Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - KCSE Prediction Papers 2022

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Instructions to Candidates

  • This paper has two sections: A and B.
  • Answer all the questions in section A.
  • Answer question 6 and any other two questions from section B.
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English


Questions

SECTION A: 25 MARKS
Answer all the questions in section A.

  1.                
    1. State two differences between a national park and a game reserve.( 2 mks)
    2. State three importance of domestic tourism.( 3mks)
  2.                    
    1. Name two tree species of coniferous forests.( 2mks)
    2. Give three characteristics of tropical hardwood forests that hinder their exploitation. (3mks)
  3.                    
    1. Outline three problems facing wheat growing in Canada.( 3 mks)
    2. List two exotic beef cattle reared in Kenya. (2 mks)
  4.                      
    1. Differentiate renewable and non-renewable source of energy.( 2mks)
    2. State three problems experienced due to over-dependence on petroleum oil (3mks)
  5.                    
    1. Name two types of manufacturing industries in Kenya.( 2 mks)
    2. State three problems facing jua-kali industries in Kenya (3mks)

SECTION B: 75 MARKS
Answer Question 6 and any other two

  1. The table below shows crop production in Kenya for a period of five years in 1000 kilograms. Use it to answer question (a)

    CROP/YEAR

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2008

    2009

    Coffee

    1000

    900

    800

    700

    800

    Tea

    700

    700

    600

    680

    600

    Cotton

    500

    400

    300

    600

    350

    pyrethrum

    300

    200

    300

    440

    450

    1.                
      1. Using a scale of 1 cm represent 200 kilograms present the above data using a compound bar graph.(9 marks)
      2. List two advantages of using a compound bar graph to represent statistical data. (2 marks)
    2.                  
      1. Other than Port harcout, name other towns associated with oil palm growing in Nigeria .(2 Marks)
      2. State three physical conditions that favor the growth of oil palm in Nigeria. (3 marks)
    3. Describe the cultivation of oil palm from land preparation to harvesting. (6 marks)
    4. Give three uses of palm oil. (3 marks)
  2. The world map below shows the major fishing grounds
    7 hjygaugdad
    1. Name the
      1. Ocean currents marked P and Q (2mks)
      2. Three types of fish caught at the coast of Canada (3mks)
    2. Explain how the following factors favour fishing in Japan
      1. Ocean current (4mks)
      2. Nature of the coastline (4mks)
      3. Level of technology (2mks)
    3. Describe how purse seining method is used in fishing (7mks)
    4. Give three methods used to preserve fish (3mk)
  3. The table below shows the quantity of mineral produced in Kenya in tones between years 2001 and 2005.
    1. Use it to answer questions a(i) and (ii).

      Mineral / Years

      2001

      2002

      2003

      2004

      2005

      Soda ash

      297780

      304110

      352560

      353835

      360161

      Fluorspar

      11885

      85015

      80201

      117986

      109594

      Salt

      5664

      18848

      21199

      31139

      26595

      Others

      6093

      7000

      4971

      6315

      8972

      Source: Economic Survey, 2006.
      1. Calculate the average production of soda ash over five year period. (2 Marks)
      2. Calculate the total mineral production for the year 2003. (1 Mark)
      3. Give three uses of soda ash. (3 Marks)
    2.                            
      1. Name the main places in Kenya where the following minerals are mined: -
        1. Flourspar
        2. Titanium
        3. Gold (3 Marks)
      2. State two problems associated with shaft mining. (2 Marks)
    3. Explain four ways in which gold mining has contributed to the economy of South Africa. (8 Marks)
    4. Explain three negative effects of mining on the environment. (6 Marks)
  4.                        
    1.                          
      1. Apart from geothermal power, name three other renewable sources of energy in Kenya (3mks)
      2. State four factors that limit exploitation of geothermal power in Kenya (4mks)
    2.                    
      1. Give three factors considered when setting up an hydroelectric power generating plant (3mks)
      2. List three advantages of electricity over other sources of energy (3mks)
    3.                  
      1. What is energy crisis (2mks)
      2. Give two causes of energy crisis (2mks)
    4. Explain four effects of energy crisis to the economy of a developing country (8mks)
  5. Below is a sketch map showing Lake Victoria. Use it to answer question (a)
    10 ajdhga
    1.                    
      1. Name the ports marked P, Q, R, S (4mks)
      2. Give four advantages of air transport over water transport. (4mks)
    2.                    
      1. Name three types of communication. (3mks)
      2. Explain four problems facing transport and communication in Africa.(8mks)
    3. Explain the role of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway to the economies of Canada and the USA. (6mks)


 



 



 



 



 



 



Marking Scheme

  1.                        
    1. State two differences between a national park and a game reserve.( 2 mks)
      • National park is managed by the national government while the game reserve is managed by the county government
      • In the national parks no human activities or grazing is allowed while in the game reserve grazing is allowed.
      • National park mainly conserves wildlife, scenery and historic sites while game reserve mainly conserves wildlife and scenery.
    2. State three importance of domestic tourism.( 3mks)
      • To increase the consumption of local wildlife products
      • To increase the money circulation in the country
      • To facilitate the interaction between different communities thus promoting national unity
      • To increase employment opportunities
      • To create awareness about the environment
      • For people to appreciate their cultural heritage.
      • To make use of tourist facilities during the low season
      • To enhance the need for conservation and preservation of the environment.
  2.                        
    1. Name two tree species of coniferous forests.( 2mks)
      • Pine
      • kei apple
      • Spruce
      • jacaranda
      • Fir 
      • Cedar
      • cypress
      • African pencil
      • eucalyptus/blue gum
      • wattle
    2. Give three characteristics of tropical hardwood forests that hinder their exploitation. (3mks)
      • most of the trees are heavy hence difficult to haul or transport
      • most of the forest have thick undergrowth make them impassable/ inaccessible
      • most of the trees have large buttress roots that make them difficult to cut
      • Most of the forests occur in mixed stand making them difficult to locate and extract the valuable tree species.
      • Most of the trees take a long time to mature
      • Experience very high amounts of rainfall making the roads impassable.
      • The forests are habitats to wild animal that attack people and kill them.
  3.                  
    1. Outline three problems facing wheat growing in Canada.( 3 mks)
      • Frost that destroys the crop leading to lower yields
      • Attack by pest e.g. shiny weevil lowering production
      • Outbreak of diseases e.g stem rust lowering production
      • Fluctuation of the world market prices leading to lower profits
      • Soil exhaustion leading to lower yields
      • Competition from other producing countries reducing the market for the crop
      • Overproduction floods the market leading to lower prices
      • Frozen waters during winter limiting accessibility in the wheat farms
    2. List two exotic beef cattle reared in Kenya. (2 mks)
      • Aberdeen angus
      • Hereford
      • Short horn
      • Galloway
  4.              
    1. Differentiate renewable and non-renewable source of energy.( 2mks)
      • Renewable sources of energy are those that can be regenerated and used for a very long time while non- renewable source of energy are those once used they became exhausted.
    2. State three problems experienced due to over-dependence on petroleum oil (3mks)
      • Importation of oil drains off foreign exchange leading to unfavorable balance of trade
      • High cost of transportation when there are crisis
      • Closure of some industries which depend on petroleum and petroleum product as a raw material
      • Leads to high cost of production which increases the prices of manufactured goods.
  5.              
    1. Name two types of manufacturing industries in Kenya.( 2 mks)
      • Agricultural food processing industries
      • Agricultural non-food processing industries
      • Non-agricultural processing industries. 
    2. State three problems facing jua-kali industries in Kenya (3mks)
      • Competition from well-established factory manufactured goods hence reduced sales
      • Inadequate capital to invest
      • Discrimination of goods due to negative attitude on the products leading to low demand.
      • A rise in cost of materials resulting in increase in the prices of goods limiting the growth of industries
      • Exploitation by middle men who offer low prices. 
  6.  The table below shows crop production in Kenya for a period of five years in 1000 kilograms. Use it to answer question (a)

    CROP/YEAR

    2005

    2006

    2007

    2008

    2009

    Coffee

    1000

    900

    800

    700

    800

    Tea

    700

    700

    600

    680

    600

    Cotton

    500

    400

    300

    600

    350

    pyrethrum

    300

    200

    300

    440

    450

    1.                              
      1. Using a scale of 1 cm represent 200 kilograms present the above data using a compound bar graph.(9 marks)
        graph audguyad
      2. List two advantages of using a compound bar graph to represent statistical data. (2 marks)
        • Facilitates comparison of data
        • A number of variables can be represented in one bar
        • Changes /trend is easy to trace
        • Good visual impression
    2.                          
      1. Other than port harcout, name other towns associated with oil palm growing in Nigeria. (2 Marks)
        • Sapele
        • calaboar
      2. State three physical conditions that favor the growth of oil palm in Nigeria. (3 marks)
        • high well distributed rainfall of 2000mm per year
        • high relative humidity
        • high temperatures of 24-30℃
        • deep, fertile well drained porous and rich in humus soils.
        • Plenty of sunshine during the ripening period
        • Gentle slopes /undulating landscape
        • Land less exposed to strong winds 
    3. Describe the cultivation of oil palm from land preparation to harvesting. (6 marks)
      • The nursery is prepared
      • The land is cleared and ploughed
      • Hole are dug and spaced at 9m by 9m
      • The seedling are transplanted from the nursery to the holes
      • Weeding and spraying is done regularly
      • Manuring and addition of fertilizers is done
      • The maturing trees flower and bear fruits after 3-4 years
      • The mature fruits are harvested using a curved knife or hook
    4. Give three uses of palm oil. (3 marks)
      • Used as cleansing agent in the tin industry
      • Used for making margarine/cooking oil
      • Used for making candles
      • Used for making cosmetics
      • Used for sweets and confectionaries
      • Used as lubricant
      • Used for making soap
      • Used as food
      • Used in the pharmaceutical industries. 
  7. The world map below shows the major fishing grounds
    1. Name the
      1. Ocean currents marked P and Q (2mks)
        • P:warm gulf stream
        • Q: Mozambique/alguhas warm current
      2. Three types of fish caught at the coast of Canada (3mks)
        • Salmon, mackerel, herring, sardines,pilchards,tuna,flounder, and haddock
    2. Explain how the following factors favor fishing in Japan
      1. Ocean current (4mks)
        • The meeting/convergence of the warm kurosiwo and cold oyashiwo causes upwelling of water which bring fish food to the surface./increases supply of oxygen required for the growth of fish and growth of plankton
        • The ocean currents provide ideal temperature for survival of numerous species of fish/ growth of plankton.
        • The warm kurosiwo current raises the temperature of the ocean water making it ice free encouraging fishing throughout the year 
      2. Nature of the coastline (4mks)
        • The indented/irregular sheltered coastline provide secure breeding ground for fish.
        • The indented/irregular coastline provide suitable/ideal sites for the development of ports 
      3. Level of technology (2mks)
        • Modern/advanced technology encourages large scale commercial fishing/deep sea fishing/Limited technology discourages deep sea fishing.
        • Modern /advanced fishing encourages large catch of fish/Limited technology allows only a small catch of fish 
    3. Describe how purse seining method is used in fishing (7mks)
      • Uses two boats one large and one small
      • The net has floats on top and weight at the bottom to keep it in a vertical position
      • The net has a string along at the bottom edge
      • The fishermen locates area rich in fish
      • The string at the bottom is pulled to close the net at the bottom and trap the fish
      • The net is pulled out of the water and fish is hauled/emptied into the larger boat for preservation and transportation. 
    4. Give three methods used to preserve fish (3mks)
      • Sun drying
      • Salting
      • smoking
      • Refrigeration 
  8. The table below shows the quantity of mineral produced in Kenya in tones between years 2001 and 2005.
    1. Use it to answer questions a(i) and (ii).

      Mineral / Years

      2001

      2002

      2003

      2004

      2005

      Soda ash

      297780

      304110

      352560

      353835

      360161

      Fluorspar

      11885

      85015

      80201

      117986

      109594

      Salt

      5664

      18848

      21199

      31139

      26595

      Others

      6093

      7000

      4971

      6315

      8972

      Source: Economic Survey, 2006.
      1. Calculate the average production of soda ash over five year period. (2 Marks)
        • 297780+304110+352560+353835+360161=1,400,436√
          1,400,436/5=280,087.2 tonnes√
      2. Calculate the total mineral production for the year 2003. (1 Mark)
        • 352560+80201+21199+4971=458,931tonnes
      3. Give three uses of soda ash. (3 Marks)
        • Used in manufacture of soap
        • Used in manufacture of glass
        • Used in manufacture of detergents
        • Used in paper and pulp industry
        • Used in oil refining
        • Used in textile industry 
    2.                
      1. Name the main places in Kenya where the following minerals are mined: -
        1. Flour spar-keriovalley
        2. Titanium- kwale county
        3. Gold- migori or kakamega. 
      2. State two problems associated with shaft mining. (2 Marks)
        • Sometimes mines are flooded with water causing waterborne diseases
        • The dust produced causes respiratory diseases
        • Emission of poisonous gases causes death/ respiratory diseases
        • Collapse of mines leading to death of miners 
    3. Explain four ways in which gold mining has contributed to the economy of South Africa. (8 Marks)
      • When exported earns the country foreign exchange
      • Gold has been used as a unit of exchange for paying international debt
      • Has led to development of social amenties
      • Has led to urbanization of towns such as witwatersland
      • Has led to industrialization hence larger market for the goods
      • Has created employment opportunities raising the standard of livings
      • Has led to development of transport network.
    4. Explain three negative effects of mining on the environment. (6 Marks)
      • Dumping of rock waste has led to loss of biodiversity
      • Has led to land dereliction leading to wastage of of agricultural land
      • Open pits that are left behind are breeding grounds for mosquitoes
      • Causes environmental pollution e.g harmful gases released contaminates the air./mineral waste dumped into the rivers leading to death of aquatic life.
      • Mining disrupts the water table leading to shortage of water
      • Bare surfaces left due to clearing of the vegetation the land becomes prone to soil erosion.                        
    1.                        
      1. Apart from geothermal power, name three other renewable sources of energy in Kenya (3mks)
        • Wind
        • Solar/sun
        • Wood
        • Biogas. 
      2. State four factors that limit exploitation of geothermal power in Kenya (4mks)
        • Inadequate/shortage of capital to invest in geothermal power production
        • Shortage of skilled labor to install the geothermal power
        • Low level of technology which hinders exploitation of energy
        • Political interference in the project. 
    2.                      
      1. Give three factors considered when setting up a hydroelectric power generating plant (3mks)
        • Presence of deep valley/a river gorge to save on cost of construction.
        • Regular/reliable water supply to ensure continuous generation of power
        • A hard basement rock to provide firm foundation for the construction of a dam
        • Presence of waterfall/steep gradient to provide hydraulic force for power generation.
        • Impervious/impermeable rock to prevent seepage
      2. List three advantages of electricity over other sources of energy (3mks)
        • It is renewable.
        • It is non pollutant
        • It is relatively cheap
        • It is easy to transport using wires
        • It is easy to use
        • It is adjustable to any fraction of energy using transformers
        • Convenient to use.
    3.                    
      1. What is energy crisis (2mks)
        • it is the situation where the demand for oil is higher than the supply leading to higher oil prices a situation where the demand for a given fuel exceed supply
      2. Give two causes of energy crisis (2mks)
        • Rapid depletion of oil resources leading to a reduction in the supply of oil when the demand for it increases
        • Political disagreements between two trading partners leading to withdrawals of oil leading to shortage
        • Shift from the use of wood fuel to oil as source of energy
        • Slow development of other renewable sources of energy
        • Imposition of sanctions on an oil producing country forcing to export only a limited quantities
        • High cost of prospection of oil leading to a reduction of oil supply when the demand is increasing
        • Sharp rise in demand of oil due to increasing population
        • Wastage and misuse of energy
        • Overdependence on oil and its products leading to high demand
        • Collusion by oil producing countries causing artificial shortage in order to maintain profits
        • Political disagreements making the oil producing countries to withhold oil causing crisis
  9. Below is a sketch map showing Lake Victoria. Use it to answer question (a)
    1.                          
      1. Name the ports marked P, Q, R, S (4mks)
        • P – Kisumu
        • Q- Musoma
        • R – Bukoba
        • S – Entebbe
      2. Give four advantages of air transport over water transport. (4mks)
        • Air transport is faster
        • Air transport is less affected by congestion
        • Air transport is easier in transporting perishable goods
        • Air transport is most comfortable over long distances.
        • Air transport allows access to remote areas.
    2.                          
      1. Name three types of communication. (3mks)
        • Oral/verbal communication
        • Written communication
        • Visual/audio communication
        • Sign language. 
      2. Explain four problems facing transport and communication in Africa.(8mks)
        • Difficult terrain – Africa is characterized by difficult terrain
        • Lack of an integrated traffic system – Different countries has different traffic rules.
        • Landlocked countries- A number of African countries are located far inland and away from oceans, thus denying them direct link to the sea.
        • Shortage of navigable rivers – fluctuations in river levels and presence of obstacles.
        • Uninhabited land- such areas are uneconomical
        • Thick vegetation- It makes it different and expensive to construct transport system.
        • Different railway and road systems.
        • Political barriers- Political animosity between countries
        • Inadequate capital – Heavy capital investment is required.
        • Poor technology and shortage of skilled labour
        • High fuel costs- Africans are unable to cope with the ever increasing prices of petroleum.
        • Security – vandalism of communication facilities, road sign, Terrorisms, wars in several countries. 
    3. Explain the role of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway to the economies of Canada and the USA. (6mks)
      • Source of foreign exchange for the two countries because many tourists are attracted to beautiful scenery e.g. Niagara Falls.
      • Dams along the seaway are used to produce H.E.P. which stimulated growth of industries.
      • Fishing is undertaken in dams and lakes along the water way.
      • Development of agricultural activities along the seaway e.g. villages which practice horticultural farming.
      • It’s a source of employment e.g. tour guides, security, transport, etc.
      • Source of revenue to U.S.A. and Canada from toll charges paid by ships which go there.
      • Lakes and the seaway are sources of fresh water for domestic and industrial purposes.
      • Increased trade between the two countries and other countries of the world.
      • Reduction of transport costs to and from the interior of the continent.

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