an army of 24,000 men, led by Abu Sufyan.
  • This was to bar any entrance into the city of Madina by the attacking Quraish.
  • The messengers from Banu Khuza'a reached the prophet afterfour days, warning him of the armies that were to arrive in a week.
  • The Muslims could not be able to fight such a big army in the open field.
  • The prophet therefore gathered the Madinans to discuss the best strategy of overcoming the enemy.
  • Meeting the enemy in the open, and waiting for them inside the city were both suggested.
  • Lastly, the outnumbered Muslims opted to engage in a defensive battle by digging deep trenches to act as a barrier along the northern front. This suggestion was introduced by Salman al Farsy, a Persian.
  • Every capable Muslimin Madina including the prophet himself contributed to the digging of large and deep trench in six days.
  • It was dug on the northern side only to obstruct any entry into the city.
  • The other parts of Madina were surrounded by Rocky Mountains and trees, impenetrable to large armies.
  • Muslims established their headquarters at the hillock of Sala' a position which would give them an advantage in case the enemy crossed the trench.
  • The final army that would defend the city from the invasion consisted of 3,000 men, and included all inhabitants of Madina over the age of 15, except the Banu Qurayzawho had supplied the Muslims with some instruments for digging the trench.
  • When the attacking army reached Madina, they found the 15 inch ditch obstructing.
  • They made several attempts to cross but they could not and thus they decided to lay a siege for about 27 days.
  • At last continuous failure and increasing difficulties like lack of food, created distrust among the allies.
  • On the 27th day of the siege, a terrible cyclone with heavy rains created havoc in the enemy.
  • They decided to raise the siege and return to their homes.

Results of this battle

  • Muslims became victorious over the Quraish in this battle.
  • Islam established itself as the absolute master of Madina.
  • Muslims were able to take full control of Madina without interference from the Makkans
  • It gave more prestige to the prophet and the Muslims making the Arab tribes to have an admiration of Islam.
  • Swafiyyah, the daughter of the Jewish chief (a tribe which had bitterly opposed the Muslims) was married by the prophet (P.B.U.H) after this battle thus decreasing the differences between the Jews and the Muslims.
  • The power of Munafiqun was finally broken and the Arabs all over the provinces started admiring the Muslims.

The Treaty of Hudaibiyah (6th Dhul Qad 6 A.H/628 C.E)

  • The next year after the battle of Khandaq, the prophet together with 1400 Muslims left Madina for Makka to perform Umra (lesser pilgrimage).
  • Muslims were instructed by the prophet not to carry any weapons except swords since it was purely a religious journey.
  • Due to the strenuous relationship with the Makkan Quraish, they could not enter Makka directly.
  • Therefore, they camped at the valley of Hudaibiyah, a few miles away from Makka and sent word to Makka that they had come for Umra and not to wage war.
  • The first messenger Kharash bin Umayya was arrested immediately but later released; his camel’s legs were chopped off.
  • Uthman was sent as a second emissary but he was locked up in a room full of smoke for three days.
  • Due to this, a battle almost started between the two but was suspended when Uthman was released unharmed.
  • At night, the Makkans used to sneak into the Muslims army to spy but they learnt that the Muslims were carrying out their activities very peacefully.
  • This finally convinced the Quraish leaders that the Muslims had not come for war and they agreed to send representativeled by Suhali Ibn Amirto sign a truce with the Muslims in which the following terms were agreed:-
    • There should be no hostilities between the Muslims and Makkans for ten years.
    • The prophet and the Muslims was to return to Madina that year without performing pilgrimage
    • Makkan Muslims who left their people without permission were to be returned to Makka and never be allowed to stay in Madina while Muslims who escaped from Madina to Makka would be welcomed and never returned to the Muslims.
    • No arms apart from swords would be carried by the Muslims when they go to Makka the following year
    • Any Arab tribe was free to befriend itself with the Muslims or pagan Quarish.
    • None of the terms would be changed for the next ten years.
  • Most of the terms of the truce were friendly to the Quarish and there was a general dissatisfaction among the Muslims until when Allah (S.W.T) revealed the following verse about the treaty,
    Lo, we have given you (Mohammad) a signal victory that Allah (S.W.T) may forgive you of the sin that which is past and that which is to come, and may perfect his favors unto you and may guide you on a right path, And that Allah (S.W.T) may help you with strong help”[ Q:48:1-3]
  • This verse proved to be true by the events which followed the treaty of Hudaibiyah i.e.
    • Muslims got a break of rest from the Makkan attacks.
    • Muslims were able to mix freely with any tribe they wanted.
    • There were many Makkans who got a closer view of Islam through the interaction and were able to embrace Islam e.g. Khalidbin Walid, Suhail bin Amir, Amr bin al’As.
    • It showed that the prophet was a great leader.
    • The Prophet was able to send teachers to other parts of Arabia.
    • The prophet had enough time to concentrate on his divine mission because there was peace and tranquility.
    • It assured safe access of the Muslims to Makka their holy city the following year.
    • It made the Makkan Quarish recognize Islam as an equal power with them as they withdrew from the war arena.

Lessons from the Treaty of Hudaibiyah

  • Allah (S.W.T) is always on the side of those who are sincere.
  • Muslims should always have faith in Allah (S.W.T).
  • Victory always comes from Allah (S.W.T) especially to those who are pious and determined.
  • Muslims should always aspire to spread peace despite intimidation
  • Muslims should be patient at all times and in all situations.
  • Muslims cant enter into agreement with non-Muslims for sake of peace
  • The prophet was a recognized, wise and an able leader
  • Forgiveness should be fostered in the hearts of Muslims

The Prophet’s Invitation of Foreign Rulers to Islam

  • With peace having been established in Arabia after signing the treaty of Hudaibiyya, the prophet decided to concentrate more on his divine mission.
  • He started by sending envoys to the following areas:

a) Abyssinia

  • The prophet sent Amr bin Umayyah Ad-Damri to the Negus of Abyssinia by the name Ashamah.
  • This delegation was warmly received and treated well.
  • Some sources say that the king embraced Islam secretly since Abyssinia was a Christian country.
  • He replied, “In the name of Allah the Most Gracious the Most Merciful. O prophet of Allah! And mercy and blessings from Allah beside whom there is no god. I have received your letter in which you have mentioned about Jesus and by the Lord of the heaven and the, Jesus is not more than what you say. We fully acknowledge
    that which you have been sent to us and we have entertained your cousin and his companions.

    I bear witness that you are the messenger of Allah true and confirming (those who have come before you). I pledge to you through your cousin and surrender myself through him to the Lord of the worlds.”
  • When this Negus later died in Rajab 9 A.H the prophet announced his death and observed the funeral prayer in absentia for him.
  • He was succeeded by another King to whom the prophet sent a letter but however it is not confirmed as to whether he accepted Islam or not.

b) Persia

  • Abdallah Ibn Hudhaifa was sent with a letter to Perevez the emperor of Persia inviting him to Islam.
  • The king was arrogant and proud and after reading it he got infuriated and mistreated the envoy.
  • He thought that the language in the letter was too harsh for an emperor and also the prophet’s name should not have appeared above his, he therefore tore the letter into pieces.
  • He then sent his men to arrest the prophet and bring him to his palace.
  • When the envoy reported back to the prophet, he prayed for the Persian Empire to disintegrate.
  • No sooner had the Persia emperors envoy reached Madina than the Prophet (P.B.U.H) received divine inspiration that Perevez had died.
  • His successor was unable to maintain the unity in the emperor leading to its complete disintegration.

c) Roman Empire

  • Dihya bin Khalifa al-Kalbi was sent to king Heraclius of Byzantine.
  • He welcomed him well, read the letter but did not embrace Islam, however he send them with many presents to take to the prophet.
  • The tribe of Judham intercepted the convoy at a place called Husma and robed them.
  • When the prophet heard of this, he dispersed an army and inflicted heavy losses on those people.
  • One the prophet ordered that all the captives and spoils of war be returned.

d) Egypt

  • Hatiib bin Abi Baltaah was send to the king of Egypt (Muqawqis) called Juraij bin Matta.
  • He read the letter and accepted the message though he was disappointed that the prophet did not come from Syria as it was expected.
  • However he sent presents two maids from noble Coptic families, Maria, and Syrin; clothing, and stead for riding on but he did not accept Islam.
  • The prophet married Maria who bore him Ibrahim while Syrin was married to Hassan bin Thabit al Ansaari.

The Fall of Khaybar (7 A.H)

  • Khaybar was a strong fold of the two Jewish tribes of Banu Nadhir and Banu Qainuqa.
  • It is about 200 miles from Madina.
  • These Jews with the help of neibouring Arab tribes were planning to attack
  • They had joined forces with the Bedouins of Ghatafah.
  • The prophet learned of their plot and gathered 1,400 men including 200 horse men.
  • When the Muslims reached Khaibar and saw their opponents, the prophet prayed, “O Allah, we wish prosperity and we seek your refuge from evils there from”.
  • The Muslims stopped at a place 150 miles in the valley of at Raji to prevent the men of Khaibar from reinforcing the Jews.
  • There were eight fortressess at Khaibar all garrisoned with armed men.
  • They included; the fortresses of Na’im, Ubai, An-Nizar, AZ-Zubair, As-Sa’b bin Mu’ath, Al Watih, As- Sulalim and Al- Qamus.
  • A fierce fight took place around these fortresses and in a few days the Muslims had captured all of them.
  • This was after a siege of 20 days.
  • The booty was shared among the victorious Muslims.
  • The Jews were however allowed to retain their lands on condition that they
    would pay half of the produce to the Islamic state.
  • The prophet then married Swafiyyah a daughter of a leading Jewish chief in order to strengthen the friendship with the Jews.

The Conquest of Makka. (20th Ramadhan 5.A.H)

  • When Islam was well established in the hearts of the Muslims, Allah decided that the time had come for His Messenger and his community to enter Makkah.
  • They would purify the Ka'bah so that it would be a blessed place of guidance for the whole world.
  • They would restore Makkah to its previous status and the sacred city would offer security for all people once again.
  • The terms of the treaty of Hudaibiyah had given freedom of association to both Muslims and the Quraish.
  • The Muslims befriended the Banu Khuza’ah while the Quraish allied with the Banu Bakr.
  • These two tribes had been enemy since the Pre Islamic time but now they were to respect the terms of the treaty of Hudaibiyah and stop attacking each other.
  • For some years, the Quarish respected the treaty of Hudaibiyah until when the Banu Bakr attacked the tribe of Banu Khuza’ah which was allied to the Muslims at a place called Al-Wateer.
  • The Quraish supported the tribe of Banu Bakr with men and arms.
  • They attacked the Banu Khuza’ah at night who had to take refuge in the Holy sanctuary.
  • This event led to the aggrieved Banu Khuza’ah to seek for justice from the Muslims.
  • As a result the prophet laid down three conditions for the Quraish:
    • To pay blood money for the victims of Banu Khuza’ah.
    • To end their friendship with Banu Bakr.
    • To consider the truce of Hudaibiyah to have been nullified.
  • Out of the three conditions, the Quraish accepted the cancellation of the treaty.
  • The prophet then gathered 10,000 armed men and headed for Makkah.
  • As they were advancing towards Makka, more and more tribes joined them on the way.
  • At Juufa,Al Abnas bin Abdul Mutwalib came to join them.
  • The army marched and camped at Marr a Zahran.
  • When Makkans heard of the news, they sent Abusufian to spy on the Muslim’s camp.
  • He was however detected by Abbas the uncle of the prophet and Muslim guards presented him to the prophet.
  • The prophet did not punish him but made him stand on a high ground to see the spectacle of the Muslim army marching towards Makkah.
  • The prophet divided his forces into different groups with each having its leader.
  • Abu ubaida bin jarrah led the Muhajirun accompanied by the prophet himself.
  • Zubeir Bin Awwam was on the left moving in a parallel column.
  • The western entrance of the city was controlled by Saad Bin Ubaid while Khalid Bin Walid with the Bedouin contingent was to circle the whole city on the west and enter it from the south.
  • The uncle of the prophet Abass, who had embraced Islam, was escorting Abusufyan.
  • He adviced him to embrace Islam which he did.
  • Abusufyan had wanted negotiations but the Muslim army refused and entered Makkah.
  • The prophet instructed them not to shed any blood.
  • In order to reakize this goal,and conquer Makka peacefully, he made the following announcement; “Those who shelter in the kaaba are safe, those who shelter in Abu Sufyans house are safe and those who stay in their own houses are safe.”
  • Despite the peaceful entry of Muslims into Makka, a group of Makkans rushed and attacked the Muslim group under Khalid bin Walid.
  • As a result two Muslims and twelve non believers were killed.
  • The prophet then entered the Kaaba and cast down all idols while reciting the following verse of the Quran,
    The truth has come and false hood gone, verily falsehood is ever vanishing.” [Q: 17:81]
  • A green flag was hoisted on the Kaaba and Bilal bin Rabah then made the Adhan and the prophet led a thanks giving prayer (Swalatul Shukr).
  • The prophet then addressed a huge gathering and said,“There is no god except Allah. No one can be associated with him. He has fulfilled his promise. He has helped his servant and has shattered all bands alone. All the prides, all the prices of the family are under my heal. All the men are descendants of Adam and Adam was made of clay”.
  • The Makkan leaders who had been oppressing the Muslims were among the crowd and the prophet asked them, “you know how I am going to treat you?” They replied, “you are a noble brother and noble nephew we expect nothing but good from you.” The prophet said, “There is no revenging against you today and you are all free.”
  • The prophet then climbed on the hill of swafa and gave a sermon to all the Makkans to swear loyalty to Islam.
  • Men and women came to accept Islam.
  • Hind, the wife of Abu Jahal was among the women.
  • The prophet forgave her.
  • He also forgave Ikrimah Bin Abu Jahal who also accepted Islam.
  • The prophet remained in Makkah for 15 days.
  • After the conquest of Makka the prophet organized his troupes to go and attack the Roman Empire at Tabuk and the Banu Khawazin and Banu Thaqif.

Significance of the conquest of Makkah

  • It showed the purity of the Kaaba as the house of Allah and a place for monotheism.
  • Victory meant the supremacy of the Great Lord rather than ambition for power. This is why the prophet first thanked Allah and then purified the Kaaba.
  • By the Prophets act of forgiveness, he was laying emphasis on the noble Islamic principle of brotherhood and peace.
  • Many Makkans embraced Islam and even women pledged to worship non but Allah and to lead a clean life.
  • It singles out the prophet’s unique character of patience and wisdom.

The Battle of Hunain

  • The conquest of Makka triggered mass conversion of Arabs to Islam in many parts of the Arabian Peninsula.
  • Although a large number of Makkans and neighboring tribes embraced Islam, some only accepted Mohammed as a ruler of Arabia but didn’t believe in his prophethood.
  • Among the tribes that were opposing the Muslims included: Khawazin, Thaqif, Jusham, Saad Bin Bakr and Bani Hilal.
  • The prophet was informed that the tribes of Khawazin and Thaqif were preparing to fight the Muslims.
  • The prophet at once proceeded towards them with an army of 12,000 men including recently converted Muslims and about 2000 non Muslim of Makka who had accompanied them as allies.
  • The enemies were 4000.
  • The Muslims were over confident because this was the biggest army they had ever raised.
  • The battle took place in the field of Hunaian on Saturday 19th of Shawwal about nineteen days after the conquest of Makka.
  • The enemy marched at night towards the Muslim army under their leader Malik bin Auf and strategically hid in the valley.
  • The next day in the morning, the prophet was organizing his forces for the battle not knowing that the enemies’ troupes were hiding in the nearby valley.
  • The enemy then launched a surprised attack which disorganized the Muslim who scattered in all directions looking for safety passing the prophet unaware.
  • Abass ibn Abdul Mutwilib shouted loudly unto the Muslims.
    O Ansaar, O Muhajirun O men who pledge their allegiance under the tree, where are you going? The messenger of Allah is here. Come back to him.”
  • The Muslims were gripped with shame over their cowardly conduct since they had always pledged to die with the prophet.
  • They came back shouting “At your command!” They launched a counter attack.
  • Soon the enemy realized they would face complete defeat and they started fleeing leaving behind their children, women and property.
  • Even though the Muslims were victorious, they paid dearly a number of Muslims were wounded and twelve killed.
  • The victory however brought supremacy to the Muslims.
  • The enemy ran and took refuge at the city of Thaqif the capital of the tribe.
  • The Muslims decided to lay a siege on the city.
  • With the help of Aws, the Muslims bombarded Taif, their Orchard were destroyed until the enemy sent an appeal to the prophet to stop the destruction upon which he temporarily withdrew the Muslim army.
  • The Muslims then went to share the booty of the Khawazin.
  • Some of the enemies surrendered and embraced Islam.
  • Those converts requested for the release of their women and children a request which was granted by the prophet.
  • This gesture of mercy pleased them so much that more and more embraced Islam.
  • The prophet then sent the Khawazin to go and tell Malik bin Auf that if he converted to Islam, his family would be given back to him and an additional gift of 100 camels.
  • He happily converted and the prophet fulfilled his promise to him.
  • The following verses were revealed following the events of Hunain, 9:25-28 “Assuredly Allah did help you in many battle fields and on the day of Hunain: Behold! Your great numbers elated you, but they availed you not; the land, for all that is wide, did constrain and you turned back in retreat.
    But Allah did pour His calm on the Messenger and on the believers, and sent down forces which you saw not: He punished the unbelievers, thus does he reward those without faith
  • The Muslims learnt that victory is in the hands of Allah and that number is not significant to victory.
  • They also had to be faithful to their leaders and show trust in Allah.
  • In this battle, 6000 men were taken as captives.
  • It so happened that Bani sa’ad was among the prisoners.
  • This was the tribe which had suckled the prophet, a woman who claimed to be Shima and had been a foster sister to the prophet 60 year ago reminded the prophet of the scar (white mark) he had caused her when she was carrying him on the back.
  • This memory touched the prophet and he freed all the prisoners from Banu Thaqif and Banu Sa’ad.
  • Later on he released all the other prisoners the prophet then went back to Madina.

Prophet Mohammad's Final Days

The Farewell Address

  • At the age of 63 years, the prophet (P.B.U.H) went to perform pilgrimage in 10 A.H.
  • This is called Hijatul Widaa (The farewell pilgrimage)
  • More than one hundred thousand Muslims came for Hajj on the 9th of ahul Hijja at the valley of Arafat.
  • This was to be the prophet’s last pilgrimage.
  • It was during this Hajj that Sura al Nasr was revealed which was received as an announcement of the prophets approaching death.
  • After the pilgrimage, the prophet then made his farewell address in which he said:
    O people, listen to me for I do not know whether you will find me amongst you next year. O people, verily, your blood, your property and your honor are sacred and inviolable until you appear before your Lord, as this day and this month is sacred for all verily you will meet your Lord and your will answerable to your action.
    Have I not conveyed my message? Allah is my witness. He who has any trust on him should restore it to the person who deposited it with him. Beware; no one committing a crime is responsible for it but himself. Neither the son is responsible of the crime of the father nor is the father responsible for the crime of the son. O people! Listen to my words and understand them. You must know that a Muslim is a brother of the Muslim and they form one brotherhood. Nothing of his brother is lawful for a Muslim except what he himself allows willfully. So you should not oppress one another.
    Behold all practices of paganism and ignorance is under my feet. The blood revenges of the days of ignorance are remitted. Usury is forbidden but you will be entitled to recover your principal. Do not wrong and you shall not be wronged. Be kind to your women folk verily they have got certain rights over you.
    Verily I have left among you the book of Allah (S.W.T) and the Sunna of his apostle which if you hold fast you shall never go astray. And feed your slaves; and cloth them with the clothes that you yourselves wear.
    Behold, worship your lord; offer prayers five times a day, observe fast in the month of Ramadhan, make pilgrimage to the house, pay readily the Zakat on your property and obey whatever I command you only then will you get into the heaven.”

Demise of the Prophet.(12th Rabiul-Awwal 11 A.H/632 C.E)

  • After the farewell address, the prophet returned to Madina at the end of the month of Dhul Hijja.
  • On Monday 12th Saffar the prophet felt a severe headache and his health started deteriorating.
  • During this period of illness, he spent most of his time in the house of Lady Aisha.
  • Occasionally, he would go out to meet the Muslims, advice them and ask for the congregations forgiveness.
  • When his condition grew worse and he could not lead the Muslims in prayer, he requested Abubakar to take charge of the religious duties.
  • On the last day of his life, the prophet could be heard saying, “With those on
    whom you have bestowed your grace, with the prophet and the truthful ones, the martyrs and the good doers. O Allah, forgive me and have mercy upon me and join me to the most exalted companionship on high” He repeated the last words three times. During all this time, Aisha (RAA) was sprinkling water on his forehead until when finally the prophet passed on at the age of 63.
  • His body was washed and then a grave dug at the very place he had died and the prophet was buried.

Achievements of the Prophet

a) Brotherhood and Equality of Mankind

  • Islam is the religion of the Unity of God and the Equality of Mankind.
  • Lineage, riches and family pride are accidental things; virtue and the service of humanity are the real matters of merit.
  • Distinctions of colour, race and creed are non-existent within the bounds of Islam.
  • All humans comprise one family. Islam has succeeded in welding the 'black' and the 'white' into one fraternal whole.
  • The strict rule of brotherhood is set firm with the following saying of the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H):"No one of you is a believer in God until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself."

b) Elimination of Racism

  • Racism is one of the severe diseases eating up the human society in this day and age.
  • Everyone remembers how black Africans were transported across the oceans, packed in specially designed ships, thought of, and treated like livestock.
  • They were made slaves, forced to change their names, religion and language.
  • They were not entitled to hope for true freedom, and were denied the least of
    human rights: basic needs.
  • Even though among some Western people, the attitude to non-Westerners has fortunately changed little in modern times, the political and social condition of black people often remain the same, even where they live amid the native Westerners as theoretically equal fellow-citizens; that of despised inferiors.
  • When Allah’s Messenger, (P.B.U.H) was raised as a prophet, the same kind of racism, under the name of tribalism, was prevalent in Makkah.
  • The Quraish considered themselves as peculiar, and Arabs in general, thought they were superior to all the other races of the world.
  • Allah's Messenger came with the Divine Message and proclaimed that no Arab is superior over a non-Arab, and no white is superior over black and superiority in the eyes of Allah(S.W.T) is by righteousness and fearing Him alone (Surat Al-Hujurat, 49:13).
  • He also declared that even if an Abyssinian Black Muslim were to rule over Muslims, he should be obeyed.
  • Allah's Messenger eradicated the problem of racial discrimination so successfully that superiority is not by birth or colour or blood, but by God-fearing and righteousness.
  • The message of Islam is for the entire human race.
  • According to Islam, Allah (S.W.T) is the God of the entire world and Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is a messenger for the whole of mankind.
  • Islam unites the entire human race under one banner without any kind of discrimination.
  • Allah (S.W.T) says "O Mankind! We have created you from a male and female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you in the sight of Allah is he who has most Taqwa among of you. Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All- Aware."[Q: 49:13]
  • Allah (S.W.T) says, "And one of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your tongues and colors; most surely there are signs in this for the learned."[Q: 30:22]
  • With this verse, Islam declares equality among people as one human race, one humanity, that is because Islam respects a person as a creation of Allah(S.W.T) and not for any other reason; Islam does not distinguish between two races, or two groups of people, or between two colors, and the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) addressed the people signifying that concept during the farewell
    pilgrimage, saying: "O People! Your God is one; your father is one; no preference of an Arab over non-Arab nor of a non-Arab over an Arab or red over black nor black over red except for the most righteous. Verily the most honored of you is the most righteous."

c) Eradication of Slavery

  • Apart from giving the slaves their rights, Islam also took a step ahead and discouraged slavery from being practiced.
  • It is seen in history that slaves were mistreated in the non-Islamic world.
  • Not only were they verbally abused, but also physically hurt.
  • During the period of his prophet hood, Muhammad worked diligently to do what he could to cut down on their numbers.
  • Islam closed most of the doors leading to slavery and encouraged the freeing of slaves in many ways.
  • He constantly exhorted those who owned slaves to treat them kindly and well.
  • He insisted that they must treat the slaves fairly and with mercy.
  • The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) says:
    If the owner of a slave beat his slave or abused him, the only compensation that he could make was to set the slave free. (Sahih Muslim)
  • The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) always encouraged and devised ways of freeing slaves on every pretext. He said:
    If a person owning a slave sets him free, God will, in recompense save every part of his body. Corresponding to every part of the slave’s body from the torment of Hell.” (Sahih Muslim)
  • Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) with Divine Inspiration from Allah (S.W.T) forbade such acts.
  • Masters could not abuse their slaves and had to give them the same food as they ate and dress them in the clothes they wore.
  • Narrated by Al-Ma'rur, “I met Abu ahar who was wearing a cloak, and his slave, too, was wearing a similar one. I asked about the reason for it. He replied, "I abused a person by calling his mother with bad names." The Prophet said to me, 'O Abu Dhar! Did you abuse him by calling his mother with bad names you still have some characteristics of ignorance. Your slaves are your brothers and Allah has put them under your command. So whoever has a brother under his command should feed him of what he eats and dress him of what he wears. Do not ask them (slaves) to do things beyond their capacity (power) and if you do so, then help them.' “[Bukhari, Vol.1, Book 2, #29]
  • In another Hadith, The Prophet said, "Your servants and your slaves are your brothers. Anyone who has slaves should give them from what he eats and wears. He should not charge them with work beyond their capabilities. If you must set them to hard work, in any case, I advise you to help them" (Al-Bukhari).

d) Improvement of Status of Women

  • The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) was very serious in improving the condition of women in society and on securing for them a position of dignity and fair and equitable treatment.
  • Just before his death, one of the injunctions he addressed to Muslims and laid stress upon was that they should always treat women with kindness and consideration.
  • Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “If a man has daughters and he makes arrangement to have them educated and takes pains with their upbringing, God would save him from the torment of Hell.” (Tirmidhi)
  • Before Islam, women were sold as personal commodities.
  • Female children were buried alive because they were considered as curse for family.
  • It is Islam that gave every respect and honor to women, and brought them at the level of men; otherwise women were mistreated in every sphere of life.
  • Islam always provides equal rights and equal opportunities for men and women, as the Holy Quran says:
    Surely, men who submit themselves to God and women who submit themselves to Him, and believing men and believing women, and obedient men and obedient women, and truthful men and truthful women, and men steadfast in their faith and steadfast women, and men who are humble and women who are humble, and men who give alms and women who give alms, and men who fast and women who fast, and men who guard their chastity and women who guard their chastity and men who remember Allah much and women who remember Him—Allah has prepared for all of them forgiveness and a great reward. (Holy Quran, 33:36)
  • Islam also permits equal opportunities to women to seek knowledge with men.
  • It is entirely a wrong notion; such concept is never presented by Islam.
  • The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) says in this regard,
    It is the duty of every Muslim man and Muslim woman to seek knowledge”.
  • The Holy Quran says:
    It is He who created you from a single soul and made there from its mate, that he might find comfort in her. And when he knows her, she bears a light burden and goes about with it. And when she grows heavy, they both pray to Allah, their Lord, saying, ‘If thou gives us a good child, we will surely be of the thankful.’ [Q: 7:190]
  • In connection with the respect, honor and status of woman as a mother, the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) has a great regard.
  • Once, a Companion consulted him to seek advice to participate in a war, when he asked, “Do you have a mother?” He said, “Yes.” Then Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) said, “Be with her, because paradise is under her feet.” (Nasa’i)
    paradise lies under the feet of your mothers.”
  • This indicates the outstanding status of woman in Islam far superior than granted by any other religion of the world.
  • No other religion comes close to the prominence given to women by the Holy Prophet of Islam.
  • Once a companion of the Holy Prophet of Islam asked, “O Apostle of Allah! To whom should I show kindness?” He replied, “your mother, next your mother, next your mother, and then comes your father, and then your relatives in order of relationship.” (Abu aawud)

e) Religious Tolerance

  • Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) was a role model for religious freedom, for instance when the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) entered the city of Medina, he made a formal constitution with the large Jewish population of the city, and indeed, this was a historic moment and in this constitution it guaranteed religious freedom for those who were and weren’t Muslims.
  • Once the people of Mecca said to Prophet Muhammad that if God did not want them to worship idols then why He does not forcefully prevent them from doing so.
  • Then God sent the following message:
    (O Muhammad) This is not a new excuse; those who left before them made, the same excuses. Is there anything upon the messengers except the dear conveying of the message” [Q: 16: 3])
  • The Qur’an clearly says that religion cannot be forced on anyone. It says,
    "There is no compulsion in (accepting) the religion (of Islam)…”
    Why? Because:"truly the right way has become clearly distinct from error." [Q: 2:25]
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