Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2020 past papers

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THE KENYA NATIONAL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education
312/1 GEOGRAPHY Paper 1

Instructions to candidates

  1. Write your name and index number in the spaces provided above.
  2. Sign and write the date of the examination in the spaces provided above.
  3. This paper consists of two sections; A and B.
  4. Answer all the questions in section A.
  5. Answer question 6 and any other two questions from section B.
  6. Answers must be written in the spaces provided at the end of question 10.
  7. This paper consists of 20 printed pages.
  8. Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.
  9. Candidates should answer the questions in English.

SECTION A

Answer all the questions in this section.

  1.    
    1. Define the term environment. (2 marks)
    2. Name two divisions of physical Geography. (2 marks)
  2.  
    1. Give three characteristics of comets. (3 marks)
    2. State three proofs that show the shape of the earth is spherical (3 marks)
  3.  
    1. Give two types of igneous rocks. (2 marks)
    2. Identify three uses of rocks. (3 marks)
  4. The table below shows the rainfall and temperature data for town Y. Use it to answer 
    Month J F M A M J J A S O N D
    Temperature(ºC) 21 21 20 18 15 14 13 13 15 16 18 20
    Rainfall(mm) 24 25 30 74 17 143 131 126 70 55 31 27



    1.   
      1. What is the mean annual range of temperature? (1 mark)
      2. Calculate the rainfall totals for town Y. (1 mark)
    2. State three climatic conditions experienced in the hot deserts. (3 marks)
  5.  
    1. Differentiate between ocean and sea. (2 marks)
    2. The diagram below shows some coastal features. Name the features marked E, F and G.(3 marks)
      geop1q5

SECTION  B

Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section.

  1. Study the map of Kijabe 1:50,000 (sheet 134/3) provided and answer the following questions.
    1.  
      1. Convert the scale of the map extract into a statement scale. ( 2 marks)
      2. What is the bearing of the pump house at grid square 3893 from the trigonometrical station at Mweri?( 2 marks)
      3. Calculate the area of the part of the forest to the east of easting 40 and south of northing 97. Give your answer in square kilometres. (2 marks)
    2.  
      1. Apart from forest, give three types of natural vegetation found in the area covered by the map.(3 marks)
      2. Identify the three river drainage patterns found in the area covered by the map. (3 marks)
    3.  
      1. Using a vertical scale of 1 cm to represent 100 metres, draw a cross section from the water tank on grid square 2592 to the peak of Kijabe hill on grid square 2699.(4 marks)
        On it, mark and label the following:
        1. All weather road-bound surface (1 mark)
        2. Railway line (1 mark)
        3. Steep slope. (1 mark)
      2. Calculate the vertical exaggeration of the cross section. (2 marks)
    4. Citing evidence from the map, identify two economic activities in the area covered by the map.(4 marks)
  2.    
    1.    
      1. Define the term vulcanicity (2 marks)
      2. Name the three stages in the life cycle of a volcano. (3 marks)
    2. Describe how each of the following volcanic features are formed:
      1. Lava plateau (4 marks)
      2. Geyser (4 marks)
      3. Caldera. (4 marks)
    3. Explain four positive ways in which volcanic features influence human activities. (8 marks)
  3. The map below shows some vegetation regions of the world. Use it to answer question a(i) and a(ii).
    geop1q8


    1.    
      1. Name the vegetation marked H, J and K. (3 marks)
      2. Describe the characteristics of the vegetation found in the area shaded and marked L.(6 marks)
    2. Explain how each of the following factors influence distribution of vegetation:
      1. Rainfall (2 marks)
      2. Soils. (2 marks)
    3. State five uses of Savanna vegetation. (5 marks)
    4. You intend to carry out a field study on vegetation within the local environment.
      1. State  three objectives you would formulate for the study. (3 marks)
      2. Give four reasons why it is important to have a work schedule. (4 marks)
  4.  
    1.  
      1. Apart from biological weathering, list two other types of weathering.(2 marks)
      2. Explain ways in which plants cause weathering of rocks. (6 marks)
    2. Explain how each of the following physical factors influence mass wasting:
      1. Earth movement (2 marks)
      2. Nature of rock materials. (2 marks)
    3. Describe each of the following processes of mass wasting: 
      1. Avalanche (2 marks)
      2. Rock fall. 3 marks)
    4. Describe each of the following types of mass wasting:
      1. Earth flow (4 marks)
      2. Slump. (4 marks)
  5.    
    1.    
      1. Give three features found in the upper stage of a river. (3 marks)
      2. State four factors that favour the formation of braided channels. (4 marks)
    2. Explain the processes by which a river transports its load. (8 marks)
    3. With the aid of well labelled diagrams, describe how a river capture occurs. (7 marks)
    4. State three negative effects of rivers to human environment. (3 marks)


MAP: KIJABE

map

 

MARKING SCHEME 


SECTION A

  1.    
    1. Define the term environment. (2 marks)
      • Environment is the external conditions that surround an organism/ external conditions that influence the development and behaviour of an organism

    2. Name two divisions of physical Geography. (2 marks)
      • Climatology/meteorology
      • Biogeography/ecology
      • Geomorphology
      • Hydrology
      • Pedology
  2.  
    1. Give three characteristics of comets. (3 marks)
      • They are made up of frozen gases/dust/small rocky particles
      • They have a a head and tail
      • They move along oval-shaped orbit
      • They cross orbits followed by the planets

    2. State three proofs that show the shape of the earth is spherical (3 marks)
      • Circumnavigation along a straight path leads one to the starting point from the opposite direction
      • Photographs taken from satellite clearly show the eearth is spherical
      • The gradual emergence of a ship approaching the shore
      • During lunar eclipse spherical shaped shadow of the earth is cast on the moon
      • The earth is a planet and all planets are spheres
      • The different times during which the sun rises and sets in different parts of the world
      • The earth's horizon appears circular/ curved when viewed from a very high point.
  3.  
    1. Give two types of igneous rocks. (2 marks)
      • Intrusive igneous rocks/ plutonic/ hypabasal
      • Extrusive igneous rocks/ volcanic

    2. Identify three uses of rocks. (3 marks)
      • Rocks weather down to form soils which support agriculture
      • Some rock features are tourist attractions
      • Rocks provide material for building/construction
      • Some rocks provide raw materials for various manufacturing industries
      • Some rocks are used in carving
      • Some rocks are sources of salt
      • Some rocks are sources of minerals
      • Some are used as sharpening/ scrubbing tools
      • Some rocks store water for use
      • Some rocks form fossil fuels

  4. The table below shows the rainfall and temperature data for town Y. Use it to answer 
    Month J F M A M J J A S O N D
    Temperature(ºC) 21 21 20 18 15 14 13 13 15 16 18 20
    Rainfall(mm) 24 25 30 74 17 143 131 126 70 55 31 27

     

    1.   
      1. What is the mean annual range of temperature? (1 mark)
        • 21-13 = 8ºC
      2. Calculate the rainfall totals for town Y. (1 mark)
        • 753mm
    2. State three climatic conditions experienced in the hot deserts. (3 marks)
      • Low rainfall/ below 250mm a year
      • High temperatures through out the year/ over 35ºC
      • The diurnal range of temperatures is very large/ hot days and cool nights
      • Low humidity/ below 45%
      • Skies are cloudless/ clear
      • There are strong dusty winds/ sand storms/ dry winds
  5.  
    1. Differentiate between ocean and sea. (2 marks)
      • An ocean is a large/ extensive body of saline water occupying a basin between continents, while a sea is a large body of saline water along the continental margins

    2. The diagram below shows some coastal features. Name the features marked E, F and G.(3 marks)
      • E- blowhole/ gloup
      • Cave
      • Cliff
        geop1q5

SECTION  B

Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section.

  1. Study the map of Kijabe 1:50,000 (sheet 134/3) provided and answer the following questions.
    1.  
      1. Convert the scale of the map extract into a statement scale. ( 2 marks)
        • 1cm rep 50 000
          5 000cm =  50 000 
                           100 000
          = 0.5km
        • statement scale is 1cm rep 0.5km or ½km
      2. What is the bearing of the pump house at grid square 3893 from the trigonometrical station at Mweri?( 2 marks)
        • 300º±1, N60ºW±1 

      3. Calculate the area of the part of the forest to the east of easting 40 and south of northing 97. Give your answer in square kilometres. (2 marks)
        • full squares = 15
          1/2 squares =20 →20/2=10
          = 15 + 10= 25
          =25 ± 1
    2.  
      1. Apart from forest, give three types of natural vegetation found in the area covered by the map.(3 marks)
        • Thicket
        • Woodland
        • Scrub
        • Bamboo
        • Scattered trees

      2. Identify the three river drainage patterns found in the area covered by the map. (3 marks)
        • Radial drainage pattern
        • Dendritic drainage pattern
        • Parallel drainage pattern
    3.  
      1. Using a vertical scale of 1 cm to represent 100 metres, draw a cross section from the water tank on grid square 2592 to the peak of Kijabe hill on grid square 2699.(4 marks)
        On it, mark and label the following:
        1. All weather road-bound surface (1 mark)
        2. Railway line (1 mark)
        3. Steep slope. (1 mark)
          geop1a6
      2. Calculate the vertical exaggeration of the cross section. (2 marks)
        VE= VS  1:100m   
               HS    1:50 000cm
        = 1: 10 000  = 1 x 5
           1: 50 000
            5 times
         
    4. Citing evidence from the map, identify two economic activities in the area covered by the map.(4 marks)
      Economic activity  Evidence 
       -Transportation
       -Forestry
       -Trade
       -Communication
       -Quarrying
       -Lumbering
       -Cattle rearing/keeping
       -Dairy farming
       -Manufacturing/ procesing
       -Crop farming


      -Roads/ railway/motorable track
      -Forest/ forest station
      -Shops
      -Post office
      -Murram pit quarry
      -Saw mills
      -Cattle dip
      -Dairy
      -Kagwe carbacid plant
      -Plantation


      Evidence should be tied to activity.

  2.    
    1.    
      1. Define the term vulcanicity (2 marks)
        • Vulcanicity is the process through which liquid , solid or gaseous material are formed into the earth crust or on to the surface due to high pressure and temperature.

      2. Name the three stages in the life cycle of a volcano. (3 marks)
        • Active
        • Dormant
        • Extinct

    2. Describe how each of the following volcanic features are formed:
      1. Lava plateau (4 marks)
        • It is formed when magma reaches the earth surface through multiple vents/ fissures
        • The lava is ultra-basic/ extremely fluid
        • it flows over long distances, spreading evenly, covering hills and depressions 
        • The lava cools slowly and solidifies
        • Successive eruptions build up more layers, building a thick plain land/ table land called lava plateau

      2. Geyser (4 marks)
        • water percolates underground through cracks in the rock
        • Water gets into contact with hot igneous rocks
        • the water is superheated to form gases/ steam
        • pressure builds up
        • Pressure forces the steam and water to be ejected to the surface
        • The water and steam is emitted intermittently as pressure level changes to form a geyser

      3. Caldera. (4 marks)

        • lava pours out of a central vent to form volcanic cone
        • Vent is sealed when lava solidifies
        • Solidifies lava blocks gases and steam beneath, preventing them from escaping
        • Pressure piles up below, leading to a violent eruption which blows off the top of the cone forming depression.( must be mentioned to secure maximum marks)
        • The depression is large and circular and it is known as caldera
          OR 
        • Lava pours out of central vent to form volcanic cone
        • Magma chambers are left empty/void
        • Due to overlying weight at top of cone, pressure is exerted
        • Top of the cone subsides forming a depression( this part must be mentioned to secure maximum marks)
        • This depression is large and circular and is called a caldera
          OR 
          (outward collapsing theory)
        • A volcano is build of ash and pyroclasts to form a dome
        • Weak materials at the base are unable to support the overlying materials / weight
        • Materials at thee base spread outward as top part subsides,(must mention to secure full marks) leading to large depression known as caldera.

    3. Explain four positive ways in which volcanic features influence human activities. (8 marks)
      • Volcanic lava upon weathering forms fertile soils which are used in agricultural activity
      • Some volcanic plugs/aureola, have valuable minerals which can be mined
      • Steam jets are used in harnessing geothermal electricity for domestic /industrial use
      • Some volcanic features attracts tourists earning a country foreign exchange
      • Volcanic mountains influence the formation of relief rainfall on their slopes which encourage agricultural activities/settlement.
      • Volcanic lakes used for fishing which is a source of income/ food
      • Some lakes are a source of water for domestic/ industrial use
      • Volcanic mountains are source of rivers which provide water for domestic/ industrial irrigation.
      • Hotsprings/ spurs are used for medicinal purposes
      • Some volcanic rocks are used as building materials

  3. The map below shows some vegetation regions of the world. Use it to answer question a(i) and a(ii).
    geop1q8

     

    1.    
      1. Name the vegetation marked H, J and K. (3 marks)
        • H - Coniferous forest 
        • J -tundra 
        • K -Tropical desert

      2. Describe the characteristics of the vegetation found in the area shaded and marked L.(6 marks)
        • Trees grow close to each other/ closely packed
        • Trees form canopies/ 3 distinct layers
        • Trees have straight smooth trunks
        • Most tree species are hardwood
        • The forest trees are evergreen
        • Trees have broad leaves/ drip-tipped leaves
        • Forests have little/ no undergrowth
        • Forests consists of a variety of tree species
        • Some trees have buttress roots
        • The trees are tall
        • The forest have climbers/ epiphytes
        • Trees take long to mature

    2. Explain how each of the following factors influence distribution of vegetation:
      1. Rainfall (2 marks)
        • Areas receiving high rainfall encourage growth of many varieties of tree species/ luxuriant vegetation
        • Areas receiving low rainfall have few species/ scanty vegetation
        • Areas with low rainfall have stunted vegetation

      2. Soils. (2 marks)
        • Deep well drained soils support growth of dense vegetation
        • In fertile/ shallow/ thin soils support scanty vegetation

    3. State five uses of Savanna vegetation. (5 marks)
      • The grassland area is used for livestock farming/ grazing
      • The vegetation provides habitat for wild animals
      • Trees are used for bee keeping
      • Some of the vegetation is used for medicinal purposes
      • Some of the vegetation provides wild fruit
      • Trees are a source of wood fuel
      • Some vegetation provides building material
      • Grass forage decompose to farm humus

    4. You intend to carry out a field study on vegetation within the local environment.
      1. State  three objectives you would formulate for the study. (3 marks)
        • To identify vegetation species dominant in the area.
        • To find out how the local people benefit from the vegetation.
        • To investigate problems facing vegetation in the area.
        • To find out methods used to conserve vegetation in the area.

      2. Give four reasons why it is important to have a work schedule. (4 marks)
        • It helps carry out the filed activities systematically.
        • It helps in estimating the total time required for the study.
        • It ensures all areas of study are adequately covered.
        • It helps in assessing progress of the study.
        • It enables for proper use of available time.
        • It confines one to the scope of the study.
  4.  
    1.  
      1. Apart from biological weathering, list two other types of weathering.(2 marks)
        • Mechanical/ physical
        • Chemical

      2. Explain ways in which plants cause weathering of rocks. (6 marks)
        • Roots of plants/ trees penetrate into the joints/ cracks of rocks widening them hence causing the rock to disintegrate.
        • Plants decompose/ rot forming organic/ humic acids which cause rocks to decay/disintegrate.
        • Mosses and lichens moisten rock surfaces facilitating chemical weathering.
        • Widening of crack and joints by plant roots allows water and air to enter into the rocks hence accelerating weathering.

    2. Explain how each of the following physical factors influence mass wasting:
      1. Earth movement (2 marks)
        • Volcanic eruptions/ earthquakes cause tremors which may trigger displacement of materials wide spread mass wasting

      2. Nature of rock materials. (2 marks)
        • Loose/ unconsolidated materials easily move on slopes
        • Large/ heavy materials move rapidly on a slope due to gravity
        • Thin bedded layers tend to move faster on slopes
        • Saturated rock materials move faster down a slope than dry materials 

    3. Describe each of the following processes of mass wasting: 
      1. Avalanche (2 marks)
        • It occurs when a fresh fall of snow is not firmly consolidated hence slides over older snow/ ice rapidly
        • Thawing action of ice lubricates weathered rock and large ice blocks making them slide downhill rapidly

      2. Rock fall. 3 marks)
        • Involves free fall of detached rock materials down a vertical/ steep slope
        • They may fall directly downwards or bounce and roll down the slope
        • It may occur due to freeze-thaw process/loosening action of plant roots/ heating and cooling/ earth movement

    4. Describe each of the following types of mass wasting:
      1. Earth flow (4 marks)
        • It occurs in humid conditions
        • It occurs on moderate slopes
        • Materials on the surface get saturated with water
        • They flow/ slide downhill under the influence of gravity
        • They leave behind shallow scars
        • Form small bench-like terraces at their destination

      2. Slump. (4 marks)
        • Occurs on very steep slopes/ concave
        • Massive sedimentary strata overlying weak rock materials eg clay
        • Underlying rock material is saturated with water, causing undercutting/ breaking off of the overlying rock materials
        • Large mass of rock and loose materials shear/ tear away from concave plane
        • Rock material slides downhill causing slump
  5.    
    1.    
      1. Give three features found in the upper stage of a river. (3 marks)
        • V-shaped valleys
        • Potholes/ plunge pools
        • Interlocking spurs
        • Waterfall/rapids/cataracts
        • Gorges/ canyons
        • Winding channels

      2. State four factors that favour the formation of braided channels. (4 marks)
        • River must be carrying a large load
        • Should be reduction of stream gradient
        • Should be presence of obstacles
        • Should be reduction of volume of water in the river
        • River flows at low velocity
        • Widening of river channel

    2. Explain the processes by which a river transports its load. (8 marks)
      • Light insoluble materials such as silt and sand are carried in suspension and maintained within the turbulence of the water. Some of them float on surface of the water
      • Large particles/ boulders are pushed and rolled along river bed by force of gravity and moving water
      • Soluble material are dissolved in the water and carried down stream in form of solution
      • Some particles/ pebbles which are fairly heavy are moved in a series of leaps, hops and jumps along river bed through process known as saltation.
        (Process can score on its own but no the explanantion)

    3. With the aid of well labelled diagrams, describe how a river capture occurs. (7 marks)
      geop1ac

      • River capture may only occur where there are 2 adjacent rivers/ share a watershed
      • One river has more erosive power than the other
      • The more powerful river erodes vertically faster than weaker one thus flows at lower level than than the other.
      • The more power river erodes it's valley towards the other other river's valley through head-ward erosion.
      • Eventually, the powerful river joins valley of weaker river
      • The powerful river diverts the head waters of the weaker river into it's channel
      • The diversion of the headwaters is called river capture.

    4. State three negative effects of rivers to human environment. (3 marks)

      • Some rivers with almost stagnant water harbor waterborne diseases
      • Rivers flooding during rainy season may cause destruction of property and loss of life
      • Some rivers are habitats to dangerous animals which may attack humans/ destroy crops
      • Some rivers are unnavigable hindering transportation
      • River flooding also causes displacement of people

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