KCSE 2010 Geography Paper 2 Questions with Marking Scheme

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A
Answer all the question in this section.

  1. Give three reasons why it is important to study Geography. (3 marks)

    1. What is mixed farming? (2 marks)
    2. State four physical conditions that favour cocoa growing in Ghana. (4 marks)

    1. Name two forest reserves found in the coastal region of Kenya. (2 marks)
    2. State three ways in which the clearing of forests has affected the natural environment in Kenya. (3 marks)

    1. Why is Kenya’s petroleum refinery located at Mombasa? (2 marks)
    2. State four characteristics of the cottage industry in India. (4 marks)

    1. Name two proposed major highways in Africa. (2 marks)
    2. Give three reasons why it is not possible to transport goods by road directly between Mombasa and Lagos. (3 marks)

      SECTION B
      Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section.


  2. Study the photograph below and answer questions (a) and (b).

    kcse10pp2q6


    1. Name:
      1. The mining method shown in the photograph. (1 mark)
      2. Two minerals that may be mined using the method shown in the photograph. (2 marks)

      1. Using evidence from the photograph, give four indicators that show that the weather was hot when the photograph was taken. (4 marks)
      2. Describe how minerals are obtained using the mining method shown in the photograph. (5 marks)
      3. Citing evidence from the photograph, explain two ways in which the mining method shown has affected the environment. (4 marks)
      4. Apart from the method shown in the photograph, name three other mining methods. (3 marks)

    2. Explain how the following factors influence the occurrence of minerals.
      1. Evaporation; (2 marks)
      2. Vulcanicity; (2 marks)
      3. Metamorphism. (2 marks)

      1. Apart from draining swamps, give two other methods through which land has been reclaimed in Kenya. (2 marks)
      2. Give two methods that are used to drain swamps in Kenya. (2 marks)

      1. Name two rivers that supply water to Mwea Tebere Irrigation Scheme. (2 marks)
      2. Explain how the following factors influenced the establishment of Mwea Tebere Irrigation Scheme;
        • Topography; (2 marks)
        • Soils; (2 marks)
        • Population density; (2 marks)
        • Government policy. (2 marks)

      1. Name three areas which make the Zuider Zee reclamation project in Netherlands. (3 marks)
      2. Give four differences between land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherlands. (8 marks)

      1. Apart from uranium, give two other non-renewable sources of energy. (2 marks)
      2. State two advantages of using uranium as a source of energy. (2 marks)

      1. What is energy crisis? (2 marks)
      2. Explain three ways in which energy crisis affects the economy of Kenya. (6 marks)

    1. Use the map below to answer question (c) (i).

      map of africa kcse 2010

      1. Name the part marked L, M and N. (3 marks)
      2. State four ways in which Kenya has benefited from the development of geothermal power. (4 marks)

    2. Explain three physical factors that influence the establishment lof hydro-electric power dams. (6 marks)

      1. Distinguish between game sanctuary and national park. (2 marks)
      2. Draw a map of Kenya and on it mark and name Sibiloi National Park, Maasai Mara National Reserve and Tsavo National Park. (4 marks)

      1. Give three factors that favour the establishment of national parks in semi-arid areas of East Africa. (3 marks)
      2. Explain two effects of drought on wildlife in Kenya. (4 marks)

    1. Explain four measures that the government of Kenya has taken to conserve wildlife other than establishing national parks and reserves. (8 marks)
    2. State four ways in which wild animals are of significance to the economy of Kenya. (4 marks)

      1.  Differentiate between internal and regional trade. (2 marks)
      2. List three major exports from Kenya to the European Union (EU). (3 marks)

    1. Give four reasons why the Southern African Development Cooperation (SADC) was formed. (4 marks)
    2. Explain four problems facing trade in Kenya. (8 marks)
    3. Explain how the future of international trade in Kenya can be improved. (8 marks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Give three reasons why it is important to study Geography
    • It provides knowledge about the immediate and wider environment. It makes to understand the earth on which we live.
    • It create awareness about the country and the rest of the world and promotes international understanding
    • It promotes awareness on the sustainable use of resources.
    • It promotes development of skills and critical thinking
    • It prepares one for career opportunities.
  2.                    
    1. What is mixed farming?
      • Mixed farming is the growing of crops and rearing of livestock on the same farm.
    2. State four physical conditions that favour cocoa growing in Ghana.
      • High temperatures of 24 C to 30 C.
      • High rainfall of 1, 200mm - 1,500mm well distributed rainfall throughout the year.
      • Deep, well drained fertile soil , loamy soils/light clays
      • High relative humidity 70% - 80%
      • Shade from strong sun rays for the seedlings.
      • Undulating lowlands 0 - 750m above sea level.
      • Sunshine for ripening of pods.
  3.                    
    1. Name two forest reserves found in the costal region of Kenya.
      • Shimba hills forest
      • Arabuko Sokoke forest reserve
      • Boni / Dodori forest
      • Mangrove forest
      • Kenya forest
    2. state three ways in which the clearing of forests have affected the natural environment in Kenya.
      • It has led to reduced volume of water in the rivers / caused drying up of rivers.
      • It has led to the destruction of the natural habitat for the wildlife. It has endangered some of the wildlife species.
      • It has led to changes in the rainfall pattern/ Desertification.
      • It has interfered with the beauty of the environment / lowered the aesthetic value of the environment.
      • It has disrupted the ecosystem
      • It has accelerated soil erosion.
  4.                        
    1. Why is Kenya’s petroleum refinery located at Mombasa?
      • It is easier to transport refined petroleum products than crude hence the need to process crude oil at the point of entry crude oil.
      • The raw material for the refinery comes by sea to the port of Mombasa
      • Nearness to the source of raw material.
      • Mombasa is the only port of entry.
    2. State four characteristics of the cottage industry in India.
      • It requires little capital to set up and run
      • It is labour intensive.
      • It relies on simple equipment / machines.
      • Different establishments are owned by individual/families.
      • It uses locally available raw materials
      • The products are mainly for local market.
      • The industrial establishments are widespread in the country/located in homes.
      • Labour is provided by members of the family/individual owners.
      • The craftsmen are highly skilled. (Any 4 x 1 = 4 marks)
  5.                      
    1. Name two proposed major highways in Africa.
      • the Trans Africa Highway to Mombasa
      • The Great North Read/Cairo for Gaborone (Cape town)
      • The Trans-Saharan Highway/Algiers to Lagos
      • Tripoli to Windhoek (Cape town)
      • Cairo to Dakar (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
    2. Give three reasons why it is not possible to transport goods by road directly between Mombasa and Lagos. (3 marks)
      • In some of the countries between the two parts, there are alternative modes such as railway and water which are cheaper than road transport.
      • Some of the countries have not developed proper road links with their neighbours due to political differences/neglected maintenance of highways thick forests.
      • Most parts of the route have difficult terrain/making movement of heavy commercial vehicles difficult/construction of roads expensive/difficult/internal/external conflicts.
      • There is insecurity along some parts of the road between the two ports.
      • The bulky goods that may be transported between the two ports may be costly to transport by road. (any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
  6. Study the photograph provided and answer questions (a) and (b)
    1. Name
      1. the mining method shown in the photograph
        • Panning/alluvial mining/placer mining (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
      2. two minerals that may be mined using the method shown in the photograph
        • Gold
        • Diamond
        • Platinum
        • Tin (2 x 1 = 2 marks)
    2.                              
      1. Using evidence from the photograph give four indicators that show that the weather was hot when the photograph was taken.
        • Almost all the miners have removed their soils/have chested
        • Some miners are wearing hats/head scarfs
        • The sky is clear
        • The shadows indicate that the sun is almost overhead.
        • Use of an umbrella by a person at the middle ground.
        • Bodies are glustering with sweat/sweaty bodies
        • There is a reflection of the sun rays on the wider surface (any 4 x 1 = 4 marks)
      2.                      
        • A mixture of water, solid/mud and mineral particles is scooped from the water bed using a pan.
        • Water is added if the mixture is thick/if the water is excess it is decanted
        • The material scooped is swirled in the pan. This separates the lighter material from the heavier particles which contain the mineral particles.
        • The lighter material is removed/poured out
        • The heavier materials are sorted to display mineral particles.
        • The mineral particles are collected from the pan. (Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)
      3. Citing evidence from the photograph, explain two ways in which the mining methods has affected the environment.
        • The scooping of materials ha sled to water pollution as indicated by the brown colour stagnant water which may make it unfair for people to use.
        • The continuous scooping and dumping of the waste has led to land dereliction as indicated by the depression and heaps of waste material.
        • The method has led to destruction of vegetation as miners cleared the land to access the area with the mineral as indicated by absence of vegetation bare ground/in the foreground/middle ground.
        • The method has led to loss of biodiversity/destroyed the ecosystem as indicated by the absence of plant life where mining is taking place. (any 2 x 2 = 4 marks)
      4. apart from the method shown in the photograph, name three other mining methods.
        • Opencast/quarrying/stripping method
        • Deep shaft/underground method/solution
        • Adit/drift/horizon/tunnel method/slope mining
        • Drilling method (any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
    3.                
      1. Evaporation
        • High temperatures in arid and semi arid areas cause evaporation of water in lakes/seas.
        • This leads to high concentration of mineral salts in the water. Continued evaporation causes further recrystallization of the salts which may thereafter be attracted as minerals such as soda ash and common salt/deposition of salts near the surface. (2 marks)
      2. Volcanicity
        • When molten magma intrudes into rock joints minerals contained in the magma embedded in the joints called veins. Such minerals as tin and Copper occur in this form/Hop springs/gersey. Fonaliss bring minerals to the earth’s surface. (2 marks)
      3. Metamorphism
        • High pressure and heat cause recrystallization and hardening of certain rocks causing them to change their nature to ebcome minerals such as diamond. (2 marks)
  7.                
    1.                  
      1. Apart from draining of swamps give two other methods through which land has been reclaimed in Kenya.
        • Irrigation
        • tsetse lfy control
        • planting of trees/afforestation
        • flood control (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
      2. Give two methods that are used to drain swamps in Kenya.
        • constructing drainage pipes
        • digging open ditches/canals
        • pumping out the water (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
    2.                        
      1. Name two rivers that supply water to the Mwea Tebere irrigation scheme.
        • Thiba river
        • Nyamindi river
        • Murubara (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
      2. Explain how the following factors influenced the establishment of Mwea Tabere Irrigation scheme.
        • Topography
          • The gently slopping land makes it possible for water to flow by gravity into/out of the irrigated fields.
          • The gently slopping land allows for mechanization which allows large areas to be put under cultivation. (Any 1 x 2 = 2 marks)
        • Soils
          • Presence of black cotton soils which is suitable for cultivation of rice/which retains water for along time. (2 marks)
        • Population
          • the area was originally sparsely populated which enabled large areas to be put under cultivation/very few people were displaced it was cheap to start the scheme. (2 marks)
        • Government policy
          • There was need to keep political detainees busy/This made the colonial government to set up the scheme at Mwea where there was a large detention. (2 marks)
    3.                      
      1. Name three areas which make up the Zuider Zee reclamation project in the Netherlands.
        • Markerwaard
        • South Flevoland
        • East Flevoland
        • North-Eastern Polder
        • Wieringer Meer Polder (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
      2. Give four differences between land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherlands.
        • In Kenya, the area that is reclaimed is relatively small while the areas reclaimed in the Netherlands are large.
        • In Kenya, land is mainly reclaimed from swamps and marginal areas while in Netherlands reclamation is from sea.
        • In Kenya the methods used for draining water form marshy areas is digging of canals/ditches while in the Netherlands the methods are advance/use of wind pumps to drain sea water from the polders.)
        • In Kenya irrigation is used as reclaiming dry areas while irrigation in the Netherlands is used to lower the salinity of the soil in the claimed lands.
        • In Kenya the methods of land reclamation are simple like digging canals/ditches to drain water from lad while in the Netherlands the method used are highly advanced like reclaiming land from the sea/creation of polders.
        • Furrow/ridges protect the reclaimed land from invasion by the sea. (Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks)
  8.                      
    1.            
      1. Apart from uranium, give two other non-renewable sources of energy.
        • coal
        • petroleum
        • natural gas (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
      2. State two advantages of using uranium as a source of energy.
        • It occurs in huge reserves.
        • It produces large amounts of energy compared to other sources relatively small amount of uranium generates large quantities of energy.
        • Iyt has a longer lifetime than the other non-renewable sources of energy. (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
    2.                
      1. What is energy crisis.
        • It refers to a situation where the prices of fossil fuels rise uncontrollably as a result of short supply relative to demand. (2 marks)
      2. Explain three ways in which energy crisis affects the economy in Kenya.
        • The increase in the prices of crude oil makes Kenya to spend a lot of foreign exchange in importation. This lowers the foreign currency reserve which brings about unfavourable balance of trade which slows down the rate of economic growth.
        • Increase in oil prices triggers the increase in the prices of commodities leading to low standards/high cost of living
        • Increases in oil prices leads to increase in the prices of farm inputs which in turn leads to reduced agricultural production/leads to food crisis.
        • The high cost of fuels increases the cost of production slowing down industrial growth.
        • Oil crisis to scarcity of by-products of oil leading to shortage of raw material for certain industries.
        • Increase in fuel prices leads to increased transport costs which trigger price increases in almost all the sectors of the economy. (Any 3 x 2 = 6 marks)
          NB: No credit for effect without crisis.
    3.                
      1. L, M and N: Refer to question paper
        • L - Kaiji dam
        • M - Owen falls dam/Nalubaale
        • N - Kariba dam (3 marks)
      2. State fours ways in which Kenya has benefited from the development of geothermal power.
        • It has provided alternative source of energy.
        • It has increased Kenya’s energy input.
        • It has helped stabilize the cost of electricity for consumers.
        • It has helped in opening up of formerly remote areas.
        • It has increased employment opportunities
        • It has led the reduction of importation of hydro-electric power from Uganda/has saved foreign exchange. (any 4 x 1= 4 marks)
      3. Explain three physical factors that influence the establishment of hydro-electric power dams.
        • Presence of a hard basement rock which provides a foundation for the dam.
        • Large volume of water/constant supply of water to enable continuous production of electricity.
        • presence of narrow gorge behind the dam which minimizes the cost of construction of the dam.
        • The deep gorge for the riverine head of water.
        • Presence of steep rivers gradient/water fall/rapids to provide sufficient hydraulic force to turn the turbines.
        • the presence of improper work to prevent seepage. (Any 3 x 2 = 6 marks)
  9.                               
    1.                                              
      1. Distinguish between a game sanctuary and a national park.
        • A game sanctuary is a specific area established to give protection to a specific animal community which is either threatened with extinction or only found in a particular area while a national park is a large area set aside for the propagation, protection and reservation of wild life in their natural habitat and in which hunting is prohibited. (2 marks)
      2. Draw a map of Kenya and on it mark and name Sibiloi National Park, Maasai Mara National reserve and Tsavo National Park. (4 marks)
        SEE MAP
        GEO P2
    2.                        
      1. Give three factors that favour the establishment of national parks semi-arid areas of East Africa.
        • Availability of large tracts of sparsely populated land.
        • Availability of a wide variety of vegetation which provides food for the wild animals.
        • The harsh climatic condition that discourage farming and settlement/makes wildlife conservation the best alternative land use.
        • The type of vegetation found in such areas provide suitable habitat for wild animals.(any 3 x 1= 3 marks)
      2. Explain two effects of drought on wildlife in Kenya.
        • It leads to shortage of pasture and water causing loss of life of animals and drying up of plant spices.
        • Prolonged drought leads to migration of animals to areas that have sufficient supply of food/water/some animals migrate to the neighbouring countries reducing the number of wild animals.
        • Forest fires break out during drought causing environment degradation and destroying the habitat for wild life.
        • wild animals invade farmlands destroying crops/some killed as they search for food.(Any 2 x 2 = 4 marks)
    3. Explain four measures that the government of Kenya has taken to conserve wildlife.
      • establishment of national parks and game reserves to protect wildlife from human interference.
      • Enacting laws and regulations to curb poaching and game trade.
      • Educating and general public on the need to conserve wildlife/to support conservation practises/discouraging joint ownership of parks with local authorities/local communities who also benefit from the proceeds.
      • Enhancing international cooperation to help enforce the existing laws and convections which protect wildlife especially the endangered species.
      • Promoting ecotourism to reduce tourism related environment damage that may lead to extinction of wildlife species.
      • Constructing electric fences around the parks to minimize human animal conflict.
      • Establishing the ministry of wildlife to oversee to conservation process/creating of the anti-poaching unit to track down and arrest poachers/forest guards to protect forests.
      • Encouraging individuals to set up game ranches for controlled/hunting.
      • Provision of vet animals to treat animals/translocation of game research by laws. (any 4 x 2 = 8 marks)
    4. State four ways in which wild animals are of insignificance to the economy of Kenya.
      • They are a major tourist attraction/earn foreign exchange
      • They create employment opportunities
      • They promote research activities
      • Tourism creates a large demand for food leading to agricultural development.
      • Some provide raw materials for industries.
      • They provide game meat
      • Government earns revenue. (Any 4 x 1 = 4 marks)
  10.                                
    1.                    
      1. Differentiate between internal and regional trade.
        • Internal tarde is the buying and selling of goods and services within a country’s borders while regional trade between countries that are found within the same geographical region. (2 marks)
  11.                      
    1.                                      
      • coffee
      • Tea
      • fluorspar
      • Horticultural products
      • Pyrethrum extract
      • Flowers/fruits/vegetables
      • Soda ash (any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
    2. Give four reasons why the Southern African Development Co-operation (SADC) was formed.
      • To promote regional integration among member countries.
      • To promote sustainable economic growth in the region.
      • To establish a common market for member states/wider market
      • To liberalize trade within the region/to lower among members
      • To strengthen the bargaining power in international trade.
      • To foster peace, stability and democracy among member states.
      • To eradicate poverty in the region
      • Toe encourage the movement off labour. (Any 4 x 1 = 4 marks)
    3. Explain four problems facing trade in Kenya.
      • Cheap imported create unfair competition for some local products leading to reduction in the production of such goods/closure of some industries.
      • Exports are mainly raw agricultural products which are lowly priced, hence earning little revenue for the country.
      • The high fuel prices increase production/transport costs leading to increased prices of goods/low demand for goods.
      • Insecurity in the country discourages investors/traders incur great losses.
        Problem - 1 mark Explanation - 1 mark Any 4 x 2 - 8 marks
    4. Explain how the future of international trade in Kenya can be improved.
      • Kenya exploring new markets in the For East countries to avoid over reliance on the European market. (This is likely to increase the quantity f Kenya’s exports.)
      • Kenya has signed trade agreements with various countries in Africa and in America which will help improve trade.
      • Kenya’s trade with African countries is likely to improve through the membership in trade such as COMESA and EAC.
      • Some Kenya entrepreneurs are setting up branches of their industries in the neighbouring countries in order to expand trading activities.
      • Kenya is undertaking partial processing of some of the agricultural products before export in order to add value to increase earnings.
      • Interpretation of vision 2030 it will lead to increased production hence increased trade.
      • Kenya should diversify her export products to attract a wider market for her goods.
      • Kenya should be aggressively advertise her products to attract more buyers.
      • Kenya should improve her international transport and communication links for efficient transactions. (Any 4 x 2 = 8 marks)

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