Nakuru District Sec. Schools Trial EXAMS 2014- Biology Paper 1 questions and answers Featured

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  1. State the name given to the study of
    1. Chemical changes in living organisms ...........Microbiology.........(1mark)
    2. Insects..............entomology......................( 1mark) 
  2. Below is a diagram of an organelle that is involved in respiration

    Screenshot from 2016 09 14 19 34 40

    1.  Name the organelle ..............Mitochondrion................. ( 1mark)

    2. Name the part labeled X...........Matrix........... (1 mark)

    3. What is the purpose of the part labeled Y (1 mark) ..........It increases the surface area for respiration to occur...........

  3. Explain what would happen to an amoeba when placed in distilled water (3 marks)
    ........................................Amoeba has special organelle called contractile vacuole to maintain osmotic equilibrium. When amoeba placed in fresh water, it tries to match the concentration of surrounding water its swells. And in some case when ameoba is not fully capable to maintain equilibrium, it bursts. ........................................

    1. State the category of variation into which the following traits fall (2 marks)
      1. Skin pigmentation ...........continuous variation..................
      2. Blood group .............discontinuous variation..................
    2. Give two possible genotypes of blood group A. (1 mark)
      AA, AO

  4. State three characteristics of monera that are not found in other kingdoms (3 marks) 
    -They are prokaryotic
    -They move by the means of cillia/flagella
    -reproduce through binary fission

    1. Name two excretory products produced by both plants and animals (2 marks)
      Carbon (iv) oxide, Excess water

    2. What is the name given to the process in which excess amino acids are broken in the liver. ..................deamination......................(1 mark)

  5.  
    1. What is meant by the following terms?
      1. Autoecology...........Autecology is the ecology of a single species, that is the relations between that species and its environment, how the species affects the environment and how it is affected by the environment ................(1mark)

      2. Habitat.............A habitat is the actual location in the environment where an organism lives and consists of all the physical and biological resources available to a species........... .......(1mark)

    2. State two ways in which floating leaves of aquatic plants are adapted to gaseous exchange (2marks).

      -Floating leaves tend to be much broader, without major lobing, and remain flat on the water, taking advantage of full sun.
      -Stomates are present for gas exchange, especially on the upper (adaxial) leaf surface.
      -The upper leaf surface tends to have a very prominent cuticle, thereby permitting water to roll off, and not interfering with photosynthesis or promoting growth of epiphytic algae.
      -Epidermis may be rich in chloroplasts, and a bifacial mesophyll (palisade and spongy layers) is formed.
      -Floating leaves often have well-developed air chambers (lacunae), which provide buoyancy, and they may also have hard cells, sclereids, within the mesophyll that provide some toughness for the leaf and prevent the layers from becoming collapsed.


  6. In an experiment to investigate a certain factor necessary for photosynthesis, a leaf shown below was used.

    photosynthesis experiment

    1. What was the aim of the experiment?
      To determine the presence of starch in the leaf.
    2. What term is used to describe such a leaf?...............................variegated leaf........................................(1 mark)

    3. In the space provided below, sketch the expected observations when starch test is carried on the leaf (2 marks) .

      variagated leaf

  7. The equation below represents a chemical process which occurs in the mammalian body

    2H2O2 ---------------> 2H2O + 2O2

    Name the;
    1. Enzyme that controls the reaction ...........catalase.............(1 mark)

    2. Major organ in which the reaction occurs.........liver.........( 1mark)

    3. What is the importance of the process? ( 1mark)
      It helps in getting rid of hydrogen peroxide that would otherwise be harmful to body cells.

  8. Name the hormones which control the following
    1. Development of male secondary characteristic........LH Hormone........(1 mark)

    2. Inhibits side branching in plants.......Auxin hormone............ (1 mark)

    3. Moulting in insects ..........Moulting stimulating hormone.............. .( 1mark)

  9. During a biological excursion a group of form three students collected a plant specimen, whose reproductive organ is shown below.

    reproductive organ

    1. Name the sub-division of the plant from which the above specimen was obtained (1 mark) ................Pinophyta/ Coniferophyta/ Coniferae....................

    2. Other than the presence of the above characteristic, state two characteristics of the plants in the sub-division name above ( 2 marks)

      -leaves are always simple and often small and scalelike or needlelike
      -The stems of conifers are characteristically woody with a dense mass of secondary xylem

  10. The shirt of a student was stained by a solution of DCPIP. A friend advised him to wash with lemon juice. Explain (2 marks) ...............When oxidized, DCPIP is blue; when reduced, DCPIP is colorless hence the acid in the lemon juice reduces it........................... 

    1. State one distinguishing feature of fungal cells (1 mark) .....................................

      -No chlorophyll – non photosynthetic.
      -Cell walls made of chitin (kite-in) instead of cellulose like that of a plant.

    2. State one similarity between members of kingdom animalia and fungi ( 1mark) ...............Neither can produce their own food..........................

  11. State the functions of each of the following parts of the axial skeleton
    1. Odontoid process ...........the odontoid process serves as a pivot point for the skull and first cervical vertebrae, which allows the head and neck to rotate................. (1 mark) 
    2. Zygapophyses ............are projections of the vertebra that serve the purpose of fitting with an adjacent vertebra.................(1 mark) 

  12. Antibiotics are used to treat people with bacterial infections. Explain the danger of the widespread use of antibiotics to treat disease (3 marks) .....Overuse and misuse of antibiotics can promote the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Every time a person takes antibiotics, sensitive bacteria (bacteria that antibiotics can still attack) are killed, but resistant bacteria are left to grow and multiply. This is how repeated use of antibiotics can increase the number of drug-resistant bacteria........


  13. plantsupportstructure
      1. Identify the plant support structure illustrated above. ....sclerenchyma.... ( 1 mark)
      2. Name the part labeled C........lumen.................. (1mark)

    1. State three biological importance of tropism in plants (3 marks)

      Phototropism is the tendency for plant organs to bend in response to a directional light source.- this is important to allow plants to get maximum sunlight for photosynthesis
      Gravitropism is the tendency for plant organs to bend in response to gravity.-helps the plant to get enough water and nutrients as roots go deeper into the soil.
      Thigmotropism is the tendency for a plant organ to bend in response to touch.- helps climbing plants to coil around their support.

      ........................................ .......................................
    1.  Define the term oxygen debt (2 marks)
      This is the amount of oxygen needed to oxidise lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water.

    2. State what happens to the lactic acid produced by active muscles during anaerobic respiration (2 marks)
      ...............the lactic acid is oxidised to carbon dioxide, and later to water.........................

  14. Give a reason for each of the following
    1. The trachea of the tracheal system have circular rings of chitin ( 1 mark)
      to keep it open to maintain its shape, prevent it from collapsing hence permitting gaseous exchange
    2. Tracheoles of the tracheal system lacks rings of chitin (1 mark)
      ..............Tracheoles lack spiral bands of chitin so as to permit more gaseous exchange through them as chitin would have hindered gaseous exchange........................

    1. What is the meaning of the term organic evolution? (2 marks)
      .................Organic evolution refers to the slow and gradual process by which living organisms have changed from the simplest unicellular form to the most complex multi-cellular forms that are existing today........................

    2. Explain the following terms;
      1. Analogous structures (1 mark)
        ...............In evolutionary biology, the term analogous structures pertain to the various structures in different species having the same function but have evolved separately, thus do not share common ancestor..........................
      2. Comparative embryology(1 mark)
        .......Comparative embryology is the scientific study of the similarities in structure between the embryos of various species that suggest a possible link to a common ancestor. Early developmental patterns are collated and compared to investigate the likely relationships among evolved organisms...........

  15. The figure below represents a type of muscle  

    muscles

      1. Identify the type of muscle ........smooth muscles............ .. (1 mark)

      2. Give one reason for your answer in (a)(i) above (1mark) ..............diamond-shaped cells with a single nucleus.........................

    1. Name two parts of the human body where this type of muscle can be found. (2marks)
      lymphatic vessels, the urinary bladder, uterus (termed uterine smooth muscle), male and female reproductive tracts, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, arrector pili of skin, the ciliary muscle, and iris of the eye.

  16. Describe how turgor pressure builds up. (3marks)
    .................Plant cells store ions, sugars, organic and amino acids and other substances in their vacuoles at considerable concentrations. The solutes cause an influx of water, causing plant cells to build up a large positive internal pressure, known as the turgor pressure. Turgor pressure plays a very important role in maintaining the rigidity and stability of plant tissues. Each cell exerts a pressure on its neighboring cells, and the pressures add up to a large tissue tension........................

  17. Name the flower part that produces male gametes ( 1 mark) ................anther........................

  18. The diagram below shows a cell undergoing a stage in cell division

    celldivision

    1. With reason, identify this stage (2 marks)
      Identity ............Metaphase 1.......................  
      Reason ................

      -The centrioles are at opposite poles of the cell.
      -The pairs of homologous chromosomes (the bivalents), now as tightly coiled and condensed as they will be in meiosis, become arranged on a plane equidistant from the poles called the metaphase plate.
      -Spindle fibers from one pole of the cell attach to one chromosome of each pair (seen as sister chromatids), and spindle fibers from the opposite pole attach to the homologous chromosome (again, seen as sister chromatids).

      ...................

    2. Draw a diagram to show the next stage of cell division (1mark)

      metaphase 2

  19. Name the parts of the brain that perform the following functions
    1. Controls secretion of hormones by pituitary glands ........hypothalamus.... .. (1 mark)
    2. Controls muscular movements body posture and balance.....cerebellum.... .... (1mark)
    3. Controls reflex activities........Medulla Oblongata.............. ( 1mark)

  20. Name the vector and causal organism of bilharzia (2 marks)
    Vector................snail.....................
    Causal organism ..............parasitic flatworms called schistosomes..................

  21.  
    1. Name an end product of photosynthesis that may be found in the intercellular air spaces of a leaf ..............oxygen..................(1 mark)
    2. State what happens to the product named in (a) above (2 marks) ...................Oxygen produced as a result of photosynthesis, gets used up by the plants during respiration. Carbon dioxide gas produced as a result of respiration is used up during photosynthesis. Thus, the waste released by both photosynthesis and respiration are used up by each other. Excess oxygen is however secreted into the atmosphere, through diffusion......................

  22.  Name two structures in the mammalian ear that are used in body balance and posture (1mark)
    -semicircular canals
    -vestibule

  23. What characteristics do gills of a fish and the mouth cavity of a frog have in common that enables them to be efficient in gaseous exchange. (3 marks)
    -They have a large surface area in order to increase the rate of diffusion
    -They are usually thin and permeable in order to reduce the resistance to diffusion
    -They are moist to dissolve the gases
    -They are well supplied with blood.


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