SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.
Name four rabbit breeds reared in Kenya. (2 marks)
- New Zealand white/Kenya white;
- California white;
- Flemish giant
- Ear lops;
Give the meaning of the following terms as used in livestock health.
Disease (1 mark)
- Any deviation or alteration in the state of animal body or its organs which interferes with proper performance of its functions
- Vaccination (1 mark)
- Is the administration of a weakened or killed disease causing agent into the animal to induce production antibodies for immunity against the disease
- Disease (1 mark)
State four advantages of artificial calf rearing in dairy cattle management. (2 marks)
- Farmer is able to keep accurate records of milk yield
- Easy to regulate the amount of milk taken by the calf
- cows produce milk even in the absence of the calves
- allows for maintenance of high standard of hygiene during milking
- There is a possibility of the farmer selling more milk thereby maximizing profits.
List four materials that can be used in the construction of a Kenya Top Bar Hive. (2 marks)
- Plain wire
- Iron sheets
Give four features of housing that help to control livestock diseases. (2 marks)
- Well ventilated
- Well lit
- Easy to clean
- Free from droughts
- Proper drainage
State four characteristics of the Duroc Jersey pig. (2 marks)
- Long body
- Black in colour
- Drooping ears
- Is hardy;
Give four characteristics of a good site for a fish pond. (2 marks)
- Topography/slope of land should be gentle sloping.
- Reliable water source.
- Area with cracks/anthills should be avoided.
- Soil type/site should be free of gravel/stone/sand/preferably clay soil.
- Secure from predators and thieves.
- The site should be accessible.
Name four systems of a tractor engine. (2 marks)
- Fuel systems, 1
- Lubrication system.
- Electrical system.
- Ignition system,
- Cooling system,Hydraulic system
- Power transmission system
What is dry cow therapy? (1 mark)
- The application of antibiotics into the teat canals of the cow’s udder after drying off the cow to prevent mastitis/bacteria infection.
Give two reasons for steaming up in dairy cattle management. (2 marks)
- Ensures birth of a healthy calf
- Provides nutrients for maximum foetal growth
- Build up energy for parturition
- Increases and maintains high milk yield after birth/stimulates development of alveoli
- Promotes good health of the cow / mother
- Accustoms the cow to concentrate feeding
State four maintenance practices for a disc plough. (2 marks)
- Cleaning after use
- Painting the frame
- Greasing the moving parts.
- Repair/replace broken/worn out parts.
- Metal parts on long storage.
- Proper storage
List four preventive measures for livestock diseases. (2 marks)
- Proper feeding
- Quarantine imnposition
- Use of prophylactic drugs e.g. coccidiostaf
- Proper hygiene/ use of antiseptic/disinfectants
- Treatment of sick animals; all aspects eg deworming. drenching
- Isolation of sick animals
- Proper selection and breeding
- Control of vectors
- Slaughtering sick animals /culling
Give two reasons for using litter in a poultry house (1 mark)
- To keep the house warm.
- To absorb moisture from poultry droppings.
- Keeps birds busy scratching, thus reducing cannibalism.
State four disadvantages of fold system in poultry rearing. (2 marks)
- Few birds per unit area.
- Laborious in moving the folds.
- Difficult to keep individual bird production records.
- Produces dirty eggs
- Fold breaks easily due to constant movement.
State four practices that come immediately after complete milking in a milking shed. (2 marks)
- Teat dipping to control mastitis
- Weigh and record milk yield
- Sieve/strain/filter milk
- Application of milking jelly on teats
- Store milk in a cool place
- Clean the milk shed
- Release the anima
- Clean the milk equipment
List four tools that are used when laying concrete blocks during construction of a wall. (2 marks)
- Plumb bob/plumb line
- Mason’s trowel
- Spirit level/pipe leve
- Wood float/steel float
- Masons square
- String/masons line/line
SECTION B (20 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.
Below is a diagram illustrating an instrument used in cattle breeding. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Identify the iunstrument (1 mark)
- Artificial vagina
State the role of the instrument in cattle breeding. (1 mark)
- Collection of semen from bulls
When should it be appropriate to serve a cow after onset of heat? (1 mark)
- Between 12-18 hours/at standing heat
Apart from the method in which the above instrument is used, name two other methods of serving a cow. (2 marks)
- Natural mating
- Embryo transplant;
- Identify the iunstrument (1 mark)
The diagram below is an illustration of an egg. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Name the parts labelled B, C, D and F
B- Inner shell membrane (1/2 mark)
C- Outer shell membrane (1/2 mark)
D- Albumen/egg white (1/2 mark)
F- Chalaza (1/2 mark)
State two qualities of the part labelled A that should be considered when selecting eggs for incubation. (2 marks)
- Texture/ smoothness of the shell
- Absence of cracks on the shell
- Cleanliness/absence of the shell
- Cleanliness/absence of blood stains
- Oval in shape.
What is the function of the part labelled E in a fertilised egg? (1 mark)
- Provides nutrients for the developing embryo/chick.
- Name the parts labelled B, C, D and F
The photograph below illustrates a method of identification labelled x in cattle. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Name the identification method. (1 mark)
Explain three disadvantages of the identification method. (3 marks)
- Reduces quality of hides/skins/because the heat damages the skin/hide
- Causes the animal a lot of pain because it uses heat
- Causes wounds which can result in infections
- Name the identification method. (1 mark)
Below is a picture illustrating a farm implement. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Identify the implement illustrated above. (1 mark)
- A Ridger/mould board ridger.
State the use of the:
Implement on the farm. (1 mark)
- To make ridges/furrows
Part of the implement labelled J. (1 mark)
- To make ridges/furrows
- Implement on the farm. (1 mark)
- Identify the implement illustrated above. (1 mark)
Below is a diagram of a knapsack sprayer. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Name the parts labelled N, P, Q and R.
N- Tank (1/2 mark)
P- Delivery note rej. hose pipe/hose alone (1/2 mark)
Q- Trigger (1/2 mark)
R- Lance (1/2 mark)
State one function of the part labelled S (1 mark)
- Breaks the liquid chemical into desired size of droplets/spray form/fume droplets/jets
- Name the parts labelled N, P, Q and R.
SECTION C (40 marks)
Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided
Describe short-term tractor servicing. (10 marks)
- The engine should be checked daily by use of dip stick and oil level maintained;
- The fuel level should be checked at the start of everyday's work and added if necessary;
- Water level in the radiator should be inspected and if low topped up;
- The level of electrolyte should be checked daily and topped up with distilled water if low
- The nuts and bolts should be tightened every day;
- Grease should be applied regularly to the moving parts;
- Large sediments from the sediment bowl should be removed;
- Tyre pressure should be checked every morning before the day's work and adjusted accordingly;
- The fan-belt tension should be checked to ensure that it deflects between 0 cm - 2.5 cm when pushed;
- The brake shaft bearing should be greased and break fluid level maintained;
- Lost bolts and nuts are replaced.
Explain the maintenance practices that should be carried out on an ox-cart. (5 marks)
- Moving parts should be oiled/ greased regularly to reduce friction (tear and wear);
- The yoke should be properly maintained eg. repair when worn out, replaced if not repairable, properly padded;
- Tyre pressure should be checked daily before the start of work;
- Broken trailer bodies should be repaired;
- Loose nuts and bolts should be tightened;
- Paint it if to be stored for long to avoid rusting;
- Clean after use;
- Store under shed;
- Replace lost nuts and bolts;
- Describe short-term tractor servicing. (10 marks)
State five indicators that can be observed on a goat to confirm sickness. (5 marks)
- By checking the appetite and feeding - if low or excessive it indicates that the goat is sick
- Defaecation - inconsistency in texture, colour, smell, frequency and posture, presence of arasite segments, egg, larvae or blood
- Urination - irregular posture, colour and and frequency;
- Change in temperature above or below the normal range;
- Respiratory rate - irregular respiration shown by non-rhythmic inspiration and expiration indicates ill health.
- Pulse rate - Abnormal pulse rate under normal physiological status indicates ill- health.
- Production level - Loss of weight, emaciation and reduced production rate.
- Abnormal discharges
- Posture - while standing or lying.
- Behaviour eg. abnormal sound, aggression, excitement.
- Appearance - eg. dullness, restlessness, pot belly, bloated.
- Movement eg. gait, eg, standing or limping when walking.
- Mucuors membranes (abnormal) eg. bright red colour, yellowish, blueish depending on disease.
- Skin/animal coat - (abnormal) starring hair, coat, sores/wounds on skin.
Describe the uses of fences on the farm. (10 marks)
- Mark boundaries.
- Help to avoid boundary disputes
- Keep off wild animals and intruders from outside the farm.
- Enable the fanner to practice mixed farming.
- Facilitates rotational grazing
- Controls movement of animals and people preventing formation of unnecessary paths in the farm.
- Control the spread of parasites and diseases by keeping off wild and stray animals the farm.
- Help the farmer to isolate or confine animals requiring special attention.
- Enable the farmer to control breeding by rearing different animals in different paddocks.
- Hedges act as windbreakers.
- Adds beauty to the farm,
- Add value
- For privacy
Give five harmful effects of liver flukes in sheep rearing. (5 marks)
- Digestive upsets due to blocking of bile duct.
- Emaciation/recumbency leading to death
- Anaemia due to destruction-of-liver tissues
- Swollen lower jaw/Oedema in the jaws.
- Swollen abdomen.
- Destruction of liver tissues /haemorrhage
Explain the factors considered when culling livestock. (5 marks)
- Poor health;
- Old age;
- Physical deformities;
- Hereditary defects;
- Poor mothering ability
- Poor quality products
- Low production;
- Bad temperament.
- Avoid inbreeding
- Describe the uses of fences on the farm. (10 marks)
Describe ten physical characteristics a poultry farmer would use to identify poor layers from a flock of hens. (10 marks)
- Eyes - dull and pale yellow.
- Beak - yellowish in colour.
- Abdomen/breast - hard and full
- Vent - round, dry and less active
- Space between kee and pelvic bone - small and fits only one or two fingers
- Plumage - preened & glossy (smooth) beautiful
- Moulting - early moulting
- Shanks/feet - Yellowish in colour
- Broodiness - Is common/early
Outline three characteristics of clean milk. (3 marks
- Free from disease causing micro-organisms/pathogens
- Free from hair, dirt or dust.
- Free from bad odours and tastes/has good flavours.
- Chemical composition within expected standards.
Explain seven factors that affect milk composition in dairy farming. (7 marks)
- Age of animal - Butter fat in milk becomes less as an animal grows old thus young animals produce milk with higher BF than older animals.
- Breed differences e.g. Species of the animal
- Different breeds of cattle produce milk with differing percentage composition e.g Jersey produce higher BF than Friesian.
- Type of wood eaten by an animal - Roughage feeds produce link with higher fats, lactose and protein compared to grains.
- Diseases - Diseases such as mastitis reduce the lactose composition in milk because bacteria attack milk sugars.
- Physiological condition of the animal - Sick/extremely emaciated animals register low percentage of BF/during late pregnancy, cows produce milk with low BF content.
- Stage of lactation - The BF content in milk is highest at the middle phase of the lactation period and lowers towards end of lactation.
- Completeness of milking - Milk drawn last from udder during contains high BF content/last drop milk has BF content produce in the milk.
- Season of the year - accept environmental condition. BF content increases during cold seasons.
- Time of milking - Milk produced in the morning has a lower BF content than milk produced in the evening 1/2 factor method
- Outline three characteristics of clean milk. (3 marks
- Describe ten physical characteristics a poultry farmer would use to identify poor layers from a flock of hens. (10 marks)