- Imaginative composition (compulsory) (20 marks)
- Write a story to illustrate the saying: "The early bird catches the worm." Points of Interpretation
- Must be a story
- Must end with the sentence given.
- Must present a credible scenario suggested by and leading to / culminating in the ending sentence given. The narrator should outline what had landed him /herin the situation they find themselves in and what has occasioned the realization and change of attitude.
- Write a story beginning:
'I regretted ever having had Riziki for a friend ...
- Must be a story.
- The story must illustrate how the candidate or the persona has had to learn through the hard school of experience.
- Write a story to illustrate the saying: "The early bird catches the worm." Points of Interpretation
- The Compulsory Set Text (20 marks)
Bertolt Brecht: The Caucasian Chalk Circle
One's self-sacrifice and determination will always be rewarded in life. Using illustrations from the play The Caucasian Chalk Circle write an essay in support of this statement.
In this world, there are people who are selfless and benevolent and will have unflinching determination to help people who are vulnerable within the society. In 'The Caucasian Chalk Circle', Grusha is an emblem of selflessness and compassion. To a certain extent, Simon Azdak and the duke occasionally show signs of determination to recompense the kindness extended to them. There exists a dispute between Natella Abashwill, the governor's wife and thier kitchen maid Grusha Vanshnaadze. The dispute is about who is the real mother of Michael Abashwill.
This dispute arose during the time when the governor was overthrown and everybody was running for their safety. Nattela Abashwill choose material things over her son, Michael.
Grusha risks her life for the sake of Michael athough she is overworked in Governor Georgi Abashwili's home.When chaos break out, the other servants duck out of danger, and warn Grusha against protecting Michael but she remains stoic. Natella Abashwili, Michael's mother leaves her son behind, but Grusha watches the baby overnight and despite her poverty he salvages the boy from the hands of the Iron-shirts, and runs away barefoot with the baby. Grusha buys milk for Michael at an exorbitant price to try and feed the baby. She tries to make Michael suck her dry breast. She buys milk at two piasters and changes the baby's diaper. Grusha crosses a rotten bridge which overlies a precipice two thousand feet deep in order to save Michael. She overcomes a very cold reception by Aniko, the sister-in-law and advises Michael that they should make themselves as small as cockroaches. She even accepts to marry Jussup and risks her relationship with Simon Shashava. When the Iron-shirts take Michael, she pursues them barefooted. Her efforts are rewarded when Michael is given to her by Azdak the judge especially when she does not jerk the boy from the chalk circle in fear that she can tear him apart. This dispute is resolved in court and judge Azdak has to pass the ruling. A chalk circle is drawn on the floor. Michael is placed at the center. The plaintiff Nattela Abashwill and the defendant, Grusha Vanshnadze step up to the circle. Each gets the child by one hand and the real mother of the child is the one who pulls him out of the circle. Grusha lets go the child for the two times that they are told to pull, for she declares that she cannot pull him apart, having brought him up. At last
Grusha is declared the true mother.
Simon Shashava's loyalty to the governor's wife is rewarded. He accompanies the mistress and risks her relationship with Grusha. Later he gets Grusha back who has retained her chastity and also takes Michael as the son.
Azdak rescues the duke despite himself. He even offers him food. He however reports himself to the authorities and instead of being apprehended he becomes a judge. When the farmers subject him to violence, the duke sends a rider to deliver a letter that restores him as a judge and he makes the most important sentence of determining Michael's mother. The fruit growers are determined to get Rosa Luxemburg and they argue out the reason for doing so and they get the land since it would be more lucrative. In a nutshell, Grusha's selflessness, Azdak's kindness and fruit growers are rewarded for their determination.
- The Optional Set Texts (20 marks)
Answer any one of the following three questions.
- The Short Story
Ilieva Emilia and Wareng Olembo (Ed) When the Sun Goes Down and Other Stories from Africa and Beyond.
Discuss the futility of illegal immigration using illustrations from Sefi Atta's Twilight Trek.
The narrator is desperate to leave Africa and in the process is willing to do anything possible to make this wish come true. For instance:
- He gives false details on the passport.
- He gives a false name, origin and his national
- He sells marijuana to raise half his fare
- He dupes his boss despite his threats of sending a gang to rape him and slit his throat thereafter
- He has to endure much suffering to get to Gao.
- He hitches rides on highways, sleeps in villages where dogs won't stop for a piss and has to endure bouts of fever and diarrhoea.
- He must trek up the mountain to get to Tangior
The illegal migrants that the Narrators Mother talk about are so desperate to leave Africa that they can do anything to get there for instance;
- One man hides in the wheel well of an aeroplane that flow to London and ends up dying on the way and his body was deported for burial.
- Another one attempts to cross the Sahara on foot. He takes several years only to be arrested by the security forces when he is about to reach Spain and has to be repatriated back.
- A Sierra Leonan tries to scale the barbed wire several times until his skin was practically shredded
- They suffer under the hands of bearded mortem bandits, the trucks often break down, they are beaten by patrol guards when caught crossing over to Ceuta, they are taken back to a camp where they have no meals and medical attention and during daytime they are scotched by glaring sun rays
- The conditions in the camp where refugees hide are deplorable and they are compared as an open sewer. In the same way, Sefi Atta presents the plight of those people who are determined to migrate to seek for greener pastures and shows how they get disillusioned.
- Despite the gesture of love and generosity extended to her by the narrator, she makes away with the narrator's money which he has earned through toiling very hard
The immigrants especially those who do not have legal documents are dehumanized, subjected to sexual violation, others taken advantage of by drug barons and others are subjected to humiliation especially when they are deported either dead or alive.
In a nutshell, the people who engage in illegal immigration are subjected to violence, betrayal, physical and psychological torture and finally they do not
reach their destiny.
The problems that migrants go through are acute. The irony of the situation is that in case they reach the refugee camps they are engaged in menial jobs such
as servants, taxi- drivers, watchmen, washing dirty plates and toilet seats and other gruesome chores. The migrants betray each other and patience is quite hypocritical and insensitive.
Obazee patronises the other migrants and he does not give them room to express themselves but manipulates them but he does not offer any form of security because he is equally vulnerable to manhandling by the Gendarmes.
Francis Imbuga: Betrayal in the City
With illustrations from Francis Imbuga's Betrayal in the City show how corruption
BETRAYAL IN THE CITY
Dehumanizing (expectation) – to the corrupt or the one affected by the corruption instance.
Action – how dehumanizing?
Corruption may take such forms as bribery, nepotism, favouritism and stealing
and kickbacks. In effect, public resources meant for improvement of lives of the
majority end up in the hands of selfish few. The corrupt only think of themselves
and not of the less fortunate.
- Mulili and Tumbo are rewarded with high ranking government office even though they do not qualify in order to protect Boss’ interests.
- Undertake specific duties for Boss and are rewarded.
MULILI – How he rises to become an army officer.
They do whatever to protect Boss interests in total disregard of how it affects other people (8-15, 20, 56-60, 44-45)
The university staff is intimidated to giving tender to Mulili.
Mulili’s reaction to the old couples – order – stopping the ceremony.
Mulili’s attitude – chicken heart – has no human heart.
Mulili is dehumanized – Mulili tramples on the old couple’s feelings to gain the promises by Boss – He is a heartless brute – Dust to dust …ash to …
Dogo and Nina have been killed.
The worst of Boss’ advisors is Mulili, even Tumbo doesn’t like him.
Mulili is so dehumanized that he says that university students can be pushed to act in the play.
Mulili see Kibito as grant-dispensable.
Mulili’s accusations dehumanize Kibito. He is being framed – Boss directs Mulili to ge Kibito; silent.
TUMBO – 37-42, 44-46, 47, 74 – How dehumanizing.
Got his influential position through corruption. He is negligent in his duty. If I was
depending on empty talk – blocks. Owns blocks – he doesn’t care about others. He is consistent. No feelings for others – Eat and lets eat – Not ashamed to contest of open corruption – keeps 2/3 of the money. Gives a third to Jusper and Regina.
Competition – Quarter of a million shillings. A block costs more – one hundred and fifty thousand shillings (corruption).
He confesses his inefficiency – was trained and given the wrong job.
NICODEMO – 16, 18, 24, 25, 30-31, 35, 52, 56 arises to position as a member of committee.
He is dehumanized, he plants one kilogram of opium to Mosese’s car. He is so dehumanized that he does not want Mosese to act / come out of prison – opposes the pardon of prisoner.
Mosese is dehumanized – he was imprisoned because of Nicodemo – words have
Mosese charged – Mosese is mentally affected by the suffering due to Nicodemo.
Dehumanized madness of Mosese.
Nicodemo is dehumanized that he cannot appreciate prisoners being given bread and butter. Personal tragedy. If Mosese is released – prisoners are dangerous
people who must not.
- Committee – protests
All members of the committee are appointed through favouritism – they do not qualify – do everything to defend Boss’s interests – nominated for one reason –
unflinching support of our government.
They are dehumanized – they are interested in what they get – Terms of service – paid per day – meet everyday till the visitor comes and after, for review to draw more potato directly proportioned to the potato we get.
Mulili corrupt as a member of the committee – milk tender.
Even after the death of Kibito, the committee is not touched, is worried whether the day ill be counted.
- The Tender
Kibito confesses that he spent whole night bribing in order to get the milk tender.
Dehumanization – Mulili realizes and makes a move. He consults Boss for revocations.
NB: If a candidate brings the point of using Boss to influence – (upt)
Mulili’s perspective of tender is revoked though Boss’ intention dehumanized.
Ibito’s perspective – corrupt – dehumanized by Kibito – belittled when tender is revoked – threats – regret from the day he came from stomach.
- The Novel
Witi Ihimaera: The Whale Rider
Identify and discuss the various levels of conflict in Witi Ihimaera's The Whale Rider.
Conflict consciously brought
Conflict – episodes of conflicts
Show what we learn from the conflicts, the realization
The two sides of conflict must be brought out.
Introduction – MUST have a conflict / general or contextualized.
- Tradition Vs Modernity
Koro is the custodian of traditions.
Kahu is the picture of change
Nani flowers argues (for Kahu) in favour of change.
Language lessons – Kahu writes a poem in Maori
Biting of the p.g Toe-Girl bites the by toe
The blue curved stone – Retrieve the curved stone – Kahu retrieves the curved
stone. She determinedly cherishes to bring Koro Apirana happiness through the
stone. Kahu manages the stone and brings him a fish to eat.
- Contrast – While Nani flower celebrates Kohu’s birth, Koro is angry with Koru, he’s broken the male line.
- Conflict continues in the naming of Kahutia te Rongi Biting of toe.
- Meeting house – Kohu sneaks into the Koro Apirana.
- Koro is conservative – Kahu still encroaches. She has three role models; Koro, Rawin and Porowanyi.
- Koro refuses help from the women saying the work is sacred.
- Kahu is the only one who persuades the male whole to get back to sea Pagde 102.
- Kahu has turned to be the whale. Rider – Kahutia Te Rongi
- Reconciliation – Koru has come to visit the hospitalized Nani.
- Koru – I should have known she was the one. Ever since she was a baby and bit my toe.
- Resolution – Boy or no girl, it doesn’t matter.
- Alternative perspective Rawiri’s page 47, 45-59, Tradition Vs Modernity
- Rawiri leaves whenyara (conservative) to New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. (contrast with Clara’s perceptions ……………. He was like a big toy in great toy shop.
- Changed dressings, natures knocked down / racism – blacks are not respected in Papua New Guinea.
- Resolution – Rawiri finally returns home. Glad to see the people – Rawiri realizes that you can never get anything better out here. Racism and Cultural Identity
- Airport, Clara’s shock – has the habit of bringing home strays.
- The accident involving Benard – a mere native, Jeff’s family insist on leaving the dying man in the street.
- Resolution – Resolves to go back home.
- Females Vs Male Gender roles
Pick one female character
- Kahu (dolphins)
- Kahu Vs bos
- Nani Vs Koro – siphoning out petrol – Muriwai.
- Muriwai 14, 15, page – Commanded the canoe.
- Contrast - Mitri confronted the chief and protested the rights of women to tack page 65
- Resolution – Acceptance that women are equally important.
- Conflict of Generation / Older Vs Younger
Old generation work at an issue their way while the younger generation thinks its
good to be adventurous.
Young adventurous, explorative and willing to change.
- Coming home
- Koro Acceptance of Kahu
- Nani accepts that Rawiri has to go out of whanyara
- Older generation accept change.
- Tradition Vs Modernity
- The Short Story