KCSE 2017 Agriculture Paper 1 with Marking scheme

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Instructions to candidates

  • This paper consists of three sections: AB and C.
  • Answer all the questions in sections A and B.
  • Answer any two questions in section C
  • Candidates should answer all the questions in English.

SECTION A (30 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Give four reasons for intercropping in crop production. (2 marks)
  2. State four characteristics of extensive farming system.   (2 marks)
  3. State four minimum tillage practices.  (2 marks)
  4. Give four reasons why burning of land is discouraged. (2 marks)
  5. State four functions of Young Farmers' Clubs. (2 marks)
  6. Distinguish between a perfect and an imperfect market. (1 mark)
  7. State four reasons for practising intensive hedgerow agroforestry.  (2 marks)
  8. State four management practices in intensive hedgerow agroforestry.  (2 marks)
  9. State the meaning of each of the following terms as used in crop production:
    1. crop rotation  (1 mark)
    2. pruning  (1 mark)
    3. rogueing  (1 mark)
  10. State four factors that determine the depth of planting.  (2 marks)
  11. State four disadvantages of broadcasting seeds during planting.   (2 marks)
  12. State four characteristics of a good site for a nursery bed.   (2 marks)
  13. Name four types of market structures in agricultural marketing. (2 marks)
  14. Name one crop that is propagated by each of the following:
    1. stem tuber  (½ mark)
    2. split  (½ mark)
    3. slip   (½ mark)
    4. bulbil.   (½ mark)
  15. State four advantages of using certified seeds.   (2 marks)

SECTION B (20 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the space provided.

  1. The diagram below illustrates water storage structures.
    KCSE 2017 Agri PP1 Q16
    1. Identify the structure labelled E.  (1 mark)
    2. Give two reasons why farmers prefer structure F to E.  (2 marks)
    3. State two maintenance practices for the structure labelled F.   (2 marks)
  2. A farmer has a piece of land on which he can grow maize, cabbages and beans. The expected vields and selling prices of the three crops are shown below.
     Crop   Yield (kg)   Selling prices (Ksh/kg) 
     Maize       4000                40
     Cabbages       2800                 60
     Beans      3000                 80

    If the cost of producing any of the three crops is the same
    1. Which crop should the farmer grow? Show your working.    (2 marks)
    2.  
      1. State the farmer's opportunity cost.   (1 mark)
      2. Give a reason for your answer in (b) (i) above.   (1 mark)
    3. Give a reason why farmers always have to make a choice on the enterprise to implement on the farm.
      (1 mark)
  3. The following is a list of plant nutrients:
    Copper, calcium, nitrogen, molybdenum, zinc, phosphorous, carbon, sulphur, iron and magnesium
    1. Which one of the above plant nutrients is mainly known for
      1. promoting root development   (1 mark)
      2. preventing blossom end rot disease  (1 mark)
      3. Strengthening plant stalks to prevent lodging.  (1 mark)
    2. Name two forms in which nitrogen is absorbed from the soil by plants.   (2 marks)
  4. A farmer is advised to apply 60 kg N, 20 kg P2O5 and 30 kg K2O per hectare. Calculate the quantity of urea (46% N), single super phosphate (20%P2O5) and muriate of potash (50% K2O) the farmer should apply on his 10 hectares land.
    (5 marks)

SECTION C (40 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 22.

  1.  
    1. Describe eight methods used in water harvesting.    (8 marks)
    2. Describe nine ways in which biotic factors influence agricultural production.   (9 marks)
    3. Describe the preparation of green manure.  (3 marks)
  2.  
    1. Describe seven harmful effects of crop pests.  (7 marks)
    2. Describe eight safety measures a farmer should observe when using herbicides to control weeds.  (8 marks)
    3. Describe the harvesting of coffee.   (5 marks)
  3.  
    1. Give five reasons why early defoliation is discouraged in pasture utilisation.    (5 marks)
    2. Described five field management practices for onions.   (5 marks)
    3. State five disadvantages of communal land tenure system.  (5 marks)
    4. State five characteristics of variable inputs.    (5 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (30 marks)

  1.  
    • Maximize utilization of plant nutrients;
    • Controls erosion through cover cropping;
    • Nitrogen fixation when leguminous crops are involved
    • Smothers weeds;
    • Diversification;
    • Improves soil structure;
      4 x ½ (2 marks)
  2.  
    • Low capital is investment;
    • Large pieces of land;
    • Low labour required;
    • Low levels of management;
    • Utilizes marginal area;
    • Low Production per unit area
      4 x ½ (2 marks)
  3.  
    • Use of herbicides;
    • Uprooting/slashing;
    • Use of cash crops;
    • Limiting cultivation to the point planting;
    • Proper timing of cultivation;
    • Mulching;
      4 x ½ (2 marks)
  4.  
    • Destroys soil organic matter;
    • Kills soil living organisms;
    • Destroys soil moisture;
    • Destroys soil structure;
    • Destroys plant nutrients;
    • Causes mineral imbalances through ashaccumulation;
      4 x ½ (2 marks)
  5.  
    • Participation in ASK shows;
    • Involvement in agricultural projects at club level;
    • Participation in young farmers clubs;
    • Participation in animal rallies;
    • Involvement in seminars and workshops related to agriculture;
    • Participating in national tree planting activities;
    • Participation in national ploughing contests;
    • Participation in exchange programmes; 
      4 x ½ (2 marks)
  6.  
    • Perfect market: Is where a buyer can purchase from any seller and vice versa.
    • Imperfect market:- Is where some buyers and sellers are not aware of prices offered by other sellers;
      1x1(1 mark)
  7.  
    • Leguminous shrubs are included to fix nitrogen into the soil; 
    • Maximizes utilization of available land; 
    • Controls soil erosion; 
    • Suppresses weeds;
    • Provides green manure;
    • Source of fodder for livestock;
      4 x ½ (2 marks)\
  8.  
    • Establishment;
    • Cutting back; 
    • Management during dry season; 
    • Choice of appropriate tree species;
    • Protection; 
    • Weeding; 
    • Fertilizer application;

  9.  
    1. Is the growing of different types of crops or crops of different families on the same piece of land in an orderly sequence;  (1 mark)
    2. Removal of extra or unwanted parts of a plant; (1 mark)
    3. Is the uprooting and destruction of plants infected by disease to prevent spread of the disease to healthy plants;(1 mark)
  10.  
    • Soil moisture content;
    • Size of planting material;
    • Soil type;
    • Type of germination;
      4 x ½ (2 marks)
  11.  
    • Requires high seed rate;
    • Difficult to carry out crop management practices;
    • Operations cannot be mechanized;
    • Difficult to establish plant population;
    • Uneven crop establishment;
      4 x ½ (2 marks)
  12.  
    • Near a reliable water source;
    • Well drained area with deep fertile soils;
    • Gently sloping area:
    • Secure area;
    • Sheltered area;
    • Should not have been used for the same crop species in the previous season;
      4 x ½ (2 marks)
  13.  
    • Monopoly;
    • Oligopoly: 
    • Monopsony;
    • Perfect market;
      4 x ½ (2 marks)
  14.  
    1. Irish potatoes:
    2. Pyrethrum;
    3. Pineapple;
    4. Sisal;
      4 x ½ (2 marks)
  15.  
    • Free from pests, weed and diseases;
    • Has high germination percentage;
    • Is clean;
    • High yielding;
    • Adapted to local ecological conditions;
      4 x ½ (2 marks)

SECTION B (20 marks)

  1.  
    1. E-Weir;   (1 mark)
    2.  
      • Water levels regulated;
      • Controls flooding;
      • Stores large volume of water;
      • Can be used to generate HEP;
        2x1 = 2 marks
    3.  
      • Desilting; 
      • Remove trees and bushes from wall to preventcracks and waterseepage:
      • Repairing broken/worn out parts;
        2x1 = 2 marks
  2.  
    1.  
      • Maize - 4000 x 40 = 160 000
      • Cabbages - 2 800 x 60 = 168 00
      • Beans - 3000 x 80 = 240 000;
        The farmer should grow beans;
        2x1= 2 marks
    2.  
      1. Cabbages (168,000/=); (1 mark)
      2. Is the best alternative forgone;   (1 mark)
    3. Resources are limited while possible enterprises are unlimited;  (1 mark)
  3.  
    1.  
      1. Phosphorus; (1 mark)
      2. Calcium; (1 mark)
      3. Calcium;  (1 mark)
    2.  
      • Nitrate ions (NO3+);
      • Ammonium ions (NH4+);
        2 x 1 = (2 marks)
  4. 60 kg N
    20 kg P2O5
    30 kg K2O
    Land size = 10 ha
    1. Urea = 46kgN − 100kg Urea;
      = 60 x 100/46 x 10 ha;
      = 1,304.305 kg of urea; 
    2. SSP (20% P2O5)
      20 kgN − 100kg Urea
      =20 x100/20 x 10 ha
      = 1000 kg of SSP;
    3. Muriate of Potash (50% K2O)
      50 kg K2O - 100kg Muriate Potash
      =30 x 100/50 x 10 ha
      = 60 kg/ha
      = 60 x 10
      = 600 Muriate of Potash;
      5x1= (5 mark)

SECTION C (40 marks)

  1.  
    1.  
      • Uses of dams;
      • Use of weirs;
      • Use of ponds;
      • Roof catchment;
      • Wells;
      • Rock catchment;
      • Micro catchments:
      • Retention ditches.
        8 x 1 = (8 marks)
    2.  
      • Transmit diseases;
      • Feed on whole or parts of plants;
      • Injure plants providing entry for secondary infection agents:
      • Suck blood from animals causing anemia;
      • Act on plant and animal remains to form humus;
      • Some cause diseases;
      • Some kill and feed other animals;
      • Some bring out cross pollination;
      • Some fix nitrogen into the soil;
      • Increases cost of product through control measures;
        9x1=9 marks
    3.  
      • Plant the crop in the field;
      • Allow the crop to grow up to the flowering stage;
      • Plough the crop into the soil;
      • Allow the crop to decompose before planting;
        3x1 = (3 marks)
  2.  
    1.  
      • Transmit crop diseases;
      • Feed on whole or parts of plants;
      • Some unearth planted seeds;
      • Deprive the plant of food sucking sap;
      • Lower the quality of flowers, fruits and berries;
      • Eat growing points of plants causing retarded growth;
      • Feed on whole or parts of seeds and lower germination percentage;
      • Lower the yield expected;
      • Cause wilting of plants by feeding on the roots:
      • Reduce the surface area for photosynthesis by feeding on leaves;
      • Chemical pest control measures affect the environment;
        7x1=(7 marks)
    2.  
      • Read and follow manufacturer's instructions;
      • Wear protective clothing:
      • Avoid inhaling the herbicide/not spraying against the wind/ wearing breathing masks/not smoking.
      • Avoid eating before bathing:
      • Bath thoroughly after handling herbicides;
      • Avoid blowing - sucking blocked nozzles;
      • Avoid herbicide drift to unintended crops and plants:
      • Avoid contamination of animal feeds and water;
      • Left, overs and empty containers should be properly disposed and not thrown in gardens bushes or pastures;
      • Equipment used should not be washed in water sources used by animals and humans;
      • Store the chemicals safely out of reach of children and away from food; 
      • Thoroughly wash the equipment used;
        8 x 1=(8 marks)
    3.  
      • Ripe cherries are picked by hand;
      • Harvested cherries are spread on mats and sorted to remove unripe, diseased, dry and damaged berries;
      • The diseased and overripe cherries are taken to factories as grade II;
      • Good quality cherries are taken to the factory as grade 1;
      • Unripe, dry and undersized cherries are dried at home to form Buti which is taken to the factory at the end of harvesting season;
        5x1 = (5 marks)
  3.  
    1.  
      • High moisture content:
      • Low dry matter content;
      • Low crude protein yield;
      • Low digestible nutrients;
      • Leads to gradual weakening of the stand;
        5x1 = (5 marks)
    2.  
      • Thinning;
      • Weeding;
      • Top dressing:
      • Pest control;
      • Disease control.
        5x1 = (5 marks)
    3.  
      • Lacks incentive for land development; 
      • Low yields due to overstocking;
      • Poor stock breeding programmes;
      • Difficult to control pests, parasites and diseases;
      • Soil erosion is common;
      • Lowers the carrying capacity of the land;
        5x1 = (5 marks)
    4.  
      • Quantity required varies with the level of production in a given time;
      • Are added to fixed inputs for production;
      • Cost value depends on the quantity used;
      • They are allocated to specific enterprises;
      • Their cost value is used to calculate the gross margin of the enterprise;
        5x1  (5 marks)

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