KCSE 2014 Agriculture Paper 1 Questions with Marking Scheme

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

  1. State four advantages of organic farming.(2 marks)
  2. Give four factors that can increase seed rates in crop production.(2 marks)
  3. State four roles of organic matter in sandy soils.(2 marks)
  4. Give four reasons for practising minimum tillage.(2 marks)
  5. What is meant by each of the following in crop production?
    1. Crop rotation;(1 mark)
    2. Mulching.(1 mark)
  6. Give four reasons for inverting soil slices during primary cultivation.(2 marks)
  7. State four cultural ways of controlling couch grass (Digitaria scalarum).(2 marks)
  8.                        
    1. Name three vegetative parts that can be used to propagate pineapples.(1 marks)
    2. State three disadvantages of vegetatively propagating pineapples.(1 marks)
  9. Name three sources of underground water.(1 marks)
  10. What is meant by each of the following in agroforestry?
    1. Pollarding;(1 mark)
    2. Coppicing; (1 mark)
    3. Lopping.(1 mark)
  11. State the information included in a sales receipt when a farmer is selling eggs.(2 marks)
  12. State two reasons for practising agroforestry on a
    1. river-bank;(1 mark)
    2. steep slope.(1 mark)
  13. State three disadvantages of using plastic pipes to convey water.(1 1/2marks)
  14. State three causes of blossom end rot in tomatoes.(1 1/2marks)
  15. What is meant by the term preference and choice as used in agricultural economics?(1 mark)

SECTION B (20 marks)
Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

  1.                                    
    1. Distinguish between straight and compound fertilisers.(1 mark)
    2. A farmer applied 200 kg of CAN (20%N) per hectare on his five hectares maize crop. Calculate the amount of nitrogen the farmer applied on his crop. Show your working.(4 marks)
  2. The diagram below illustrates a type of soil erosion.
    q17 atgdytagd
    1. Identify the type of erosion.(1 mark)
    2. How does the type of erosion shown above occur?(2 marks)
    3. How does cover cropping help to control the type of erosion shown above?(2 marks)
  3. The table below shows the population and gross domestic products of countries A and B.
    COUNTRY        GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT         POPULATION 
                                      (million Ksh)                          (million)
    A                                 
     1800                                         36
                                     1200                                         15
    1. Calculate the per capita income for each country. Show your working.(2 marks)
    2. Which of the two countries is more developed economically?(1 mark)
    3. Give a reason for your answer in (b) above.(1 mark)
    4. How can agriculture increase the gross domestic product of a country?(1 mark)
  4. The photograph below shows weeds labelled A and B.
    q19 iyhuygyuag
    1. Identify the weed labelled A.(1 mark)
    2. State one mechanical control measure for the weed labelled A.(1 mark)
    3. Which category of herbicide will be most suitable to control the weeds labelled A and B?(1 mark)
    4. Give a reason for your answer on weed B in (c) above.(1 mark)

SECTION C (40 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 22.

  1.                              
    1. Describe the various risks and uncertainties in crop farming.(10 marks)
    2. State the functions of Young Farmers Clubs in Kenya.(5 marks)
    3. Give the reasons for land registration in Kenya.(5 marks)
  2.                
    1. Explain five ways in which the Kenyan government can improve maize production to ensure food security in the country.(10 marks)
    2. Why is pruning done in crop production?(10 marks)
  3.                        
    1. The tables below give information on the supply and demand schedules for tomatoes on a market.
      Table 1: Prices and quantities of tomatoes supplied.
      Tomatoes (kg)                Price per kg (Kshs.)
      150                               16.00
      130                               14.20
      125                               13.80
      112                               13.00
      106                               12.70
      85                                 11.80
      50                                 10.60
      42                                 10.40
      30                                 10.20
      25                                 10.10 
      Table 2: Prices and quantities of tomatoes demanded.
      Tomatoes (kg)                Price per kg (Kshs.)
      80                                   18.00
      87                                   16.70
      101                                 15.50
      119                                 14.10
      135                                 13.20
      155                                 12.40
      171                                 11.80
      185                                 11.30
      191                                 11.10
      205                                 10.80
      1. Using the above data, plot supply and demand curves on the same axes. The axes have been labelled for you.(7 marks)
      2. Determine the price at which 120 kg of tomatoes were supplied on the market.(1 mark)
      3. How many kilograms of tomatoes were bought at a market price of Ksh. 13.00?(1 mark)
      4. What was the equilibrium price for tomatoes on the market?(1 mark)
    2. Describe the production of maize under the following sub-headings:
      1. seedbed preparation; (4 marks)
      2. planting; (3 marks)
      3. harvesting.(3 marks) 

MARKING SCHEME

  1.                
    1. Products are free from chemical residues;
    2. It is environmentally friendly;
    3. Livestock and farmer do not risk effects of poisonous chemicals;
    4. Ozone layer is preserved;
    5. It uses locally available materials/cheap;
    6. It maintains soil structure;
    7. Promotes microbial activities in the soil.4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
  2.                
    1. Seed impurity;
    2. Low germination percentage;
    3. Close spacing;
    4. More seeds per hole / broadcasting;
    5. Early planting / dry planting;4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
  3.                
    1. It improves soil capillarity;
    2. It improves soil water holding capacity;
    3. It binds soil particles/improves soil structure;
    4. It improves soil microbial activities;
    5. Modifies soil temperature;
    6. It provides nutrients on decomposition;
    7. It buffers soil pH.4 x 1/2(2 marks) 
  4.                      
    1. It conserves soil moisture;
    2. It maintains soil structure;
    3. It saves costs on land preparation/saves on time/saves on labour;
    4. It ensures minimum disturbance to plant roots;
    5. Control soil erosion;
    6. Reduces soil compaction by tillage implements;
    7. Prevents loss of nutrients by volatilization.4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
  5.                  
    1. Is the growing of crops of different families on the same piece of land in an orderly sequence; (1 mark)
    2. Is the covering of the ground around a growing crop with organic matter or artificial sheets; (1 mark)
  6.              
    1. To burry organic matter/weeds into the soil;
    2. To expose soil to agents of weathering;
    3. To expose pest/disease agents to predators/strong sun;
    4. Bring up leached plant nutrients to the surface;
    5. To encourage water infiltration/aeration.4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
  7.                      
    1. Mulching;
    2. Cover cropping;
    3. Crop rotation;
    4. Timely planting;
    5. Proper spacing;
    6. Flooding;
    7. Clean seedbed;4 x 1/2 (2 marks)
  8.            
    1.              
      1. Crowns;
      2. Suckers;
      3. Slips;3 x 1/2 (11/2 marks)
    2.                  
      1. Transmits diseases;
      2. Propagates genetic/varietal defects;
      3. No uniformity in growth;
      4. It is laborious/bulky;
      5. Vegetative materials cannot be sored for long.3 x 1/2 (11/2 marks)
  9.          
    1. Springs;
    2. Bore hole;
    3. Wells;3 x 1/2 (11/2 marks)
  10.                      
    1. Pollarding - cutting back the crown and the top branches of a tree; (1 mark) 
    2. Coppicing - cutting down trees about half a meter from the ground; (1 mark) 
    3. Lopping - cutting one or more branches from the stem; (1 mark)
  11.                    
    1. Date;
    2. Quantity of eggs;
    3. Price;
    4. Amount/total;
    5. Buyer's name;
    6. Name of the farm/farmer;
    7. Signature;
    8. Serial number;
    9. Mode of payment (cheque/cash/in kind);5 x 1/2 (21/2 marks)
  12.                  
    1.                      
      1. Stabilize river bank/control river bank erosion;
      2. Slow down speed of surface runoff;
      3. Trap soil/debris in surface runoff;
      4. Reduces risk of flooding;2 x 1/2 (1 mark)
    2.                      
      1. Reduce speed of runoff;
      2. Trap soil in erosive water;
      3. Tree roots bind and stabilize the soil/maintains soil structure;2 x 1/2 (1 mark)
  13.                  
    1. Can be gnawed by rodents;
    2. Become brittle on exposure to strong sun;
    3. Can burst at high pressure;
  14.                    
    1. Irregular watering;
    2. Lack of calcium;
    3. Excessive nitrogen application;3 x 1/2(11/2 marks)
  15. It is the act of deciding on how to allocate available scarce resources to alternative uses based on the farmers interests. (1 mark)
  16.                  
    1. Straight fertilizers supply only one of the fertilizer elements eg. N, P or K while compound fertilizers supply two or the three fertiliser elements; (1 mark)
    2. 100 kg supply 20 kgN
      200 kg supply 200 × 20  = 40 kgN per ha
                                100
      Farmer applied 40 x 5; = 200 kgN; (4 marks) 
  17.                
    1. Splash erosion/rain drop erosion; (1 mark)
    2. Soil is detached; by the impact of raindrops; (2 marks)
    3.                    
      1. Reduces impact of raindrops;
      2. Prevents movement of soil;
      3. Plant roots bind soil particles;(2 marks)
  18.                    
    1.                            
      1. Per capita income =Gross Domestic Product
                                         Population
        A = ; 1800 = 50
                  36
        B = ; 1200 = 80
                  15
      2. B; (1 mark)
      3. B has a higher per capita income; (1 mark)
      4. By creating employment/developing industries/increasing production; (1 mark)
  19.                  
    1. Black jack (Bidens pilosa); (1 mark)
    2.                            
      1. Uprooting;
      2. Slashing/mowing;
      3. Cultivation;(1 mark)
    3. A Contact herbicide;
      B Systemic herbicide/translocated;(2 marks)
    4. Has underground propagation structures; (1 mark)
  20.                  
    1.                      
      • Technology uncertainty.
      • Price uncertainty.
      • Personal injury or sickness.
      • Government policy.
      • Demand for a commodity uncertainty.
      • Yield uncertainty.
      • Theft of crop.
      • Fire risk.
      • Political instability.
      • Labour uncertainty.
      • Natural catastrophes.
      • Pests and diseases.
      • Obsolescence.(10 marks)
    2.                  
      • Participating in exhibitions and competitions at ASK shows.
      • Involvement in agricultural projects at club level.
      • Participating in YFC annual rallies.
      • Involvement in workshops & seminar related to agriculture.
      • Participating in national tree planting activities.
      • Participation in exchange programmes.
      • Participating in national ploughing contests. (5 marks)
    3.                      
      • Registered land can be used to secure credit facilities.
      • Registration minimises land disputes.
      • Security of tenure encourages long term investment projects/ensures investment on land.
      • Enables occupant to lease or sell part of the land.
      • Encourages underlying of soil conservation measures. (5 marks)
  21.                              
    1.                    
      1. Farmers training eg. in FTCs on improved methods of maize production.
      2. Provision of extension services to advise farmers on modern maize production techniques eg. irrigation, use of certified, irrigation, pest and disease control to reduce cost of production.
      3. Provision of subsidies on farm inputs eg. fertilizers.
      4. Provision of credit facilities eg. through AFC, to finance maize farming operations.
      5. Imposing high taxation on imported wheat and maize products to discourage importation and protect local farmers.
      6. Quality control to ensure production of high quality maize that can attract foreign markets.
      7. Supporting research into new and improved varieties of maize for high yields. 
      8. Farm input supplies
      9. Provision of marketing services
      10. Provision of drying and storage facilities
      11. Provision of tractor - hire service.
      12. Ensuring effective control of pests/diseases/weeds.
      13. Ensuring effective soil and water conservation measures.5 x 2 = (10 marks)
    2.                      
      1. To make the plant take a desired shape.
      2. To remove diseased parts to prevent disease spread.
      3. To control cropping to ensure production of high quality fruits.
      4. To ease penetration of sprays to minimise wastage.
      5. To control pests/diseases by eliminating the micro-climates.
      6. To facilitate light penetration and optimise photosynthesis process.
      7. To remove dead/broken parts.
      8. To remove old/unproductive parts on which resources are wasted.
      9. To promote lateral growth e.g in tea
      10. To facilitate management practices e.g weeding and harvesting.(10 marks)
  22.                        
    1.                    
      1. Heading 1mark
        Correct plotting 2 x 1 = 2 marks
        Smooth curves 2 x 1 = 2 marks
        Curve identity 1/2 x 2 = 1 mark
        Scale 1/2 x 2 = 1 mark
        TOTAL 7 marks
      2. KSh. 13.40 ± 10 cents (13.30 - 13.50)
      3. 140 kg ± 1 kg (139 - 141)
      4. KSh. 13.80 ± 10 cents (13.70 - 13.90)
    2.                
      1. Seedbed preparation.
        • Bush clearing.
        • Carryout primary cultivation.
        • Carrying out secondary cultivation.
        • Prepare land early during the dry season.
        • Deep ploughing to remove perenial weeds.
        • Harrow to medium tilth.
        • Carry out soil and water conservation measures.4 x 1 = 4 marks
      2. Planting of maize
        • Plant at the onset of rains/dry plant.
        • Space according to variety/ 75 - 90 cm x 20 - 30 cm.
        • Plant one or two seeds per hole.
        • Planting depth 2.5 - 10 cm depending on the moisture content.
        • Plant manually or use planters.
        • Use phosphatic fertilizer/organic manure at a ratio of 120 kg/ha.3 x 1 = 3 marks
      3. Harvesting maize
        • Harvest after 3 - 9 months.
        • Harvest when the whole plant dries/harvest according to market demand.
        • Harvest manually by hand or use combine harvesters.
        • Cut and stook the maize if harvesting is manual.
        • Remove the cobbed maize from the husks.(3 marks)

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Read 280 times Last modified on Monday, 22 November 2021 08:51
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