Identify one disadvantage of using anthropology as a source of information in History and Government. (1 mark)
- It is time consuming
- It is an expensive method
- Information collected may be inaccurate/ distorted
- Information collected may be biased.
Identify two communities in Kenya which belong to the Western Bantu group. (2 marks)
- The Luhya
State two similarities in the political organisation of the Ameru and Abaluhya of Kenya during the 19th Century. (2 marks)
- The clans formed the basic political unit
- Leadership was by the council of elders
- Both had age set systems
- The council of elders settled disputes
- They had warriors who defended their communities
Give one economic duty of a Kenyan citizen. (1 mark)
- Participating in development activities
- Paying taxes.
- Protecting the environment
- Fighting corruption
Identify two foreign powers that took control of the Kenyan Coast during the 16th Century.(2 marks)
- The British
Which factor influenced Seyyid Said to develop agriculture in Zanzibar during the 16th Century? (2 marks)
- Zanzibar had favourable climate for clove growing.
- Availability of labour/slave labour
- Zanzibar had a natural deep harbour which would promote trade in agricultural products.
- Zanzibar had fertile soil.
State two ways through which the construction of the Uganda railway facilitated the colonisation of Kenya. (2 marks)
- It enhanced the transportation of troops/administrators
- It opened the country to European settlers
- It led to forceful displacement/loss of land by some communities
State the meaning of "Direct democracy".(1 mark)
- It is a government where people themselves make rules/ decisions that affect their welfare.
Give two Education Commissions appointed by the Government of Kenya to review the Education System since independence. (2 marks)
- The Kenya Education Commission/Ominde Commission of 1964.
- The National Committee on Education objectives and policies/Gachathi commission of 1976.
- The presidential working party on the Second University/Mackay Commission of 1981.
- The Kamunge Commission 1988
- David Koech Commission 1999
Identify one reason why the government may limit one's freedom of expression in Kenya. (1 mark)
- If one’s speech incites the public against the state.
- If one discloses confidential information relating to the state.
- If one spreads false information about the state / individual.
State two features of African farming in Kenya during the colonial period. (2 marks)
- Small scale farming was practiced
- Africans mainly grew foods
- Traditional methods of farming were used.
What was the main reason why the second Lancaster House Conference was held in 1962? (1 mark)
- To come up with a constitution for independent Kenya
State one way through which the Harambee spirit among Kenyans promotes national unity. (1 mark)
- It encourages people to work together
- It promotes cooperation
- It promotes equity in the distribution of resources
- It enhances interaction of people
- It promotes patriotism
Give two negative effects of over reliance on foreign aid for the country. (2 marks)
- It is given with conditions.
- It attracts high interest rates.
- It creates donor dependency syndrome/debt crisis
- It limits the choice of trading partners.
- It delays the implementation of projects.
Give one symbol of national unity in Kenya. (1 mark)
- The National flag
- The National Anthem
- The Coat of Arms
- The Loyalty pledge
- The Presidency
- The Constitution
- The National language
Who is the administrative head of Parliament in Kenya? (1 mark)
- The Clerk
Identify the police department responsible for maintaining law and order.(1 mark)
- The Administration police
Identify five causes of the Nandi resistance against British invasion in Kenya (5 marks)
- They wanted to safeguard their independence
- They were proud people who disliked interference by strangers
- Had successfully raided /fought their neighbours/intruders in the past
- They disliked the whiteman's/European skin colour/dressing.
- They did not want to lose their land.
- They fought to avert the fulfillment of Kimnyole/Orkoiyors prophecy
- They had an able leader who inspired them to fight/resist.
Explain five results of the Maasai collaboration with the British in the early 20th Century. (10 marks)
- Lenana was made a paramount chief of the Maasai because of his cooperation.
- They lost land which was taken up by the British for farming/settlement.
- They were rewarded with material wealth/granted favoured status due to their cooperation.
- They lost their independence/were manipulated as their land became a British protectorate.
- It led to the division/separation between those for/against collaboration thereby weakening them further.
- They were hired as mercenaries to assist the British in subduing/suppressing communities that were resisting establishment of colonial rule.
- It led to the eviction/displacement of the Maasai thereby causing untold suffering/loss of livelihood.
- It led to the disruption of their economic structure thereby causing loss of wealth
- Identify five causes of the Nandi resistance against British invasion in Kenya (5 marks)
Outline three reasons of Somali resistance against the British rule in Kenya in the 19th Century. (3 marks)
- The Somali were opposed to the division of Somaliland into the British and Italian spheres of influence which separated the clans
- They were opposed to punitive expeditions sent against them by the British
- The Somali people being Muslims were opposed to being controlled by the British who were Christians
- The British attempted to stop the Somali raiding activities against their neighbours
- The Somali were against British Control of their pasture land and watering points
- The British wanted the Somali to drop their nomadic way of life
Describe six negative effects of British colonial rule on the people of Kenya. (12 marks)
- Colonial rule led to the loss of political independence
- Creation of reserves for Africans led to the emergence of Squatters
- It led to the introduction of forced labour among the Africans
- Led to the introduction of taxation on Kenyans
- Creation of colonial boundaries split communities and affected their social cohesion.
- Africans in Kenya lost their land to Europeans settlers leading to landlessness
- Colonial rule undermined African cultural practices
- It destroyed traditional African political systems replacing them with appointed leaders
- Introduced segregation/ colour bar which created divisions among Kenyans
- Outline three reasons of Somali resistance against the British rule in Kenya in the 19th Century. (3 marks)
Outline five grievances expressed by the Kikuyu Central Association and presented by Jomo Kenyatta to the Colonial Secretary in 1929. (5 marks)
- Land alienation.
- Taxation of Africans.
- Lack of African representation at Legc
- Lack of quality/poor education for Africans.
- Release of Harry Thuku.
- Abolition of forced labour
- Abolition of Kipande system
Explain the role played by Thomas Joseph Mboya in the development of trade union movement in Kenya. (10 marks)
- He was instrumental in the formation of trade union movement.
- He served as a leader in trade union organizations both locally and internationally. :
- He organized protests/ demonstrations against the arrest and harassment of trade union members/workers.
- He liaised with international trade union organizations where he gained knowledge/ experience of running trade unions.
- He solicited for funds to finance the activities of trade Union movement in Kenya.
- He organized trade union courses/ seminars in various parts of the country to educate the workers/leaders.
- He agitated for better terms/conditions for workers.
- He attended courses on industrial relations abroad where he gained knowledge on labour relations
- Outline five grievances expressed by the Kikuyu Central Association and presented by Jomo Kenyatta to the Colonial Secretary in 1929. (5 marks)
State three challenges that hinder government effort to eradicate illiteracy in Kenya. (3 marks)
- Traditional/cultural beliefs in some communities discourage people from schooling.
- Lack of enough schools/inadequate educational facilities has made education inaccessible in some regions/shortage of teachers.
- High poverty levels in the society has made education unaffordable.
- Misconceptions that one can succeed without education.
- Nomadic ways of life in some communities has hampered provision of education.
- Negative attitude towards adult education programmes has resulted in low enrolment
- Insecurity in some regions
Describe six factors that have influenced industrialisation in Kenya since independence. (12 marks)
- The availability of modern sources of energy has enabled the establishment of more industries which process different products.
- Availability of both skilled /unskilled labour from large population provides the workforce needed in industries.
- Good transport and communication has created a viable environment for industrial development as the products can be transported with ease.
- The agriculturally rich country provides raw materials required in the processing of various products.
- The existence of mineral resources has given rise to industries which process them into finished products.
- The existenance of both natural and man- made forests has promoted the development for furniture industries in many parts of the country
- Availability of water resources rich in fish has given rise to fish processing industries in the country.
- Government initiatives through creation of trade, commerce and industry
- State three challenges that hinder government effort to eradicate illiteracy in Kenya. (3 marks)
Identify five circumstances that can make a registered voter be denied the right to vote in Kenya. (5 marks)
- When one is insane/ unsound mind
- When one presents oneself in a constituency where one is not registered
- When one is discovered to have registered twice
- When one does not have a voter’s card on the voting day
- When one does not have a national identification Card on the voting day/ one has a defective National Identification Card
- When ones name does not appear in the voters register
- When one is time barred/ late
Describe the rights of an accused person in a court of law during trial in Kenya.(10 marks)
- The accused person is presumed innocent until proven guilty
- He/ She should be informed of the charge with sufficient detail so as to prepare a defence.
- One should be given adequate time to consult with the advocate/ witness
- One should be present when court proceedings are taking place
- One should be given a chance to plead for leniency
- One should not be forced to give evidence
- One should be allowed to be heard
- One should be allowed to appeal against the ruling
- Right to legal representation
- Identify five circumstances that can make a registered voter be denied the right to vote in Kenya. (5 marks)
Name five types of courts in Kenya (5 marks)
- The Court of Appeal
- The Chief Magistrates Court
- The Resident Magistrates Court
- The Senior Principal Magistrates Court
- Special Courts/Tribunals
Explain the importance of separation of powers between the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary in Kenya. (10 marks)
- To make the co-ordination of government programmes and administration effective.
- To enable the government to facilitate division of labour.
- It helps prevent abuse of power/provides checks and balances.
- It promotes efficient service delivery.
- It is a constitutional requirement
- To enhance accountability
- It promotes transparency/openness in government dealings.
- It ensures that no arm of the government interferes with the other.
- Name five types of courts in Kenya (5 marks)
Give the three categories of the Kenya Defence Forces. (3 marks)
- The Kenya Army
- The Kenya Air force
- The Kenya Navy
Explain six challenges encountered by the Kenya Police Service in the course of discharging their duties. (12 marks)
- Lack of support/negative attitude from the members of the public who/withhold useful information
- Corruption among some officers renders them ineffective in discharging their duties
- Inadequate transport facilities hamper their movement making it difficult to respond to emergencies.
- Sophisticated weapons used by criminals threaten/endanger police officer’s lives.
- Inadequate modern communication equipment makes it difficult for them to relay/pass confidential information.
- Interference by politicians/members of the public demoralizes/frustrates their efforts
- Betrayal by some officers who collude with criminals to break the law/subvert justice.
- Inadequate training of the officers renders them incompetent in discharging their duties
- Increased acts of terrorism/crime
- Poor working and living conditions eg. poor housing/low salaries.
- Give the three categories of the Kenya Defence Forces. (3 marks)