KCSE 2010 History Paper 2 Questions with Marking Scheme

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A (25 marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the booklet provided.

  1. State the scientific theory that explains the origin of human beings. (1 mark)

  2. State two uses of stone tools by early people during the Stone Age period. (2 marks)

  3. Identify the method used to plant cereal crops when early agriculture began. (1 mark)

  4. Name two metals that were used as currencies during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)

  5. State one advantage of using the pipeline over vehicles in transporting oil. (1 mark)

  6. Give two main items of the Trans-Saharan trade. (2 marks)

  7. Identify two social functions of the ancient city of Athens in Greece. (2 marks)

  8. Name the chartered company that was used to administer Tanganyika during the process of colonization. (1 mark)

  9. Which was the main factor that unified the communities of the Shona Kingdom during the pre-colonial period? (1 mark)

  10. State two functions of the Lukiiko in the Buganda Kingdom during the 19th Century. (2 marks)

  11. Give one economic reason which made the European countries to scramble for colonies in Africa. (1 mark)

  12. State one way in which the Ndebele benefited after the British-Ndebele war of 1893 to 1896. (1 mark)

  13. Identify two economic results of the First World War. (2 marks)

  14. Give two principal organs of the United Nations. (2 marks)

  15. Identify two ways in which Mwalimu Julius Nyerere promoted the development of Education in Tanzania after Independence. (2 marks)

  16. State one condition that a country should fulfill in order to become a member of the Non-Aligned Movement. (1 mark)

  17. Identify one Parliamentary duty of the Monarch in Britain. (1 mark)

    SECTION B (45 marks)
    Answer any THREE questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

    1. State five reasons why early people domesticated crops and animals during the neo-lithic period. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five causes of food shortages today. (10 marks)

    1. Give three problems faced by factory workers in Europe during the Industrial Revolution. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six factors that have promoted industrialization in South Africa. (12 marks)

    1. Give three methods used by the European Powers to establish colonial rule in Africa. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six results of the collaboration between the Baganda and the British during the process of colonization. (12 marks)

    1. State three ways used by nationalists in Ghana to fight for independence. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six factors that led to the development of African Nationalism in Ghana. (12 marks)

      SECTION C (30 marks)
      Answer any TWO questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

    1. Give three conditions which one had to fulfill in order to become a French citizen in Senegal. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six differences between the use of British indirect rule and the French Assimilation Policy. (12 marks)

    1. State the role played by the United States of America in the ending of the Second World War. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six causes of the cold war after 1945. (12 marks)

    1. Identify three duties performed by the Secretary-General of the new East African Community established in 2001. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six benefits of the East African Community established in 2001. (12 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. State the scientific theory that explains the origin of human beings.
    • The Evolution theory/Darwin 1 x 1 = 1 mark
  2. State two uses of stone tools by early people during the Old Stone Age period.
    • For skinning animals after hunting.
    • For digging uproots
    • For cutting meat
    • For sharpening one/wood
    • For scraping animals skins/softening
    • For killing animals during hunting
    • For protecting/defence any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  3. Identify the method used to plant cereal crops when early agriculture began.
    • The broadcasting method 1 x 1 = 1 mark
  4. Name two metals that were used as currency in pre-colonial Africa.
    • Iron
    • Gold
    • Copper
    • Silver
    • Bronze
  5. State one advantage of using the pipeline over vehicles in transporting oil.
    • The pipeline delivers oil faster than vehicles.
    • It is safer to transport oil by pipeline than vehiclesThe p
    • ipeline ensures regular/continuous supply of oil to required areas/depots.
    • It is easier to maintain the pipeline than vehicles. 1 x 1 = 1 mark
  6. Give the two main items of the Trans-Saharan trade.
    • Gold
    • Salt
  7. Give tow social functions of the ancient city of Athens in Greece.
    • It was a cultural centre/music/art/theatre
    • It was an educational centre
    • It was a sports centre
    • It was a religious centre Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  8. Name any chartered company that was used to administer Tanganyika during the process of colonisation.
    • The German East Africa Company 1 x 1 = 1 mark
  9. Which was the main factor that unified the communities of the Shona Kingdom during the pre-colonial period?
    • The Mwari religious cult/Mlimo/religion 1 x 1= 1 mark
  10. State two functions of the Lukiko in Buganda Kingdom during the 19th Century.
    • It advised the Kabaka.
    • It represented the wishes of the people.
    • It assisted in settling disputes/acted as final court of appeal.
    • It directed the collection of taxes/how the wealth of the kingdom would be spent.
    • It was the law formulating body in the Kingdom.
    • It assisted/no general/administration Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  11. Give one economic reason which made European Countries to scramble for colonies in Africa.
    • To obtain raw materials for the industries.
    • To search for markets for the manufactured goods.
    • To acquire areas to invest their surplus capital Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark
  12. State one way in which the Ndebele benefited after the British-Ndebele War of 1893 to 1896.
    • The Ndebele Indunas were made headmen.
    • The Shona police were removes from Matebeleland. Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark
  13. Identify two economic results of the First World War.
    • European governments spent huge sums of money.
    • There was massive destruction of property.
    • It led to economic depression/employment/starvation/unemployment. Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  14. Give two principal organs of the United Nations.
    • The General Assembly
    • The Security Council
    • The Economic and Social Council
    • The Secretariat
    • The Trusteeship Council
    • The international Court of Justice Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  15. Identify two ways in which Mwalimu Julius Nyerere promoted the development of Education in Tanzania after independence.
    • He established the universities of Dar-es-Salaam and Sokoine
    • He made Kiswahili the medium of instruction in schools.
    • He made education to be free and compulsory from primary school to university.
    • He popularized the philosophy of “Education for self reliance”
    • He introduced Adult education. Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  16. State one condition that a country should fulfill in order to become a member of the Non-aligned Movement.
    • A country should be independent.
    • A country should not be a member of either NATO or WARSAW pact military.
  17. Identify one parliamentary duty of the Monarch in Britain.
    • Summons parliament after a general election.
    • Prologues parliament
    • Dissolves parliament
    • Assents bills of parliamentNominates members to th
    • e House of Lords. Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark
  18.              
    1. State five reasons why early people domesticated crops and animals during the Neolithic period.
      • Due to increased Human population more food was required.
      • There was competition for food between human beings and animals.
      • Over hunting developed stocks of animal on which human beings relied on for food.
      • Hunting and gathering had become tiresome/insecure.
      • Calamities such as bush fire/floods destroyed vegetation/drove away animals.
      • Some crops and animals had economic value.
      • Animals were domesticated to provide security.
      • There was a change in climate which caused aridity/weather sometimes hindered gathering and hunting. Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
    2. Explain five causes of food shortages to Africa today.
      • Many parts of Africa experience little or no rain at all over several years leading to crop failure and hence food shortages/natural hazards.
      • The rapid population growth rate has overtaken food production rate resulting into food shortages.
      • Inadequate/food storage facilities had contributed to food wastages as farmers cannot store store food for a long period.
      • Poor state of roads in many African countries hinders transportation of food from the areas of surplus to those of deficit.
      • Low prices of food stuff has discouraged many farmers who may have invested so much capital leading to food shortages.
      • Many farmers in Africa lack enough capital to buy required farm inputs.
      • Due to crop diseases and pest, a lot of food is destroyed either on the farms or in stores resulting to food shortages.
      • The emphasis on cash crop farming at the expense of food crops has contributed to low food production leading to food shortages.
      • Environmental degradation through deforestation/overgrazing of animals had led to soil erosion leading to wasteland, hence low food production/desertification.
      • Civil wars in many African countries have displaced people from their farms and therefore diverted their attention from farming resulting in food shortages.
      • Poor food policies have discouraged farmers as they are not given enough incentives incase of crop failure/poor economic planning.
      • The young-able bodied persons migrate to urban centres thus leaving farming to the aged who are not able to contribute much towards food production.
      • HIV and AIDS pandemic has impacted negatively on the labour force in food production.
      • Poor land tenure system/land fragmentation has reduced the acreage that would have been used for production scarcity.
      • Over reliance/dependence on famine relief food/other forms of aid has made people not to look for permanent solutions to food shortages.
      • Lack of modern farming methods her led to low food production. Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks
  19.                      
    1. Give three problems faced by factory workers in Europe during the industrial revolution.
      • They were paid low wages/salaries
      • They worked for long hours
      • They were exposed to accidents
      • Accidents victims were laid off without compensation.
      • Inadequate housing made them live in slums.
      • They suffered from diseases due to poor sanitation/pollution. Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Explain six factors that have promoted industrialization in South Africa.
      • The availability of many sources of energy to provide the required power of industrialization.
      • The existence of varied mineral resources to sustain the process of industrialization.
      • The presence of well developed transport network/infrastructure to facilitate the movement of raw materials and finished industrial goods to the market.
      • The availability of both internal and external markets for their manufactured goods.
      • The availability of both skilled and unskilled manpower required for industrialization.
      • The availability of capital generated from South Africa trade in other goods has enabled her to set up industries.
      • The government’s sound industrial policies which encouraged both local and foreign investors to boost industrialization.
      • The high quality of goods has led to increased demand for South Africans manufactured goods.
      • The political instability in the country since the end of apartehid era has created a conducive environment for industrial development. Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
  20.                        
    1. Give three methods used by European powers to establish colonial rule in Africa.
      • Military conquest/expenditions
      • They signed treaties/agreements with African rulers/diplomacy/collaboration
      • Deception/treachery/luring Africans with European goods.
      • Chartered trading companies
      • Playing off communities against each other in order to weaken.
    2. Explain results of the collaboration between the Buganda Agreements of 1900.
      • It led to the loss of independence.
      • Introduction of Christianity and European influence in buganda.
      • Islamic influence declined.
      • Buganda got protection from the British against their traditional economic e.g Bunyoro.
      • Kabakas power were reduced in the peace of the growing educated member of the Lukiko.
      • Kabaka gained recognition and was referred to as his luglilness.
      • Buganda an administration position in the colonial administration and was used to conquer other communities.
      • Buganda advanced more economically than other communities as it acquired European manufactured goods e.g cloth, guns.
      • Buganda benefited from Western Education and medicine. Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
  21.                          
    1. State three ways used by nationalists in ghana to fight for independence.
      • They formed political parties.
      • They used boycotts/demonstrations/strikes/go-slows.
      • They organized political rallies to mobilise mass support.
      • They used newspapers to articulate their views.
      • They used the legislative council
      • They composed songs/poems to attack colonialism.
      • They used trade unions.
      • They used international forum. Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Explain six factors that led to the development of African Nationalism in Ghana.
      • Inadequate African representation in the Legislative council based discontent among the Ghanaians.
      • Loss of powers by the traditional African chiefs created discontent against the colonial government.
      • The need to guard against possible land alienation by the British united the Africans.
      • Introduction of taxation by the colonial government was resented by Ghanaians.
      • The meagre earnings by Africans from the sale of cocoa to Europeans created discontent among them.
      • The order by the colonial government that farmers uproot their crops due to prevalence of the “swollen shoot” disease upset them.
      • Then involvement of the ex-servicemen in the Second World War inspired them to fight for their independence.
      • The attainment of independence by India/Pakistan in 1947 encouraged the Ghanaians to demand for their right to govern themselves.
      • The existence of young educated Ghanaians who had understood the ideals of democracy/freedom who inspired the masses towards a worthy cause.
      • High rate of unemployment among the Africans created resentment/discontent.
      • The United Nations Charter’s declaration of the importance of political independence for all people inspired the Ghanaians and other leaders.
      • The charismatic leadership provided by Kwame Nkrumah united the people in their struggle against colonial domination.
      • xiii) The selective granting of trading licenses to Europeans traders while denying the same to the Africans created discontent. Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
  22.                                  
    1. Give three conditions which one had to fulfil in order to become a French Citizen in Senegal.
      • Literate/able to read and write in French.
      • Able to speak in French
      • Be a Christian
      • One must have worked in the French Civil service/be loyal in the French government/military service.
      • Practice monogamy Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Explain six differences between the use of British indirect rule and the French assimilation policy.
      • The British used traditional rulers as chiefs while the French appointed assimilated whereas chiefs to become chiefs.
      • African traditional rulers under British rule retained most of their powers whereas chiefs under French rule had limited powers.
      • British colonies were administered as separate territories while French colonies were administered as provinces of France.
      • Most French administrators were represented in the French Chamber of Deputies in France while in British colonies Laws wee made by the Colonial Legislative Assemblies.
      • Africans in French colonies were military officers while the British administrators were both as provinces and non-professionals.
      • Laws used to govern French colonies were made in the chamber of Deputies in France while British colonies Laws were made by the Colonial Legislative Assemblies.
      • Assimilated Africans in French colonies became full French citizens while in the British colonies, educated Africans remained colonial subjects.
      • British indirect rule preserved African cultures while assimilation undermined African culture. Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
  23.                                  
    1. State the role played by United States of America in ending the Second World War.
      • The U.S.A provided modern military equipment to the allied forces.
      • She gave financial support to the allied forces.
      • She provided military personnel to the allied powers.
      • U.S.A blockaded the Panama Canal against the central powers.
      • She dropped atomic bombs at Horishoma and Nagasaki which forced Japan to surrender.
    2. Explain six causes of the Cold War after 1945.
      • The disagreements between the Soviet Union and the United States of America over reduction of arms led to arms race.
      • The occupation of Eastern Europe by Soviet Union caused fear among U.S.A and its allies in Western Europe/Iron curtain policy by the USSR.
      • The ideological differences pursued by the U.S.A and U.S.S.R created mistrust/suspicion among them leading to hostility.
      • The domination of United Nations by United States of America and her allies was checked by U.S.S.R through the use of her veto power thus increasing the tension.
      • The involvement of both United States of America and U.S.S.R in European conflicts in the late 1940s created tension among them.
      • America’s Marshal plan to revive European economies after the war made U.S.S.R to counteract by arming a similar one/comical thus enhancing tension.
      • Formation of military alliances/N.A.T.O by United States of America and her allies led to U.S.S.R and her allies to form a similar alliance/Warsaw pact thus intensifying the rivalry.
      • Construction of the Berlin wall by U.S.S.R in Germany to block Western after the Second World War. Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
  24.                          
    1. Identify three duties performed by the Secretary General of the new East African Community established in 2001.
      • Is the head of secretariat.
      • Authorizes expenditure on behalf of the members.
      • Is the secretary to the summit/take minutes
      • Keep records of the proceedings.
      • Implements decisions adopted by East African Community Summit.
      • Prepares agenda for the meeting any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Explain six benefits of the new East African Community established in 2001 to its members.
      • There is wider market for different types of goods produced by each member states.
      • The citizens of member states buy goods at fair prices due to low tariffs levied on goods.
      • Opening of border closed establishing a common visa/East African passport has boosted free movement of people within the region.
      • The community provides a forum for heads of states to discuss issues harmoniously thus promoting mutual understanding/co-operation/friendship.
      • There are employment opportunities for people of member countries in the established common services.
      • Establishment of the common market create room for enhanced economic development of member countries/spurs greater industrial growth.
      • The member countries are working together towards establishing East African Federation in order to apply common laws.
      • There is improvement in transport and communication network to facilitate the movement of people and goods. Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks

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