Read the following passage and then answer the questions that follow. (20 marks)
The question is at least as old as Socrates: If we know what the right thing to do is, why do we not do it? It is an especially acute question when applied to global warming. The science showing that carbon dioxide emissions are already changing the planetâs climate, and are likely to have severe effects (melting ice caps, sea-level rise, and species extinction), is compelling and now barely disputed. Almost 90% of Europeans say they recognize climate change as a major issue, and 75% identify fossil fuel emissions as a major cause.
And yet, as was widely discussed at a conference of environmentalists, geologists and writers in May 2006 in Ankelohe, Germany, public understanding has not translated into even the simplest of public actions. Less than 1% of Britons, for example, have switched their home electricity to renewable sources, even though it requires little more than a phone call to oneâs existing provider. Proportions on the continent are slightly higher, but there is clearly no rush to go green or â shudder â stop driving cars.
Why such a disconnect between information and action? Part of the problem is that environmental advocates emit mixed messages. In mid-May 2006, Britainâs Guardian published a front-page story showing that five companies in Britain produce more CO2 pollution in a year than all the countryâs motorists combined. That is a strong argument for targeting industries, but the average reader could hardly be blamed for thinking, âWhy should I bother to cut down my driving?â
Similarly, not enough thought has been devoted to the best role for government. Climate change is too vast a problem for individuals to solve alone, and some big businesses have an incentive not to solve it. That leaves government to take the lead, which is tricky, because over-reliance on government can allow individuals to fob off their own responsibilities. What is worse, government power seems to tickle autocratic fantasies. In my experience, environmentalists spend far too much energy advocating hard-line government âsolutionsâ that do not stand a chance of being enacted. Sure, it might be good for the planet if governments banned the use of sports-utility vehicles or, for that matter, of all fossil fuels. Yet not only is it hard to sell outright prohibitions to voters, but the sad truth is that governments have a woeful record in even the mildest interventions. One of the most significant innovations in the last decade has been Europeâs carbon-emission trading scheme: some 12 000 companies, responsible for more than half of the EUâs emissions, have been assigned quotas. Companies with unused allowances can sell them; the higher the price, the greater the incentive for firms to cut their use of fossil fuels. The system seemed to work for about a year â but now it turns out that Europeâs governments allocated far too many credits, which will likely hinder the programâs effectiveness for years.
Perhaps the real reason that well-intentioned consumers do not change is that they do not see any benefit. Climate change may be a frightening, irreversible calamity, but its worst effects will not be felt next week or next year. The planet looks the same regardless of whether we use environmentally friendly technology or we do not care how much CO2 we emit. But sure as the sun rises and sets every day, if we do not cut down on carbon emissions, then we may not have a planet to hand over to the next generation.
(Adapted from Times, June 5, 2006)
- According to the passage, what are the effects of global warming? (4 mks)
- What, according to the passage, is the main cause of global warming? (2 mks)
- How does Britain encourage people to use renewable electricity? (3 mks)
- Paraphrase the following sentence: That is a strong argument for targeting industries, but the average reader could hardly be blamed for thinking, âWhy should I bother to cut down my driving?â (4 mks)
- What message does the writer communicate in this passage? (4 mks)
- Explain the meaning of the following words and expression as used in the passage. (4 mks)
- Fob off
QUESTION TWO. EXCERPT
Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow. (25 marks)
Nora : Itâs a shame to say that. I do really save all I can.
Helmer:(laughing)Thatâs very true, - all you can. But you canât save anything!
Nora :(smiling quietly and happily)You havenât any idea how many expenses we
skylarks and squirrels have, Torvald.
Helmer: You are an odd little soul. Very like your father. You always find some new way of wheedling money out of me, and as soon as you have got it, it seems to melt in your hands. You never know where it has gone. Still, one must take you as you are. It is in the blood: for indeed it is true that you can inherit these things, Nora.
Nora: Ah, I wish I had inherited many of papaâs qualities.
Helmer:And I would not wish you to be anything but just what you are, my little skylark. But do you know, it strikes me that you are looking-ratherâwhat shall I say- rather uneasy today?
Nora: Do I?
Helmer: You do, really. Look straight at me.
Nora :( looks at him) well?
Helmer:(wagging his finger at her) Hasnât Miss Sweet Tooth been breaking rules
in town today?
Nora: No; what makes you think that?
Helmer: Hasnât she paid a visit to the confectionerâs?
Nora:No, I assure you, Torvald-
Helmer: Not been nibbling sweets?
Nora : No, certainly not.
Helmer: Not even take a bite at a macaroon or two?
Nora : (going to the table on the right) I shouldnât think of going against your
Helmer: No, I am sure of that: besides, you gave me your word- (Going up to her) Keep your little Christmas secrets to yourself, my darling. They will be revealed tonight when the Christmas tree is lit, no doubt.
Nora: Did you remember to invite Doctor Rank?
Helmer: No. But there is no need; as a matter of course, he will come to dinner with us. However, I will ask him when he comes this morning. I have ordered some good wine. Nora, you canât think how I am looking forward to this evening.
Nora: So am I! And how the children will enjoy themselves, Torvald!
Helmer: It is splendid to feel that one has a perfectly safe appointment, and a big enough income. It is delightful to think of, isnât it?
Nora: Itâs wonderful!
- Place this extract in its immediate context. (4 mks)
- Explain the dramatic irony in this extract. (3mks)
- Helmer says here, âit is splendid to feel that one has a perfectly safe appointmentâ. What is he referring to? (1 mk)
- What issues on money and gender emerge in this extract? (4 mks)
- Identify and illustrate any two ways the playwright has used language to achieve foregrounding in this extract. (4 mks)
- What do we learn about the character of Nora in this extract? (4 mks)
- Imagine you are directing this play. Which quality would you look for in an actor to play the role of Torvald? (2mks)
- Explain the meaning of the following expressions as used in the extract? (3 mks)
- Wheedling money out of me
- You gave me your word
QUESTION THREE: ORAL LITERATURE (20marks)
Read the narrative below and then answer the questions that follow.
Once upon a time, all animals in the jungle were of the same plain colour but when they were invited by king lion for his sonâs wedding, they decided to decorate themselves for the occasion. The tortoise was given the task of making the dye to be used. Though he was slow, he was the most intelligent.
The big day was fast approaching but the tortoise had only managed to make one big pot of black dye. He called a meeting and they all decided to use the available dye to make various patterns in their skins.
The leopard was allocated the job of painting the rest of the animals. The zebra was the first on queue followed by the giraffe, then the donkey and all the other animals were to follow. The giraffe and the zebra were painted and they looked very beautiful.
Then the donkeyâs turn came but he was undecided on the pattern to choose. The leopard decided to paint him like a zebra and got down to work. He had a long line along the donkeyâs spine from head towards the tail. On reaching the tail, the donkey started giggling. The leopard continued and the donkey jumped and threw him his hind legs saying the brush was tickling and he could not contain himself any longer.
He had thrown his hind legs so hard that he hit the pot containing the dye. The dye spattered all over the animals on the queue. The cheetah got speckles all over his body, the leopard got spotted and the crow who happened to be passing by with an urgent letter for the king hanging on its neck was splashed by the dye which covered him the whole body apart from the neck where the letter was. On seeing this, the hyena started laughing but got a large splotch on his mouth.
All the animals rushed to the stream to try and wash out the dye but it was already dried and had become permanent. Nobody could get off the spots, streaks, speckles and splotches. And that is how the donkey was responsible for the various patterns we see on animalâs bodies today.
- Classify the narrative above. (2mks)
- Indentify and illustrate any two social aspects of society from which this narrative is taken (4 mks)
- Indentify and illustrate any three features peculiar to oral narratives evident in this narrative. (6mks)
- Identify and illustrate any two character traits of the Leopard. (4 mks)
- Who would be the target audience of such a narrative (2mks)
- If you were to collect this narrative from the field, what preparations would you make before the actual field work (2mks)
QUESTION 4:GRAMMAR .(15 mks)
- Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given after each. Do not change the meaning.
- The children welcomed the teachers. (1mk)
(Begin with: The teachers)
- John does not take Lunch. His sister does not take Lunch. (1mk)
(Begin with: Neither)
- Gatwiri asked, âCan we meet here tomorrow morning?â
(Rewrite in direct speech) (1mk)
- This novel is far better than the one I bought last week.
(Rewrite using the word âsuperiorâ) (1mk)
- It is not necessary to collect the garbage today.
(Rewrite being: You do not) (1mk)
- The children welcomed the teachers. (1mk)
- Rewrite the following sentences to correct the errors.(3mks)
- Of the two books, the first is longest. (1mk)
- The quarter of the three girls sleeps earlier. (1mk)
- I did not find any fellow colleagues in class when I arrived late. (1mk)
- Supply the appropriate question tags in the blank spaces in the following sentence. (3mks).
- We neednât worry about tomorrow. (1mk)
- Let me have a taste. (1mk)
- Theyâll come early in the morning. (1mk)
- Replace the underlined words with phrasal verbs formed from the words in brackets. (2mks)
- Lucy asked Julius not to involve himself with her personal matters. (keep)
- My mother accidentally met me along Jamhuri highway in the town (run)
- Use the words in bracket in their correct form to replace the underlined words.(2mks)
- The candidate was not popular amongst the electorate. (famous)
- The vehicle that was moving very fast caused the accident. (speed)
QUESTION 1: COMPREHENSION
- The effects of global warming are melting ice caps, rising sea levels, species extinction and climatic change. (4 marks)
- The main cause of global warming, according to the passage, is fossil fuel emissions as cited by 75% of Europeans. (2 marks)
- Britain encourages people to use renewable electricity by making it very easy for people to switch to renewable sources; it requires little more than a phone call. (2 marks)
- An ordinary reader would not be blamed for wondering why he or she has to reduce on driving while industries continue to emit a lot of CO2. (4 marks)
- The writer communicates the message that, while pollution is a life-threatening issue, the approaches to resolving it are ineffective. (4 marks)
- fob off â to avoid/make excuses
- Incentive â a thing that motivates or encourages someone to do something
- Calamity â an event that causes great damage
- Vast -â extremely large/huge/widely spread (4 marks)
QUESTION 2: EXCERPT (25 MARKS)
- Before the extract;
- Nora has spent all the money she was given for shopping.
- Her husband Helmer considers her a spendthrift.
- However, he promises to add her more money.
- Nora requests to be given a chance to buy what she needs most.
- After the extract;
- Helmer reminds Nora of how she overworked herself prior to the past Christmas to have a homemade Christmas tree.
- Nora however says she didnât find it dull/boring.
- Helmer praises her of her good intentions.
- Before the extract;
- The dramatic irony in the extract is in Noraâs denial, that she hasnât been at the confectionerâs, yet she is hiding macaroons in her pocket; something we the audience know of but Helmer isnât aware of.
- The high job security resulting from the promotion she has gotten.
- Issues on money and gender:
- That women canât save money because they are spendthrifts
- That women have very many expenses unknown to men/their husbands.
- That women are subordinate to men and must do everything not to offend them including obeying their orders.
- That women can only but be compared to children hence the terms skylarks, squirrels, little soul etc.
- The names by which Helmer refers to his wife foregrounds Patriarchy in the society; the belittled position of women in the society hence the terms such as skylark, squirrel, little soul.
- Helmer also uses language that foregrounds women as poor financial managers and spendthrifts. He refers to Nora as Miss Sweet Tooth and complains of Nora wheedling money out of him, visiting the confectionerâs and nibbling sweets.
- Nora is:
- Insincere-She denies nibbling sweets and being at confectionerâs yet she is hiding macaroons in her pocket.
- Convincing- She always finds a way of wheedling money out of her husband.
N/B: Award any other well illustrated trait. 1 mk id. & 1 mk ill. For 2 traits = 4 mks
- Torvald must be:
- Observant â He keenly observes the behavior exhibited by Nora and suspects she has macaroons.
- Domineering- Torvald wants to control Nora without considering her feelings. He even sarcastically says this when Nora claims she saves all she can: âThatâs very true, - all you can. But you canât save anything!â
N/B: Award any other well illustrated point: 2mks x 1 point= 2 mks.
QUESTION 3:ORAL LITERATURE (20 Marks)
- A etiological / Explanatory narrative (1mk)
It talks of why the animals have different pattern/ spots (1mk)
- wedding ceremonies (1mk) king lion had invited other animals for his sonâs wedding (1mk)
- communalism/Division of labour (1mk) each animal was allocated a different job eg leopard to decorate others, tortoise to make dye.
- Opening formular (1mk) once upon a time (1mk)
- Closing formular (1mk) and that how â¦â¦â¦â¦. Today (1 mk)
- Timelessness (1mk) once upon a time (lit can be applicable to any time in History)
- Fantasy (1mk) animas have a wedding and decorating themselves for the same.(1mk)
- meticulous/ rigorous/ precise (1mk)
He painted the Giraffe and Zebra till they looked beautiful (1mk)
- Hardworking/ industrious (1mk)
He had to decorate all the animals (1mk)
- meticulous/ rigorous/ precise (1mk)
- young children (1mk) as it serves the purpose of entertainment(1mk)
it also teaches them about natural phenomena e.g why different animals have different colours.
- Seek permission from the local authorities to be allowed to conduct the fields study.
- Liaise with my resource person.
- Make a pre â visit to the place.
NB: Accept any other correct answer.
QUESTION FOUR: GRAMMAR
âThe teachers was welcomed by the children.
âNeither John nor his sisters take Lunch.
âGatwiri asked them whether they could meet there the following morning
âThis novel is superior to the one I bought last week
âYou do not necessarily need to collect the Garbage today
âOf the two books the first is the longer.
âThe quarter of the three girls sleeps earliest.
âI did not find my colleagues in class when I arrived late.
- Let the student rewrite the sentences so as to take care of the punctuation marks.
â, need we?
â, shall I?
â, wonât they?