KCSE 2019 Geography Paper 2 Questions With Marking Scheme

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SECTION A

Answer all the questions in this section.

  1.  
    1. Name two rivers that supply water to Mwen-Tebere irrigation scheme. (2 marks)
    2. State how the government policy influenced the establishment of Mwea-Tebere irrigation scheme. (3 marks)
  2.  
    1. Define the term Fisheries. (2 marks)
    2. Name three countries in Southern Africa that are important for marine fish harvesting. (3 marks)
  3.  
    1. What is a renewable source of energy? (2 marks)
    2. Name three main Hydro Electric Power stations along the river Tana. (3 marks)
  4.  
    1. Define internal trade. (2 marks)
    2. Give three ways in which Kenya has benefited from regional trade. (3 marks)
  5.  
    1. Outline three factors that influence development of linear settlement pattern. (3 marks)
    2. Give two differences between the ports of Mombasa and Rotterdam. (2 marks)

SECTION B

Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section,

  1. Use the table below to answer the following questions:

    Kenya's agricultural production in 1000 tonnes between 2008 and 2011.
    kenya agriculturaal production 2008 2011
    1.  
      1. Apart from comparative line graph, name four other methods that can be used to represent the above data. (4 marks)
      2. Using a vertical scale of 1 cm to represent 20,000 tonnes, draw a comparative line graph to represent the above data. (8 marks)
      3. State three advantages of using line graphs to represent statistical data. (3 marks)
    2. Give reasons that may have led to the low production of dairy products between 2010 and 2011. (6 marks)
    3. Give four physical conditions that favour dairy farming in Kenya (4 marks)
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Apart from Ghana, name two countries in Africa where cocoa is grown. (2 marks)
      2. State five physical conditions that favour cocoa farming in Ghana. (5 marks
    2.  
      1. Describe the process of cocoa cultivation in Ghana. (6 marks)
      2. Give three uses of cocoa. (3 marks)
    3. Explain three human problems faced by cocoa farming in Ghana. (6 marks)
    4. Give ways in which cocoa farming has benefited the government of Ghana. (3 marks)
  3. Use the map of Kenya below to answer question (a).
    kenya map geop2 2019
    1.  
      1. Name the game reserve marked X. (1 mark)
      2. Name the marine reserve marked Y. (1 mark)
      3. Name the national park marked Z. (1 mark)
    2.  
      1. Apart from establishing national parks, state four ways in which the government of Kenya conserves wildlife. (4 marks)
      2. State five factors influencing the distribution of wildlife in East Africa. (5 marks)
    3. Outline ways in which the wild animals are significant to the economy of Kenya. (7 marks)
    4. Discuss each of the following factors that favour tourism in Switzerland:
      1. Central location (2 marks)
      2. Climate (2 marks)
      3. Political neutrality (2 marks)
  4.  
    1. What is an industry? (2 marks)
    2.  
      1. Name two car manufacturing zones in Japan. (2 marks)
      2. Explain four human factors which have favoured the development of car manufacturing industry in Japan. (8 marks)
    3. Explain each of the following problems of industrialisation in the developing countries:
      1. Raw materials (4 marks)
      2.  Inadequate skilled manpower (4 marks)
    4. Outline ways in which your class would prepare for a field study in one of the industries in your county. (5 marks)
  5.  
    1.  
      1. What is communication? (2 marks)
      2. Name four types of mass communication.(4 marks)
    2. Explain the role of communication in the economic development of Africa. (8 marks)
    3. State five problems facing communication in Africa. (5 marks)
    4. Explain three efforts being made to solve the problems facing communication in Africa. (6 marks)

Marking Scheme

  1.  
    1. Name two rivers that supply water to Mwen-Tebere irrigation scheme. (2 marks)
      • River Thiba
      • River Nyamindi
      • River Murubara
    2. State how the government policy influenced the establishment of Mwea-Tebere irrigation scheme. (3 marks)
      • There was neeed to keep detainees busy
      • For people to provide free labour
      • There was need to settle landless people
      • The need to control the flood of rivers that pass through the area
      • To increase food production
      • For maximum utilization of land
      • To fully utilize the black cotton soil
  2.  
    1. Define the term Fisheries. (2 marks)
      • Fisheries are water bodies where exploitation of aquatic organisms/life is carried out
    2. Name three countries in Southern Africa that are important for marine fish harvesting. (3 marks)
      • South Africa
      • Namibia
      • Angola
  3.  
    1. What is a renewable source of energy? (2 marks)
      • A renewable source of enrgy is that source that can be regenerated/ can be used over a long period/inexhaustible
    2. Name three main Hydro Electric Power stations along the river Tana. (3 marks)
      • Masinga
      • Kamburu
      • Kiambere
      • Gitaru
      • Kindaruma
  4.  
    1. Define internal trade. (2 marks)
      • This is the exchange of goods and services within a country
    2. Give three ways in which Kenya has benefited from regional trade. (3 marks)
      • It earns foreign exchange from exports
      • Increases employment opportunities
      • Opens up large market for goods
      • It reduces tariffs making goods cheaper
      • It promotes industrial growth and development
  5.  
    1. Outline three factors that influence development of linear settlement pattern. (3 marks)
      • People settle along rivers for water provision
      • People settle along roads/railway lines/ease of transport
      • People settle along lakes/shores for fishing activities
      • People settle along ridges for easy house construction/security
    2. Give two differences between the ports of Mombasa and Rotterdam. (2 marks)
      • Rotterdam handles more cargo than Mombasa
      • Rotterdam has up to date cargo handing technology while Mombasa is less mechanized
      • Rotterdam has room for expansion while Mombasa has limited space
      • Rotterdam is linked by road,railway,pipeline,air as well as waterways while Mombasa in linked by road,railway,pipeline and air
      • Rotterdam exports mainly manufactured goods while Mombasa exports raw materials

SECTION B

Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section,

  1. Use the table below to answer the following questions:
    Kenya's agricultural production in 1000 tonnes between 2008 and 2011.
    1.  
      1. Apart from comparative line graph, name four other methods that can be used to represent the above data. (4 marks)
        • Pie chart/divided circles
        • comparative bar graph/compound bar graph
        • Divided rectangles
        • Proportional circles
      2. Using a vertical scale of 1 cm to represent 20,000 tonnes, draw a comparative line graph to represent the above data. (8 marks)
        geo p2 ans 6aii
        geo p2 ans 6aiib
      3. State three advantages of using line graphs to represent statistical data. (3 marks)
        • They are easy to draw/construct
        • They allow comparison
        • They are easy to read and interpret
        • They give clear visual impression
        • They can be used to show a wide range of data
    2. Give reasons that may have led to the low production of dairy products between 2010 and 2011. (6 marks)
      • Indigenous breeds hence low milk production
      • Inadequate capital to buy feeds/high cost of veterinary services
      • Use of low quality feeds/inadequate foliage for the animals
      • Few/innadequate extension services to provide intensive veterinary care
      • Inadequate technical know-how/managerial skills on dairy farming
      • prolonged droughts
      • Outbreak of diseases
      • Attack from pests
      • Mismanagement of dairy industry
    3. Give four physical conditions that favour dairy farming in Kenya (4 marks)
      • moderate temperatues/20o-30oC
      • moderate/high rainfall/500-2000mm
      • Plenty of nutritious grass/fodder
      • reiable/constant water supply
      • volcanic/loam/light clay soils for growth of quality grass throughout the year
      • Gentle slpoing/undulating landscape
      • Well drained soils
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Apart from Ghana, name two countries in Africa where cocoa is grown. (2 marks)
        • Nigeria
        • Cote-de Ivoire/Ivory coast
        • Cameroon
        • Guinea
        • Togo
        • Sao Tome and Principe
        • Liberia
        • Benin
        • Siera leone
        • Rwanda
        • Uganda
      2. State five physical conditions that favour cocoa farming in Ghana. (5 marks)
        • High rainfall/well distributed rainfall(1000-1500mm)
        • High temperatures ranging from 21oC to 30oC/warm/hot conditions
        • Protection from strong winds that blow away pods
        • High relative humidity
        • Deep well drained loamy soils
        • A sunny period for ripening
        • Low altitude of below 750 m above sea level
        • undulating landscape
    2.  
      1. Describe the process of cocoa cultivation in Ghana. (6 marks)
        • land is cleared and ploughed
        • holes are dug in the farm
        • cocoa trees are grown from seedlings sown in nurseries
        • The seedlings are allowed to grow to aheight of 28-30 cm before they are transplanted to the field
        • seedlings are planted in rows, three meters apat in cleared forest zones
        • Nurse crops/cassava/yams/bananas are planted
        • Some cocoa trees are grown from cuttings, which are placed  directly from cleared forest
        • The crops is weeded, pruned and manured to improve the quality of the bean and prolong life of the tree
        • The trees are protected from insects/pests/fungi by spraying with insectisides/fungicides
        • The trees begin to produce inactive pods from five year, upto 30-40 years
        • the cocoa pods grow on the trunk and the main branches of a tree
        • They become yellowish/orange when ripe, there is no time set for ripening. Both flowering adn ripening can take place at the same period
        • There are two main harvesting periods. That is between September and February and between May and August
        • The crop is harvested manually using long sharp knives
      2. Give three uses of cocoa. (3 marks)
        • Used as a beverage
        • Used to manufacture cosmetics
        • Used in baking/confectionery
        • It is used to make sweets/ice cream/flavourings
        • used as a soft drink
    3. Explain three human problems faced by cocoa farming in Ghana. (6 marks)
      • At times cocoa farmers are demoralized because they get low price for their beans due to world price fluctuations
      • During the rainy seasons, the feeder roads become impassable leading to delays in delivering the crop
      • low labour supply during harvesting season which increases cost of production
      • poor management of the farms leads to low production
      • Limited storage facilities lead to wastage/spoilage of cocoa
      • Competition of land from other crops lead to low production
      • Poor extension services leads to low production
      • Competition from other beverages lowers the market demand for cocoa
      • high cost of input lowers production of cocoa hence reduces the profit margin
    4. Give ways in which cocoa farming has benefited the government of Ghana. (3 marks)
      • Cocoa is exported to earn foreign exchange
      • It provides employment to the people
      • It has promoted indsutrialization e.g. beverage indsutries
      • It has boosted trade by increaing Ghana's exports
      • It has led to development of roads/railways/ports
      • Source of government revenue
      • It has led to development of social amenities
      • It has led to the development of urban centres e.g. Kumasi
  3. Use the map of Kenya below to answer question (a).
    1.  
      1. Name the game reserve marked X. (1 mark)
        • Marsabit
      2. Name the marine reserve marked Y. (1 mark)
        • Malindi/Watamu Marine Reserve
      3. Name the national park marked Z. (1 mark)
        • Amboseli National Park
    2.  
      1. Apart from establishing national parks, state four ways in which the government of Kenya conserves wildlife. (4 marks)
        • Setting up the Kenya Wildlife service which conserves wildlife
        • Creating the ministry of Tourism to coordinate management of wildlife
        • Banning/controlling/legislation game hunting trade in wildlife products
        • it has created public awareness of wildlife conservation through media/wildlife clubs/conservation/education centres
        • It has established Kenya rangeland ecological monitoring unit(KREMU)
        • Encouraging communities to setup game branches/conservatives/sanctuaries
      2. State five factors influencing the distribution of wildlife in East Africa. (5 marks)
        • Different climates will influence varied wildlife.
        • Varied relief will influence different types of wildlife.
        • Different types of soils influence varied vegetation vild animals.
        • Drainage supports a wide variety of plants and animals.
        • Human activities are largely responsible for survival and distribution of Wildlife
        • Different types of vegetation offer habitat/food for different animals
    3. Outline ways in which the wild animals are significant to the economy of Kenya. (7 marks)
      • They earn the country foreign exchange from tourism.
      • It provides employment to the people of the national parks/tourists hotels. 
      • They provide game meat/food for local consumption and export
      • National parks/game reserves are used for scientific studies and research.
      • Wild animals provide provide a healthy ecosystem in Kenyafecolind
      • They earn the government revenue,
      • Some animals provide raw materials for industries.
      • The conservation of wild animals stimulates development of roads/increased accessibility in some otherwise remote areas.
      • Wild animals help provide altemative land use in semi-arid areas not suitable for agriculture.
    4. Discuss each of the following factors that favour tourism in Switzerland:
      1. Central location (2 marks)
        • Switzerland is centrally located within Europe which makes her accessible to other European countries who form a bulk of her international tourists.
      2. Climate (2 marks)
        • It has a double scason of winters and summers that attract tourists all year round. The sunny summer conditions favour mountaineering while the winters are suitable for winter sports. 
      3. Political neutrality (2 marks)
        • Switzerland is not aligned to any political blocks in the world. This removes any restrictions to the country as a tourist destination hence it attracts tourists from any country in the world
  4.  
    1. What is an industry? (2 marks)
      • Industry is an enterprise that enables the production of goods and services for consumption and sale
    2.  
      1. Name two car manufacturing zones in Japan. (2 marks)
        • Tokyo
        • Yokohama
        • Osaka 
        • Kobe
        • Kyoto 
        • Nagoya 
      2. Explain four human factors which have favoured the development of car manufacturing industry in Japan. (8 marks)
        • The country has adequate capital to invest in the car industry.
        • The advanced technology and research has led to efficient methods of production of high quality cars at minimum costs
        • Japan produces fuel-saving vehicles leading to a high demand for them in the world market.
        • Japan has highly skilled and industrious work force which has promoted massive producțion of quality vehicles/
        • The government policy/peace and stability has encouraged industrialization
        • The presence of large population with a high purchasing power provides a large local market for the cars.
        • The efficient transport system which eases the transporation of raw materials
    3. Explain each of the following problems of industrialisation in the developing countries:
      1. Raw materials (4 marks)
        • Most of the industries deal with processing of raw materials. Agricultural raw materials fluctuate, with seasons/hence the industries may lack raw materials during low season. 
        • Some industries relying on natural resources suffer closureflow production when the natural resources get exhausted.
        • Industries relying on imported materials face shortage when the allocation for importation is restricted. 
        • Political differences betweery countries may lead to lack of supply of raw materials to the rival country leading to shortage.
      2.  Inadequate skilled manpower (4 marks)
        • Most developing countries laeke industrial culture education to Limpart import relevant skills for industrialization. 
        • They rely on expatriates who are expensive to hire maintain het reliable.
        • Most countries have inadequate managerial skills to run industries resulting to mismanagement and embezzlement of funds.
    4. Outline ways in which your class would prepare for a field study in one of the industries in your county. (5 marks)
      • Making a reconnaissance.porosity -Syechibo
      • Getting permission from the school authorities:
      • Organizing for transport.
      • Identifying/assembling tools/items to carry
      • Making a work schedule.
      • Preparing a questionnaire/interview questions.
      • Identifying the industry 
      • Reading on the topic.
      • Formulating objectives
      • Formulating hypothesis
      • Drawing aroute map
  5.  
    1.  
      1. What is communication? (2 marks)
        • Is the process of passing information between two or more persons
      2. Name four types of mass communication.(4 marks)
        • Radio
        • television
        • Internet
        • Newspapers/magazines
        • Fims/videos
        • Billboards
        • Flyers
    2. Explain the role of communication in the economic development of Africa. (8 marks)
      • Communication enhances trade'in yoat traders are able to communicate to get raw materials/to sell their products.
      • Many people are employed in the communigation sector leading to improvement in their standards of living.
      • Communication has helped in promoting international/domestic tourism leading to gain in foreign exchange revenue.
      • Governments are able to disseminate information through the media (.g. Information related to environmental conservation/educational programmes
      • Communication promotes International relation which enhance trade between Africa and other countries. 
    3.  State five problems facing communication in Africa. (5 marks)
      • Inefficient communication systems.
      • Inadequate capital to install communication equipment.
      • Language barriers due to diverse ethnic backgrounds.
      • Inadequate communication facilities.
      • Vandalism of communication equipment.
      • Destruction of coinmunication facilities in some African countries due to civil wars terrorism. 
    4. Explain three efforts being made to solve the problems facing communication in Africa. (6 marks)
      • Liberalization of communication sector, leading to modernization of the communication systems.
      • Establishment of trading blocs which have created favourable Domloodudition for improving communication between member states. 
      • Installing wireless telephones (instead of copper wire) which are for usually vandalized.
      • Regional development initiatives are been undertaken to improve information and communication technology in the continent,
      • Many African countries have estublished satellites facilities radio/television boosters in order to improve communication
      • Many African countries are adopting international languages, such as  French/English in order to reduce language barriers.

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