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The Meaning of Saum

Read [Q 2:183]

  • We learnt in book one that there are five pillars of Islam.
  • In this chapter we are going to learn about Saum.
  • This is the fourth pillar of Islam.
  • Literally Saum means controlling one’s self from any forms of distractions.
  • This can be exemplified when Mariam, the mother of Nabi Issah was expecting the child, Allah (SWT) commanded her, “So eat and drink and be glad. And if you see any human being, say: ‘Verily I have vowed a fast to the Most Gracious (Allah (SWT)) so I shall not speak to any human being this day.” [Q 19:26]
  • Technically, Saum is a term used to refer to fasting, which in Islam is an act of abstaining from all evils, eating, drinking and enjoying sexually pleasure from dawn to dusk during the holy month of Ramadhan.
  • From the above verse, you will realize that Allah (SWT) ordained the practice of fasting to the ummah before Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
  • Let us consider the following:
    • The Jews used to fast in the remembrance of the return of prophet Musa (AS) from mount Sinai where he had gone to talk to Allah (SWT)
    • Prophets Musa and Issah used to fast four forty days and nights.
    • Prophet Daud (AS) used to fast on alternating days throughout his life. The prophet (PBUH) commended that this was the best Saum amongst all in his Hadith “The best fasting before Allah (SWT) is the fasting of Nabi Daud. He used to fast for one day and eat for one day.” ( Ahmad bin Hanbal)
    • When Prophet Muhammad migrated to Madina, he found the Jews engaging in fast on the 10th of Muharam to remember the day Allah (SWT) saved Prophet Nuh (AS) with his ummah from the floods using the Safina (Ark).

Significance of Saum

  • In this chapter, we have learnt that fasting (Saum) was prescribed to the ummah even before Prophet Muhammad’s.
  • This indicates that there are a lot of benefits socially, morally, economically and even for the health of individuals among others in the community.
  • As you are aware, every aspect of Ibadah plays an important role in the lives of a Muslim.
  • It moulds not only their character but also strengthens their relationship with Allah (SWT).
  • Let us now look at some of the benefits of fasting in Islam.

Social benefits

  • It instills a sense of discipline through restraining oneself from all the evils. During fasting, a Muslim engages in Swalat and other acts of worship that prevents him from doing evil deeds.
  • It promotes brotherhood and unity. During this month Muslims perform most of the prayers together for example taraweh. They also share their meals during the Iftar and are encouraged to give sadaqa to the less fortunate.
  • It shields one from evil. During the day and the nights of the month of fasting, the acts of Ibadah are heavily rewarded by Allah (SWT). This encourages the Muslims to shun evil and keep practicing the good deeds.
  • The fasting experience helps a Muslim to control his or her desires thus contributing to emotional balance.
  • It prepares one to face hardships like famine as you are expected to abstain from foods and drinks while at the same time one is expected to perform the normal duties.
  • A Muslim gets rid of undesirable habits like backbiting, rumor mongering among others. We shall discuss some of these habits later on in this chapter.

Economic Benefits of fasting

  • It promotes good health because the excessive fat is burnt during fasting.
  • Improved eating habits. (Escape from unhealthy “munching” habits).
  • Promotes sound budgeting because it reduces the number of meals.
  • To empathize with less fortunate members of humanity who suffer from hunger due to poverty.

Spiritual Significance of fasting

  • Allah (SWT) directly rewards fasting because He is the only one who knows the validity of the fast of a Muslim. Allah (SWT) says in Hadith Qudsy, “Saum is for me and am the one who is going to reward it.”
  • Fasting strengthens one’s faith because throughout the fasting period, a Muslim engages in acts of worship that brings him closer to Allah (SWT).
  • It’s a commandment from Allah (SWT) and the fourth pillar of Islam. Allah (SWT) is the one who prescribed fasting so that the Muslims may be able to worship and fear him.
  • It increases concentration in acts of worship, including Swalat. During fasting, a Muslim is required to increase the acts of Ibadah and the performance of good deeds. Such religious acts like Dhikr and supplications are more enjoyable.
  • It instill a source of loyalty and obedience to Allah (SWT)
  • Peace of mind and tranquility occurs during the entire month of fasting. A Muslim is continuously engaged in worship and prayers throughout the month which brings him closer to Allah (SWT) thus giving him hope of meeting with his creator on the day of Qiyama. This makes him humble, fortified and patient throughout the entire month.

Types of Saum

There are various types of Saum

1. Fardh (obligatory )

  • This is the compulsory type of fast observed during the holy month of Ramadhan.
  • Allah (SWT) has ordained fasting during this month for all Muslims who are sane, have attained puberty and are in good health.
  • A Muslim earns rewards from Allah (SWT) for observing this fast and if one deliberately abstains from it they earn sins.

2. Sunnah (optional)

  • These are the recommended fasts performed to follow the traditions of the Prophet.
  • A Muslim is at liberty to perform the fast and he is rewarded by Allah (SWT).
  • If one does not perform this fast, he does not get any sins.
  • Let us look at some of the Sunnah fasts:
    • Fasting on Monday and Thursday of every week.
    • Fasting on the 9th (Taasua) and 10th (Ashura) of the month of Muharam.
    • Fasting during the first nine days of Dhul Hijja especially on Yaumul Arafat (9th of Dhul Hijja)
    • during the ‘white’ days (Ayamul Beidh) of every lunar months of the Islamic calendar. These are 13th, 14th and 15th day.
    • Fasting any six days of the month of Shawal. (Sittatu sha’wal)
    • Nadhir (vow): Nadhir is an Arabic word which means to vow. Islam has made it mandatory for Muslims to fulfill the vows they make. These vows should be made on acts that are lawful. Therefore if one vows to fast, then the fast must be observed. This is referred to as Nadhir fast. For example a student can vow to fast for some days if he or she performs well in the exams.
    • Qadha: The term Qadha means to compensate or to pay up for a missed obligatory duty. In fasting, it refers to the compensation of the days one missed to fast during the month of Ramadhan for acceptable reasons. We shall discuss these reasons later on in this chapter.
    • Kafara: It refers to the fast observed for compensation of a sin committed or an act omitted in order to expiate for the sin. It is a must to perform Kaffara fast in the events of any of the following:
      • If a husband likens his wife to his mother (ahihar), the Qur’an says he should fast for sixty consecutive days.
      • If one performs sex during the day in the month of Ramadhan.
      • If one omits an integral part of Hajj and is not able to offer a sacrifice as Kaffara, then the person shall fast. This may include; shaving the hair, failing to spend three nights at Mina or failing to slaughter an animal.
      • Nafl (Voluntary fast): These are optional fasts which one may voluntarily observe on any day except the forbidden days.

Forbidden Days to Fast

  • These are the days when a Muslim is not allowed to observe fast unless it is the obligatory.

1. The two days of 'idd

  • The day of Idd ul Fitr is of breaking the fast, of Ramadan while on the 'idd ul Adha Muslims should eat from what you sacrifice."
  • This is related by Ahmad,an-Nasa'i, atTirmizhi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah.

2. The days of Tashreeq (three days following the 'Id al-Adha)

  • It is not permissible to fast during the three days following the 'Idal-Azha.
  • Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) send 'Abdullah ibn Huzaqah to announce at Mina: "You are not to fast these days. They are days of eating and drinking and remembering Allah." (Ahmad bin Hanbal)

3. To single out Friday as a day of fasting

  • Friday is a kind of weekly 'id for Muslims and, therefore, it is prohibited to fast on this day alone.
  • If one fasts on the day before or after it, or if it is a day that one customarily fasts on (for example, the 13th, 14th, or 15th of the month), or if it is the day of 'Arafah or 'Ashurah, then it is allowed.

4. Singling out Saturday or Sunday as a day of fasting

  • As-Sama' relates that the Prophet (PBUH) said: "Do not fast on Saturdays unless it is an obligatory fast. [You should not fast] even if you do not find anything [to eat] save some grape peelings or a branch of a tree to chew on." (Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, at- Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah)
    Umm Salamah narrated, 'The Messenger of Allah used to fast more often on Saturdays and Sundays than on the other clays. He would say, "They are the 'Idds of the polytheists, and I love to act contrary to what they do." (An-Nasa'i)

5. Yaummul Shakk on the "day of doubt"

6. Fasting, every day of the year

  • It is forbidden to do so because there are certain days of the year on which one is not allowed to fast.
  • The Messenger of Allah said: "There is no [reward for] fasting for the one who perpetually fasts." (Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim)

7. Fasting consecutive days without eating at all [al-wisal]

  • Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (PBUH) said:"Do not perform al-wisal."
  • He said that three times and the people said to him: "But you perform al-wisal, O Messenger of Allah!" He said: "You are not like me in that matter. I spend the night in such a state that Allah feeds me and gives me to drink. Devote yourselves to the deeds which you can perform." ( al-Bukhari and Muslim.)

Desirable Acts in the Month of Ramadhan

  • This refers to the acts that are pleasant, worthwhile and those that increase the rewards of fasting.
  • They include;
    • Increasing the recitation of the Qur’an.
    • Breaking of fast with odd number of dates.
    • Sharing the food with other Muslims during the Iftar.
    • Breaking the fast immediately after sunset without delays.
    • Supplicating and making Duas and bringing Dhikr ( glorifying Allah (SWT)’s name)
    • Performing itqaf during the nights of the last ten days of the month of Ramadhan.
    • 7. Controlling one’s eating habits.
    • Indulging in daawa activities.


Exemption from Fasting:

  • Islam is a religion of moderation.
  • Saum has been ordained to all Muslims.
  • However it has also provided exemptions for some categories of people which are either exempted entirely or temporarily.
  • In the case of temporary prohibitions one is expected to repay the days missed.
  • The religion of Islam does not advocate for punishment and torture.
  • Saum is therefore an act of Ibadah performed by sincerity in the heart and pleasure.
  • Some people are exempted from the acts of Ibadah.
  • The exempted include the following categories:
    • Temporary
    • Entirely

Temporary Exemption

  • Those persons who are temporarily exempted from fasting include the following:
    • Muslim travelers covering a distance of about fifty miles or more. They are allowed to temporarily break their fast during their travel but will however make up for the days they did not fast in later days. However, it is recommended that they observe fast in case they will not encounter any extraordinary hardships.
    • Children who have not attained the age of maturity. However, Muslim parents are advised to encourage them to fast for a few days
    • Expectant Muslim women are exempted from fasting for fear of their state of health. This is so especially when their fasting will endanger both their lives and that of the child in the womb.
    • Women who are nursing their children may temporarily break the fast. Especially when fasting is likely to endanger the life and health of their infants by depriving them breast milk or even affect their health.
    • Women in their menstruation period but not exceeding fifteen days should postpone the fast until when they are pure. Such women are not allowed to fast even if they are willing to do so.
    • It is also recommended for those engaging in Jihad (war in the way of Allah (SWT)).

Entire Exemption

  • Those entirely exempted from fasting include:
    • People who are permanently insane and are unaccountable for their deeds should not fast just like the way they have been exempted from performing other obligatory acts of worship. They are not obliged to any form of compensation.
    • Old and weak men and women who are cannot bear the hardship of fast. However, they should offer, one needy Muslim an average of one day’s meal or its value. This compensation indicates that whenever they can fast even for one day of the month, they should do so, and compensate for the rest.
    • Persons with terminal illness and are on continuous medication and special care. These would include, people suffering from, severe cases of diabetes, HIV Aids, cancer among others ailments.
    • Muslim women who give birth every year since they will need energy to breastfeed and recover the lost blood during post birth bleeding.


Nullifiers of fasting

  • Nullifiers refer to those conditions, circumstances or things that invalidate the acts of Ibadah.
  • In Form One, we discussed the nullifiers of Wudhu and Swalat.
  • Saum has its nullifiers as we shall mention below:
    • Eating and drinking deliberately.
    • Post-natal bleeding occurs to a woman who has just given birth. Her Saum is nullified immediately.
    • Denouncing the Islamic faith while fasting.
    • Taking supplements and nutritional injections or drips.
    • Vomiting intentionally. The Prophet (PBUH) said: “If someone had a sudden attack of vomiting, no atonement is required of him, but if he vomits intentionally he must make atonement.” ( Bukhari and Muslim)
    • In the event that a Muslim woman receives her monthly bleeding (Heidh’) then her fast is nullified.
    • Intentionally committing murder.
    • Ejaculation of sperms from masturbation or sleep.
    • Making the intention to break the fast before.
    • Loosing of one’s senses through fainting or becoming insane.

Importance of the Month of Ramadhan

Read [Q 2:185]; [Q 97]

  • Out of the twelve months in the Islamic calendar, there are certain months that Allah (SWT) has blessed more than the others.
  • Among these months is the Holy month of Ramadhan.
  • It has its own significance to Muslims as follows:
    • This is the month in which the Qur’an was sent down from Lawhil Mahfudh to Baitul Izzah.
    • It is the month in which Allah (SWT) has promised paradise for the performance of deeds.
    • It is the month in which Allah (SWT) extends his blessings, forgiveness, mercy and those Muslims who follow his teachings are kept away from the fire.
    • It is the month in which we find the Lailatul Qadr (the night of power) in which performance of Ibadah is better than 83 years. Allah also increases sustenance to those performing Ibadah during this night.
    • In this month the Angels descent, among them Angel Jibril (AS) and they ask Allah (SWT)’s forgiveness for the Muslim Ummah.
    • It is the month in which Allah (SWT) has ordained the special prayer of
      Taraweh which earns Muslims rewards.
    • During this month, Satan is far removed and locked up, “his face is darkened.” This is to allow the believers to perform their Ibadah in peace.
    • Muslim Ummah seek and receive forgiveness from Allah (SWT) for their sins and shortcomings
    • The doors of the Janna are open while Allah (SWT) closes those of Naar (fire).
    • Fasting Ramadhan and Combining it with Sitta tu Shawwal earns a Muslims the rewards of fasting for the entire year.
    • It is a month in which the less fortunate among the people in the community get the benefits of Zakat and sadaqa since Allah (SWT) encourages the acts of charity.
    • During this month, acts of worship are more acceptable and better rewarded by Allah (SWT).


  • Allah (SWT) mentions that there are certain places that are Holy or sacred.
  • Among them includes his sacred houses like the mosques, cities like Madina and Makkah, Baitul Maqdis among others.
  • The word Hajj is an Arabic term, which literally means to direct oneself towards a place or to travel to a place for the sake of a visit.
  • Technically, Hajj means the resolution of a Muslim to pay a visit to Makkah for the sake of Allah (SWT).
  • It is the act of paying a visit or homage to the Holy City of Makkah together with its environs in order to perform numerous acts of worship.
  • It is performed during the month of Hajj and involves several activities and rituals which we shall study later in this chapter.
  • Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam.
  • Allah (SWT) says in the Qur’an: “And complete the Hajj and Umrah in the service of Allah (SWT).” [Q 2:196]

Significance of Hajj

Read [Q 3:96-97]; [Q 22:27-29]

  • Just like the other four pillars of Islam, which we have studied previously, Hajj holds its importance in lives of the Muslims.
  • The performance of the rites of Hajj positively influences the Muslims socially and spiritually. Let us look at the social significance of Hajj:

Social significance of Hajj

  • It is a source of unity for all the Muslims from different parts of the world who meet and interact during the rites Hajj.
  • Assuming the state of Ihram makes the pilgrimage to live by certain restrictions such as killing deliberately, uprooting vegetation thus promoting peace and harmony.
  • Muslims perform the acts of Hajj with the same goal thus promoting brotherhood.
  • The wearing of Ihram ensures peace among the pilgrims as well as to other creatures.
  • It helps in creating and supporting friendship among the different people.
  • Hajj promotes equality among the Muslims in that everyone regardless of their nation, race, colour perform the same rites of Hajj thus promoting equality. For example, they must all stand on the plains of Arafat.
  • The sense of identity and belonging is fostered among the Muslims in that it is done at specific time and month of the year.
  • The performance of Hajj has been ordained for all able Muslims regardless of one’s social class. This has discouraged social prejudices.
  • There is a spirit of sharing among the pilgrims when they meet for the sake of Allah (SWT).

Spiritual significance of Hajj

  • It is among the pillar of Islam and therefore must be observed by every mature and able Muslim.
  • It is a command from Allah (SWT) that has been mentioned by several verses of the Qur’an alongside with Swalat.
  • It develops the universality of the message of Islam and shows the non- Muslims the unity among the Muslims which encourages many to embrace Islam.
  • It affirms the commitment of the Muslims to the Creator by forsaking the material world for the sake of Allah (SWT).
  • Correct performance of the rites of Hajj purifies a Muslim from previously committed sins.
  • The performance of Hajj earns a Muslim rewards.
  • The activities of Hajj such as going round the Kaaba, strengthens a Muslims Iman (faith).
  • The performance of the numerous acts of worship promotes Taqwa (fear of Allah (SWT)).
  • Muslims who perform Hajj commemorate the activities of Nabi Ibrahim and Ismail thus strengthening their belief in Prophets.
  • It reminds Muslims of the grand assembly during the Day of Judgment when everyone will stand equal before Allah (SWT)

Conditions for Preparation for Hajj

  • The journey for Hajj is a trip of a lifetime meant for pleasing Allah (SWT).
  • If one plans for a trip, tour or journey to please himself in this world, what of a sacred journey that Allah (SWT) has commanded in the Holy Qur’an?
  • Definitely, such a journey, meant to fulfill an act of worship requires proper and adequate planning.
  • Therefore, for Hajj to be performed sincerely and properly, considerable investment of money, time, and physical effort is required.
  • These preparations will include, physical, spiritual and financial.
  • The following guidelines are intended to get the pilgrim started in the right direction:

Financial preparations

  1. One should have enough money to prepare for the activities Hajj.
  2. Money to be used for Hajj should be obtained from lawful means.
  3. The Muslim intending to go for Hajj should leave enough provisions their dependants.
  4. The Muslims intending to perform Hajj should be free from debts.
  5. They must satisfy the legal requirements of their country. This includes acquiring of travel documents, identification cards among others.

Physical preparations

  • They must make sure that the route to Makkah is safe from danger due to war or any other danger.
  • They should be physically fit to carry out the activities of Hajj.

Social and spiritual preparations

  • They should bid farewell to neighbours, friends, relatives and fellow Muslims.
  • They should have it in mind that Hajj is obligatory.
  • All sorts of haram events and activities during the preparations for Hajj should be avoided.
  • Women should get permission from their husbands.
  • Women who are not married should get permission from their close relatives under whose guardianship they live.
  • They should be accompanied by someone with whom they cannot marry (mahrim).
  • They should be free from impurity.


  • Umra is referred to as a lesser or minor Pilgrimage.
  • This is because the pilgrim performs all the rites of Hajj except the standing at Arafat.
  • It is usually performed at any time of the year, before the eighth of Dhul Hijja or even after the performance of Hajj.
  • Umra involve the following
    • Putting on Ihram and observing its rules
    • Performing Tawaf in Masjidul Haram
    • Perform Sa’ay
    • Shaving or clipping of the hair once Sa’ay is accomplished. Men can shave or cut their hair women should cut one or two centimeters of the hair on their head.
  • We should note that the Pilgrims performing Umra do not visit Muzdalifa nor spend three nights at Mina nor offer sacrifice.

Types of Hajj

  • In this Chapter, we have defined both Hajj and Umrah.
  • You can now differentiate between the two.
  • It is important to note that a pilgrim should be in a position to differentiate the two since Hajj is of different types.
  • The pilgrim’s knowledge of each type of Hajj will enable him or her to make the right intention for that particular type of Hajj.
  • Let us now look at each of the three types namely;
    • Ifrad bil Hajj
    • Al Qiran
    • At-Tamattu.

Ifrad Bil Hajj

  • The word Ifrad in Arabic means single, one or only.
  • In relation to Hajj, it is when the pilgrim declares his intention to perform Hajj alone without Umra (lesser pilgrimage).
  • The pilgrim may have either performed Umra earlier or is intending to perform it on a later period.
  • The Mufrid (the pilgrim performing this Hajj) assumes the state of Ihram at the Miqaat when they are to start rites of Hajj.
  • An example is the people who leave near Makkah or those who frequently visit it.

Hajj Al Qiran

  • Qiran means to combine.
  • It is where the Pilgrims perform both Hajj and Umrah in the same Ihram.
  • The major characteristic of Qiran is that the Muqrin (the pilgrim performing this Hajj) does not enjoy a period of rest in between the Hajj and Umrah.

Hajj At-Tamattu

  • In this performance the Mutamatti’ (the person who performs this Hajj), begins by performing Umrah, and then removes the Ihram for Umrah before adorning it again for the purpose of Hajj.

Perfomance of Hajj

  • As we have mentioned earlier about planning and preparations for Hajj, there are also certain procedures which are followed in the fulfillment of this important act of worship.


  • This is an Arabic word, meanings stations.
  • A Miqaat (singular for station) is a place that is considered to be within the Holy vicinity of Hajj immediately a pilgrim crosses it.
  • These are the places where the pilgrim removes the ordinary cloths and replaces them with the appropriate cloths for Hajj, called Ihram.
  • Six Mawaqit have been conveniently placed for pilgrims coming from various directions of the world.
  • These stations are:
    • Yalamlam - those coming from the directions of East Africa.
    • Dhat ul Irq - the people from the sides of Iraq.
    • Qarna al Manazil - those entering from East of Makka
    • Dhul Hulaifa - those from Madina and the north of Makka.
    • Al Juhfa - those who come from the direction of Egypt.


  • Ihram is the state of sacred purity the Muslim pilgrim must enter before conducting the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Makkah.
  • Men symbolize their state of Ihram by wearing a white, two-piece, seamless garment sheets that covers the upper and lower part of the body living one shoulder uncovered.
  • Pilgrims put themselves in readiness for Hajj and make the intention in this state.
  • Women can dress in any cloth they wish which fulfills the Islamic conditions of public dress.
  • Their hands and face should be uncovered but they must cover their heads.
  • During this state, the following things are forbidden for the pilgrims:
    • Wearing any sworn cloth.
    • Propose for marriage
    • Clip nails.
    • Applying perfumes.
    • Men should not cover their heads.
    • Shave hair.
    • Perform sexual intercourse.
    • Hunt animals.
    • Get married
    • Destroy crops and plants.
  • After Ihram, the pilgrims are ready to commence the activities of Hajj.
  • They recite the Talbiyya as frequently as possible.
  • The Talbiyya is a set of special invocations for the remembrance of Allah (SWT) during Hajj.
  • One chants; “Labbayka llahumma labbayka laa shariika laka labbayka. innalhamda, wanna’mataka laka walmulka, laa shriika lakka labbayka”.
    Meaning: “Here I am O Allah (SWT)! Here I am! You have no partner with You! Here I am! Surely all Praise, and favours belong to You and the dominion (also belongs to You), You have no partner with You! Here I am!”


  • Tawaf refers to the act of going round the Kaaba seven times while keeping it on the left i.e anticlockwise.
  • Every round starts and ends facing the Hajar al Aswad (black stone) at the corner of the Al Kaaba.
  • The first three circles are made faster than the last four.
  • After each circle, one touches the Hajar al Aswad, kisses it or raises hands before it and says:
    Allahumma zid hadhal baita tashriifan wata’dhiiman wa mahabbat. allahumma antas salaam waminkas salaam fahayyinaa rabbanaa bis salaam.”
    O Allah (SWT) increase on this House Glory, an Greatness and Love. O Allah (SWT) You are Peace and from You is peace. So greet us O our Lord with peace”.
  • There are four types of Tawaf that a Muslim is permitted to go around the Al Kaaba:
    • Tawaf ul Qudum which is performed at the arrival and symbolizes the beginning of performing Hajj.
    • Tawaf ul Ifadha (Ziara) which is performed in the morning of the 10th of ahul Hijja. It is part of the rites of Hajj and it’s performed after the rites at Minna.
    • Tawaf ul Wida’ is performed as the last step after all the steps of Hajj are over before removing the Ihram.
    • Tawaf ul Tatwawui’ is not part of Hajj and it’s performed any other time one enters the holy mosque of Makka. This Tawaf can be compared with the Tahiyyat ul Masjid prayer that is offered in other mosques.


  • It is the going between the two hillocks of Swafa and Marwa.
  • It is done seven times while keeping the hillocks on the left as one says:
    Allahumma hajjana mabruuran wadhambanaa maghfuuran was’yan mashkuura
    O Allah (SWT) grant blessings on our Hajj, forgive our sins and make our Saayi a grateful one.”
  • The act of Saayi commemorates Allah (SWT)’s command when He instructed Prophet Ibrahim (AS) to take his new wife, Hajjar, and their only child, Ismail (AS), to a desert in Makkah.
  • With a goatskin vessel with water, he left them to visit his first wife.
  • When the water got finished and Hajjar had no milk in her for the child, she started looking for water to quench their thirst, but the child was starving.
  • She wandered between Safa and Marwa and on the seventh round; she found a fountain that had gushed out next to the child.
  • This is the present well of Zamzam.
  • Both the Tawaf ul Qudum and the Sa’ayi are performed on the eighth of ahul Hijja, which is the first day of the pilgrimage.


  • It is a plain on the East of Makka.
  • It is a very important step of Hajj on 9th of Dhul Hijja because the Hajj is nullified for whoever misses it and will have to go for Hajj again.
  • Pilgrims perform Dhuhr and Asr prayers before a khutba (sermon) that is delivered on the pulpit at Jabal Rahma (mountain of mercy).
  • Pilgrims continue with Talbiya, sunna prayers, meditation and dua (supplication).
  • Arafat commemorates Nabii Adam (AS) when he was sent out of Jannat (paradise) with his wife Hawa.
  • This place bears the greatest symbol of repentance of Adam (AS) and Allah (SWT)’s promise to accept the repentance of anybody.


  • It is the next stop after Arafat.
  • The other name for Muzdalifa is Mash ‘aril Haram (Sacred Monument).
  • Here Maghrib and Isha prayers are combined and shortened.
  • They also collect stone pebbles here and leave after Fajr prayers and before sunrise to Mina.


  • Pilgrims reach Mina on the 10th day of Dhul Hijja in the morning, also referred to as Yaumun Nahr (the day of sacrifice).
  • After performing Idd prayers at Mina, the pilgrims throw pebbles (i.e. ramyun) at the three Jamarat (pillars).
  • They throw seven pebbles on each of the pillars.
  • This is followed by sacrificing a sheep, goat, cow or camel.
  • From there they go to perform Tawaf ul Ifadha at the Al Kaaba.

Ram yul jimar

  • The act of throwing pebbles to the three pillars signifies a symbol of chasing Iblis (satan), an act that was performed when Prophet Ibrahim wanted to sacrifice his son, Ismail (AS).
  • Each throw is accompanied with a Takbir (Allahu Akbar).
  • The pillars are Jamrat ul Aqaba (the Aqaba pillar) Jamrat ul Wustwa (the middle pillar near the mosque of Mina) and Jamrat ul Sughra (the smallest pillar).

Ayyam al tashriq

  • These are the three days after Yaumun Nahr (the days of sacrifice).
  • They are 11th, 12th and13th of Dhul Hijja.
  • Pilgrims spend these days in Mina throwing pebbles at the Jamarat.

Significance of the jamarat

  • The significance of the Jamarat dates back to the time when Prophet Ibrahim (A.S) was commanded by Allah (SWT) to sacrifice his son Ismail (A.S.)
  • He led his son to three suitable places where he could do the sacrifice.
  • Iblis tried to discourage him, but Prophet Ibrahim (A.S) was steadfast and chased Iblis.
  • The throwing of the pebbles symbolizes the chasing of the devils from interfering with our faith.
  • When slaughtering is compulsory for a pilgrim.
    • When one enjoyed a period of freedom between Umra and Hajj.
    • When one conjoined his Umra and Hajj.
    • When one failed to spend a night at Muzdalifa.
    • When a pilgrim failed to spend the nights of 11th, 12th and 13th at Mina.
    • When he failed to throw the pebbles at the Jamarat.
    • When a pilgrim failed to observe the restrictions of Hajj.

Sunnah steps of Hajj

  • Making the Niyyat (Intention) for Hajj.
  • Clipping nails and shaving hair
  • Performing Ghusl (ritual bath) either at home or at the Miqaat
  • Reciting the Talbiya throughout the rites of Hajj.
  • Kissing, touching, or pointing the black stone during every cycle of the Tawaf.
  • While making tawaf, recite du'a' or Dhikr, then end each round at the black stone.
  • Praying two rak'at at the Maqam Ibrahim.
  • Drinking from the spring of Zamzam.

Visit to Madina

  • Visiting Madina is not an essential obligation in making Hajj valid and complete.
  • However, it is recommended that the Pilgrims visit Madina as a sign of respect to the prophet.
  • When entering Madina, one recites a dua.
  • One of the Duas is;
    Bis-millaahir- Rah-maa-nir-Ra-hiim. Allaa-hum-ma antas-salaam, wa-minkas-salaam, wa-ilay-ka yar-ju-’us-salaam. Fa-Hay-yinaa bis-salaam, wa - ad-khil-naa daa-ras-salaam. Ta-baa- rak-ta rob-banaa wa-ta-’aalay-ta yaa-dzal-ja-laa-li wal-ik-raam. “
    In the Name of Allah Most Gracious Most Merciful. O Allah! You are the Peace, and from You comes Peace and unto You returns Peace, Keep us, O our Lord, in a life of Peace and make us to enter the Abode of Peace. Blessed are You and exalted is Your Majesty. O you possessor of Glory and Honour.
  • There are great merits for visiting the city of Madina, the tomb of the prophet and his mosque. The following are merits of the city of Madina:
    • This is the place where the Prophet lived for the last ten years of his life.
    • Islam got a peaceful foundation for spreading far and wide as well as being understood well from this sacred place.
    • This is the place where the first Muslim martyrs lost their lives and were buried.
    • The prophet prayed for the wellbeing of this city, its people and property.

Places to be visited include the following.

  • The Mosque of the Prophet (PBUH). This is the mosque he called after his own name. It is the mosque which the prophet himself actively participated in its construction and it is where he led most of the prayers. Prayers offered in this mosque earn more thawab.
  • The tomb of the prophet. Here, the visitors supplicate for the Prophet. All duas for the prophet supplicated at his tomb will make one to earn intercession of the prophet.
  • The battle fields. The visitors visit the following battle fields:
    • Badr. The plain of Badar is approximately 32 km to the south west of Madinah. This is where the first battle took place between the Muslims and the Quraish.
    • Jabal-e-Uhud. It is about 6 km on the north of Madinah. The battle of Uhud was fought here. The Prophet’s uncle, Hamza and other companions are buried in this place.
    • Jabal-e-Sal’aa. This is the site for the battle of Trench fought in 5 A.H.
    • Jannat al-Baqee. This is the graveyard of Madinah, where a large number of Prophets companions including Caliph Uthman (RA), Abbas (RA), Hassan (RA), and wives and daughters of the Holy Prophet are buried.
  • Holy mosques. These include the following
    • Masjid Quba. This is the first mosque in Islamic history whose foundation stone was laid down by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) after migration to Madinah.
    • Masjid Qiblatain. It earned this name (two Qiblas) when the prophet, while in Swalat was ordered by Allah (SWT) to turn his face from Islam’s first qibla (Bait-ul-Muqqadis) to Ka’bah in Masjid al-Haram.
    • Masjid Jum’a. This is the mosque where Prophet (PBUH) offered his first Jum’a prayer while in Madinah.
    • Masjid Ghamama. This mosque is near the hrophet’s mosque. The Prophet (PBUH) used to offer his Idd prayers here. Prophet once led Swalatul Istasqa in it and suddenly the clouds appeared and it started raining, thus earning the name ghamama (clouds).
    • Masid Abu Bakr, Masjid Umar Faruq and Masjid Ali. These three mosques are near Masjid Ghamama.
  • Ifrad bil Hajj
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