Give one type of written materials used by historians as a source of History and Government. (1 mark)
- Books/ charts/ maps/ scrolls/ paintings/ clay labels/ stone tablets
- Newspapers/ magazines
- Diaries/ biographies
- Journals/ periodicals
- Official/ government records
Give one negative effect of the land enclosure system in Britain during the 18th Century.(1 mark)
- It displaced the poor people / landlessness
- It forced the poor to migrate to urban centres
- It increased pauperism/ poverty in Europe
- It created immigrants to other parts of the world
Mention one type of trade.(1 mark)
- Local trade
- Regional trade
- International trade
Highlight two uses of copper in Africa during the 19th Century.(2 marks)
- Making utensils.
- Making ornaments.
- To make weapons.
- As a medium of exchange/trade item.
- It was mixed with other metals to make alloys.
- It was used for making tools
- It was used as a trade item.
- It was used to make statues
Identify two metals used as currency in pre-colonial Africa.(2 marks)
Identify two groups who participated in the Trans-Atlantic Trade. (2 marks)
- The Europeans
- The Africans
- The Americans.
Give one reason that led to the decline of Meroe as an early urban centre.(1 mark)
- The rise of the Axum the Kingdom which developed East of Meroe denied Meroe access to the red sea causing decline in trade.
- The king of Axum subdued and destroyed Meroe in 350 A.D
- Desertification due to deforestation led to decline of food supply for her people.
- Deforestation caused the decline of food supply for her people.
Outline the main factor that led to the growth of the ancient town of Kilwa. (1 mark)
- It’s control of the Sofala gold trade/trade in gold
Identify two reasons why early urban centres in ancient Egypt developed along the Nile Valley. (2 marks)
- Water from the river was used for transportation
- Water from the river was used for domestic use/ industrial use
- The Nile valley contained fertile soil for farming/ availability of food
- The Nile valley had cool temperature which encouraged settlement
- Vegetation along the river provided building materials
Identify two officials who assisted the ruler of the Shona to administer the Kingdom (2 marks)
- The head cook
- Head gate keeper/ chancellor
- The court steward/ chamberlain/ chancellor
- The Queen Mother
- The head drummer
- The head of the Army
- The Treasurers
- The Senior son in law
- The Nine principal wives of the King
- The King’s sister
Mention one consequence of the French Assimilation Policy in Senegal ( 1 mark)
- All colonies were subjected to the same law.
- Racial discrimination was minimal in the colonies.
- It undermined African culture.
- French goods and modern ways spread in West Africa.
- Educated Africans spearheaded nationalism in Africa.
- Africans were represented by deputies in the National Assembly
Name two principal organs of the United Nations (2 marks)
- The General Assembly
- The Security Council
- The Economic and Social Council
- The Secretariat
- The Trusteeship Council
- The International Court of Justice
Give one economic problem experienced by the British colonialists in Nigeria (1 mark)
- They lacked adequate funds
- Poor transport / communication undermined their work
- They lacked adequate skilled labour
State two objectives of the African National Congress in South Africa.(2 marks)
- To unite all black people to win majority rule in South Africa.
- To encourage a united anti-racial activities/oppose apartheid.
- To remove all forms of injustices.
- To win a vote/franchise for all the people of South Africa
Identify one financial institution established by the African Union ( 1 mark)
- The African Monetary Fund
- The African Central Bank
- The African Investment Bank
Identify the country that was blamed for the outbreak of the First World War. (1 mark)
Mention two ways in which Non-Aligned members safeguarded their National Security. (2 marks)
- By keeping off from conflicts of non-member countries
- By maintaining their sovereignty/independence
- By maintaining their economic independence
- By not identifying with either Communism or Capitalism
- By taking independent decisions/actions in international fora
- By maintaining their cultural identity
- By not joining trade alliances
Give three disadvantages of hunting as an economic activity by early human beings.(3 marks)
- It was dif f icul t to locate/spot the animals
- Animals were a threat/dangerous to humans;
- It required many people;
- Hunting was time consuming;
- It was tiresome/cumbersome;
- Animals ran faster than man
Describe six results of iron working technology on African communities before the 19th Century. (12 marks)
- The use of iron tools made cul tivation of the land easier/faster as they were more efficient.
- Iron tools were used to clear forests thereby enabl ing people to migrate/settle in new areas.
- Iron weapons were used to fight other communities thereby increasing warfare/ conflicts.
- It led to the rise of professional smiths who were accorded high status in the community
- The demand for iron tools enhanced trade between communities.
- Communities were able to protect themselves better using iron weapons.
- Powerful states emerged as iron weapons were used to conquer/annex weaker communities/territories
- Iron implements were used as a medium of exchange thereby facilitating trade transactions.
- The use of iron tools/implements led to increased food production, since more land was brought under cultivation
- Led to development of towns e.g Meroe.
- Give three disadvantages of hunting as an economic activity by early human beings.(3 marks)
Outline three challenges faced by factory workers in Europe during the Industrial Revolution. (3 marks)
- They were paid low wages/salaries
- They worked for long hours
- They were exposed to accidents
- Accidents victims were laid off without compensation.
- Inadequate housing made them live in slums.
- They suffered from diseases due to poor sanitation/pollution
Describe six factors that have encouraged industrialisation in South Africa. (12 marks)
- The availability of many sources of energy to provide the required power of industrialization.
- The existence of varied mineral resources to sustain the process of industrialization.
- The presence of well developed transport network a infrastructure to facilitate the movement of raw materials and finished industrial goods to the market.
- The availability of both internal and external markets for their manufactured goods.
- The availability of both skilled and unskilled manpower required for industrialization.
- The availability of capital generated from South African trade in other goods has enabled her to set up industries.
- The government’s sound industrial policies which encouraged both local and foreign investors to boost industrialization.
- The high quality of goods has led to increased demand for South African manufactured goods.
- The political stability in the country since the end of the apartheid era has created a conducive environment for industrial development.
- Outline three challenges faced by factory workers in Europe during the Industrial Revolution. (3 marks)
Outline five economic activities of the Asante during the 19th Century. (5 marks)
- They grew crops for food/trade;
- They carried out trade among themselves/other groups.
- They were involved in mining;
- They practiced Art and crafts/basketry/weaving
- They practiced iron working/black smithing;
- They did hunting/gathering;
- They practiced pottery making
Outline the social organization of the Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period. (5 marks)
- They were organized into clans which had their own traditions/customs.
- They worshipped many gods with Katonda as their supreme God/polytheism
- The people highly regarded the Kabaka whom they considered to be semidivine.
- The people believed in life after death since they worshipped the spirits of the dead.
- The umbilical cord/jaw bones of the Kabaka were preserved for future remembrance.
- The people performed sacrifices during the time of misfortune/fortune.
- They had symbols of royalty in form of royal drums/spears/crowns which were kept at the Kabaka's palace
- They had religious shrines which were scattered all over the Kingdom.
- They were polygamous /married many wives in order to strengthen social relations
- Outline five economic activities of the Asante during the 19th Century. (5 marks)
Give five reasons that encouraged nationalists in Mozambique to use armed struggle to attain independence. (5 marks)
- Portugal refused to listen to the grievances of the Africans.
- The nationalists were trained in fighting skills.
- The liberation committee of the Organization of African Unity/Tanzania and other (O.A.U) members supported the nationalists with finance and weapons.
- The nationalists were supported and encouraged by communist countries.
- The success of MauMau freedom fighters in Kenya inspired them.
- The country was forested and conducive for guerilla warfare.
- The United Nations (UN) denounced colonialism thus boosting the morale of the nationalists.
Explain the challenges faced by the Nationalists in Mozambique. (10 marks)
- They lacked basic needs such as food, clothes and medicine.
- Ideological differences led to the formation of rival guerrilla movements such as MANU, COREMO and FRELIMO.
- The nationalist were demoralised due to the assassination of their leader Eduardo Mondlane.
- The Portuguese government ruthlessly suppressed the nationalist movement.
- The South African apartheid government assisted the Portuguese to fight the nationalists.
- Portugal outlawed political movements
- The Christian church in Mozambique condemned the nationalist movement
- Give five reasons that encouraged nationalists in Mozambique to use armed struggle to attain independence. (5 marks)
Outline five aims of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). (5 marks)
- To promote unity among African states.
- To end all forms of colonialism in Africa.
- To promote human rights in African countries in line with the United Nations’ Charter.
- To promote social, economic and political cooperation in Africa in order to uplift the peoples standards of living.
- To uphold the policy of non-alignment in international affairs.
- To uphold the policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of member states.
- To recognize/respect the territorial/sovereignty of member states.
- To promote peaceful settlement of disputes among member states.
Discuss the difference between the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) and the African Union (AU). (10 marks)
- The structure of the African Union is more elaborate than that of the Organisation of African Unity/The African Union has more organs than the Organization of African Unity.
- African Union unlike the Organisation of African Unity has the mandate to intervene in the internal affairs of member states who violate human rights.
- African Union is viewed as an organisation of African peoples while Organisation of African Unity was an organisation of African executives.
- African Union has an ambitious economic development agenda for Africa while Orgnisation of African Unity was mainly concerned with political issues of the continent.
- African Union has an accountability mechanism/the African Peer Review Mechanism while the Organisation of African Unity lacked it.
- The Organisation of African Unity was formed by independent African countries to fight colonialism where as African Union focuses on the challenges facing African countries today.
- The African Union has established the court of Justice to handle cases involving victims of human rights violation within the member states while Organisation of African Unity lacked this agency.
- The African Union unlike the Organisation of African Unity has established a close working relationship with other countries of the world through Information Communication Technology to enhance globalization.
- The African Union has proposed the creation of a standing African army whereas the Organization of African Unity did not think of it.
- Outline five aims of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). (5 marks)
Highlight the role played by the United States of America (USA) in ending the second World War. (3 marks)
- The U.S.A provided modern military equipment to the allied forces.
- She gave financial support to the allied forces.
- She provided military personnel to the allied powers.
- U.S.A blockaded the Panama Canal against the central powers.
- She dropped atomic bombs at Horishoma and Nagasaki which forced Japan to surrender.
Describe six causes of the cold war after 1945 ( 12 marks)
- The disagreements between the Soviet Union and the United States of America over reduction of arms led to arms race. (6 marks)
- The occupation of Eastern Europe by Soviet Union caused fear among U.S.A and its allies in Western Europe/Iron curtain policy by the USSR.
- The ideological differences pursued by the U.S.A and U.S.S.R created mistrust/suspicion among them leading to hostility.
- The domination of the United Nations by the United States of America and her allies was checked by U.S.S.R through the use of her veto power thus increasing the tension.
- The involvement of both United States of America and U.S.S.R in European conflicts in the late 1940s created tension among them.
- America’s Marshal Plan to revive European economies after the war made U.S.S.R to counteract by forming a similar one/COMECON thus enhancing tension.
- Formation of military alliances/N.A.T.O by United States of America and her allies led to U.S.S.R and her allies to form a similar alliance/Warsaw pact thus intensifying the rivalry.
- Construction of the Berlin wall by U.S.S.R in Germany to block Westerners after the Second World War
- Highlight the role played by the United States of America (USA) in ending the second World War. (3 marks)
State three requirements one has to fulfil in order to contest as a presidential candidate in the United states of America (USA) (3 marks)
- Be at least 35 years old.
- Be an American citizen by birth.
- Must have been a resident of the country for 14 years
Explain the functions of the United States Congress. (12 marks)
- It acts as a check on the executive arm of the government by examining administrative work.
- It approves taxation measures and makes sure that the government expenditure is properly used and accounted for.
- Making laws
- Amend laws.
- Senate approves treaties with foreign countries
- It can appoint a commission of inquiry to investigate any problem.
- Senior civil servants are appointed by the president with the approval of the senate.
- Congress closely monitors the conduct of the president, vice president and other senior public officials.
- Congress is a representative body elected by the people and it reflects the aspiration and interest of the American people.
- State three requirements one has to fulfil in order to contest as a presidential candidate in the United states of America (USA) (3 marks)