KCSE 2015 History Paper 1 with Marking Scheme

Share via Whatsapp
Download PDF for future reference Get on Whatsapp for 50/-

SECTION A (25 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. Define the term 'pre-history'. (1 mark)
  2. Identify two sub-groups for Kalenjin speakers. (2 marks)
  3. State two functions of the council elders among the Somali. (2 marks)
  4. State two activities of the Akamba community during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)
  5. Name the winds that aided the early visitors to come to the Kenyan coast upto 1500AD. (1 mark)
  6. Give two reasons why Seyyid Said moved his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar. (2 marks)
  7. Give two peaceful methods of resolving conflicts in Kenya. (2 marks)
  8. Give two ways in which direct democracy is exercised in Kenya. (2 marks)
  9. Give one reason why the British used indirect rule in some parts of Kenya. (1 mark)
  10. Identify two education commissions established in Kenya before independence. (2 marks)
  11. Name the body that made laws in Kenya during the colonial period. (1 mark)
  12. Outline two problems experienced by political associations in Kenya up to 1939.(2 Marks)
  13. Who formed the Kenya Peoples' Union in 1966? (1 mark)
  14. Give one type of parliamentary elections held in Kenya. (1 mark)
  15. Name one of the ex-officio member of the Senate in Kenya. (1 mark)
  16. State one feature of African socialism in Kenya. (1 mark)
  17. Identify one type of a public revenue expenditure by the National Government of Kenya. (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 marks)
Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1.        
    1. Give five reasons which influenced the migration of the Abagusii into Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (5 marks)
    2. Discuss five effects of migration and settlement of the Plain Nilotes during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)
  2.       
    1. State five reasons for the Portugese success in the conquest on the Kenyan coast. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five social effects of the Indian Ocean Trade on the people of the Kenyan Coast up to 1500 AD. (10 marks)
  3.      
    1. Give five reasons for the construction of the Ugandan railway. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five problems encountered during the construction of the Uganda railway. (10 marks)
  4.       
    1. State five factors that facilitated the Mau Mau movement. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five roles played by the trade union movement in the struggle for independence in Kenya. (10 marks)                    

SECTION C (30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1.          
    1. Give three factors that led to the introduction of multi-party democracy in Kenya in the early 1990s. (3 marks)
    2. Describe six achievements of multi-party democracy in Kenya. (12 marks)
  2.        
    1. State three functions of the chief justice in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six problems facing the Judiciary in Kenya. (12 marks)

  3.     
    1. State three ways in which the National Government relates with the County Government. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six challanges faced by the County Government in Kenya. (12 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A: (25 marks)

  1. Define the term “pre-history'..
    It is the study of the past human activities before the invention of writing/study of unrecorded past human activities.
    1x 1 = 1 mark
  2. Identify two sub-groups of the Kalenjin speakers.
    1. Nandi
    2. Tugen
    3. Pokot
    4. Kipsigis
    5. Keiyo
    6. Marakwet
    7. Sabaot
    8. Terik
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  3. State two functions of the Council of Elders among the Somali.
    1. to maintain law and order
    2. to settle disputes
    3. It was the final authority in making decisions on clan matters
    4. It presided over religious ceremonies.
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  4. State two economic activities of the Akamba during the pre-colonial period.
    1. They kept livestock
    2. They were hunters
    3. They traded with their neighbours
    4. They engaged in pottery/basketry/weaving/carvings
    5. They grew crops
    6. They were bee keepers
    7. They made iron implements
    8. They were gatherers
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  5. Name the winds that aided the early visitors to come to the Kenyan Coast up to 1500 AD.
    North-East monsoon winds
    1x 1 = 1 mark
  6. Give two reasons why Seyyid Said moved his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar.
    1. In order to effectively control the East African coast
    2. Zanzibar had a pleasant climate
    3. Zanzibar was strategically located for the development of trade
    4. Zanzibar had fertile soils/adequate rainfall/fresh water
    5. Offered a good defence site from outside attacks
    6. Zanzibar had deep natural harbours
    7. The rulers of Zanzibar were loyal to Oman.
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  7. Give two peaceful methods of resolving conflicts in Kenya
    1. Mediation
    2. Negotiation
    3. Litigation
    4. Arbitration
    5. Conciliation/reconciliation
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  8. State two ways in which direct democracy is exercised in Kenya
    1. Through a referendum
    2. Through consensus/plebiscite
    3. Through people's initiative
    4. Exercising right to recall a non performing member of parliament
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  9. Give one reason why the British used indirect rule in some parts of Kenya.
    1. They lacked adequate funds
    2. They had inadequate personnel
    3. Did not want to stir up African resistance
    4. It had been used successfully elsewhere
    5. The existence of traditional system of governments
      1x1 = 1 mark
  10. Identify two education commissions established in Kenya before independence.
    1. Fraser commission of 1908
    2. Phelps Stoke commission of 1924
    3. Beecher commission of 1949 Binns commission 1952
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  11. Name the body that made laws in Kenya during the colonial period.
    The Legislative Council/Legco
    1 x 1 = 1 mark
  12. Outline two problems experienced by political associations in Kenya up to 1939.
    1. They lacked adequate funds
    2. Their leaders were arrested/detained
    3. There was infighting among leaders
    4. They were ethnic based/lacked unity
    5. Most of the leaders lacked organizational skills
    6. Some political associations were banned/proscribed
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  13. Who formed the Kenya People's Union in 1966?
    Jaramogi Oginga Odinga
    1 x 1 = 1 mark
  14. Give one type of parliamentary election held in Kenya.
    1. General election
    2. By-election
      Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark
  15. Name one ex-officio member of the Senate (1 mark)
    The speaker
  16. State one feature of African Socialism in Kenya (1 mark)
    1. It emphasised progressive taxation
    2. It promotes equity
    3. Advocates for mutual social responsibility
    4. It promotes participation in democratic processes
    5. Advocates for various forms of onwership
      Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark
  17. Identify one type of public revenue expenditure by the National Government of Kenya.
    1. Capital expenditure 
    2. Recurrent expenditure
      Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark

SECTION B (45 marks)

  1.    
    1. Give five reasons which influenced the migration of Abagusii into Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (5 marks)
      1. Due to population pressure/increase in population
      2. Natural calamities/drought/famine
      3. Due to external attacks
      4. Due to internal fights/wrangles
      5. Due to outbreaks of diseases
      6. Due to spirit of adventure
      7. To search for fertile land
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
    2. Discuss five effects of migration and settlement of the Plain Nilotes during the pre-colonial period.(10 marks)
      1. They exchanged/traded goods/services with the neighbouring communities so as to get what they lacked.
      2. They adopted cultural practices of the communities they interacted with.
      3. They displaced some of the communities they came into contact with.
      4. They absorbed/assimilated some communities leading to extinction of the absorbed groups.
      5. Some of their military tactics were adopted by the neighbouring communities who used them for defence.
      6. They intermarried with their neighbouring communities thus improving their relations.
      7. Some of them adopted farming skills from their Bantu neighbours hence became farmers.
      8. There was conflict/insecurity as they competed over scarce resources.
      9. They influenced some neighbouring communities to adopt their social/political! religious institutions.
      10. It led to increased population in the regions they settled.
        Any 5 well explained points = 10 marks)
  2.    
    1. State five reasons for the Portuguese success in the conquest of the Kenyan coast. (5 marks)
      1. They had superior weapons
      2. They had better/strong naval power
      3. The coastal towns were not united
      4. They got reinforcement from Goa in India
      5. Some towns did not offer resistance to the Portuguese invasion
      6. They waged surprise attacks
      7. They had well trained soldiers
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
    2. Explain five social effects of Indian Ocean Trade on the people of the Kenyan coast up to 1500 AD. (10 marks)
      1. It led to intermarriage between the coastal people and the Arabs giving rise to Swahili people
      2. Africans were converted to Islam by Muslim traders
      3. Islamic culture was adopted by the coastal people through interaction with Arabs
      4. It led to new architectural design along the coast
      5. It led to the introduction of Sharia/Islamic laws along the coast - which defined the people's way of life
      6. It fuelled conflict between the communities as demands for slaves increased leading to insecurity
      7. It led to emergence of Kiswahili as a new language of communication as the locals interacted with the foreigners
      8. It led to the emergence of wealthy merchants who displayed high standards of living.
        Any 5 well explained points x 2 = 10 marks
  3.    
    1. Give five reasons for the construction of the Uganda railway. (5 marks)
      1. To facilitate faster movement of troops into the interior 
      2. To ensure effective administration/control over British protectorate
      3. To facilitate abolition of slave trade/promotion of legitimate trade
      4. To link the land locked Uganda with the coast/outside world
      5. To enable British to protect her strategic interest in the region
      6. To facilitate exploitation of resources in the region
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
    2. Explain five problems encountered during the construction of Uganda railway (10 marks)
      1. There was shortage of labour as most of the Africans were not willing to provide labour/not skilled. Adverse climatic conditions/dry condition/heavy rains delayed the construction work.
      2. Attacks by tropical diseases weakened the workers/loss of life slowing down the work/pests.
      3. There was scarcity of essential supplies which made the workers less productive 
      4. There was hostility/resistance from African communities who were against the construction of the railway through their land. The terrain/escarpment posed engineering challenges which slowed down the construction work.
      5. Attack by man eaters of Tsavo/lions caused loss of lives desertions leading to delays/stoppage for some time.
      6. There were delays in delivery of construction materials which delayed the construction/raised the cost of construction.
      7. The transportation of some construction materials was difficult due to their bulkiness
        Any 5 points, well explained x 2 = 10 marks)
  4.  
    1. State five factors that facilitated Mau Mau movement. (5 marks)
      1. The oathing activities which united the nationalists
      2. Availability of homemade guns/ammunition
      3. Hilly terrain/existence of forests provided hideouts for the nationalists
      4. Regular food supply/information provided to the fighters
      5. Availability of able/skilful leaders
      6. Use of guerilla tactics to fight the colonialists.
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)
    2. Explain five roles played by the trade union movement in the struggle for independence in Kenya. (10 marks)
      1. It motivated the workers against oppressive colonial government policies thereby promoting anti-government sentiments
      2. It served as a platform/fora for airing African grievances against the colonial government in the absence of political organizations which had been banned It educated the workers on their rights hence made them agitate for political independence
      3. It organized demonstrations/strikes/boycotts against the colonial government thereby promoting nationalist activities
      4. It provided training grounds for the leaders who led in the nationalist struggle
      5. It exposed the plight of African workers to the international community leading to the condemnation of the colonial government
      6. It demanded for the release of political prisoners/detainees which boosted the struggle for independence
        Any 5 points, well explained x 2 = 10 marks 

SECTION C (30 marks)

  1.    
    1. Give three factors that led to the introduction of multi-party democracy in Kenya in the early 1990s. (3 marks)
      1. The alleged rigging of the 1988 elections/discontent with queuing system of voting Kanu's failure to accommodate people with divergent views
      2. Political changes in the Soviet Union/pressure from the international community
      3. Success of multi-party in other parts of Africa
      4. Pressure from the churches/civil society/lawyers/intellectuals/rampant corruption.
      5. Repeal of Section 2A of the constitution
      6. Recommendation of Saitoti Review Committee of 1990.
        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Describe six achievements of multi-party democracy in Kenya. (12 marks)
      1. It enhances checks and balances as opposition parties point out government excesses
      2. It has opened up democratic space as people can air/express their views without fear of intimidation
      3. It has facilitated mobilization of more people to take part in the democratic process/elections
      4. It has facilitated the provision of civic education to the people thereby empowering them to make informed decisions
      5. It has promoted unity as members of different ethnic groups join political parties of their choice
      6. The creation of many political parties has provided training grounds for political leaders
      7. It has enabled provision of alternative approach to the management of government affairs
      8. It has enabled the opposition to initiate/debate issues that the government may be silent on
      9. It has given people voice in the selection/appointment of public officers.
        Any 6 points, well explained x 2 = 12 marks)
  2.    
    1. State three functions of the Chief Justice in Kenya. (3 marks) 
      1. Heads the judiciary
      2. Is the president of the Supreme Court
      3. Chairs the Judicial Service Commission
      4. Swears in newly admitted advocates of the High Court
      5. Assigns duties to the judges of the supreme court
      6. Swears into office the President, Deputy President and Cabinet Secretaries
        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Explain six problems facing Judiciary in Kenya (12 marks)
      1. Inadequate personnel/few judicial officers leading to backlog of cases
      2. Alleged corruption in the courts resulting in unfair ruling make the public lose faith in judicial process
      3. Low level of public awareness in their rights/legal procedures making it difficult for many to access justice
      4. High legal fees charged limit people access to justice/expensive lawyers Inadequate equipment/automation of legal services delay the delivery of judgement Inadequate funds to finance its services frustrates operations of the judiciary
      5. Inteferance in the Judicial process by the executive and other influential personalities.
        Any 6 well explained points x 2 = 12 marks
  3.    
    1. State three ways in which the National Government relates with the County Governments in Kenya (3 marks)
      1. There is mutual respect in performance/exercising their powers 
      2. They assist/consult/support as appropriate
      3. They should implement legislation of other levels of government
      4. They liaise for purposes of exchanging information/coordinating policies/ administration/enhancing capacity
      5. They cooperate in the performance of function/exercise of power/set up joint committee/joint authority 
      6. They set up mechanism for settling dispute
      7. National Government has powers to intervene in a county government if it is unable to perform its functions/the president may suspend a county government
        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
    2. Explain six challenges faced by the County Governments in Kenya (12 marks)
      1. High population in some counties making it difficult in the provision of quality services
      2. Poor transport/communication network hinders the movement of goods/service
      3. Inadequate resources make it difficult for the counties to generate enough revenue for development
      4. Rivalry/wrangling among leaders in the counties undermines the governments operation
      5. Inadequate skilled personnel in some departments hampers provision of services
      6. Corruption/embezzlement/misuse of devolved funds slows development in the counties
      7. Delay in remittance of funds to the counties by the National Government hampers the smooth running of the governments
      8. Natural calamities in some counties leads to diversion of some resources to address the emergencies e.g floods
      9. Duplication of roles in the county causes conflict between the personnel of the two levels of the government. 
      10. Interference in their working by the National Government.
      11. Cross-county planning and development - some resources such as water or forest land may be serving more than one county. This may bring conflicts between counties.
      12. Structural overlaps - management of cities and urban areas differs from that of rural areas, with more services directed to cities and urban centres.
        Any 6 points, well explained x 2 = 12 marks 

Download KCSE 2015 History Paper 1 with Marking Scheme.


Tap Here to Download for 50/-





Join our whatsapp group for latest updates
Read 2820 times Last modified on Thursday, 25 November 2021 11:27
Print PDF for future reference