Instructions to Candidates
- This paper consists of three sections, A, B and C.
- Answer ALL questions in section A, three in section B and two from section C.
SECTION A (25 MARKS)
- Give the meaning of Anthropology. (1mk)
- Identify one archaeological site in Tanzania. (1mk)
- Name twoinventions that promoted the development of Early Agriculture in Egypt. (2mks)
- State two negative impacts of the Trans-Saharan trade. (2mks)
- Give the meaning of telecommunication.(1mk)
- Identify two reasons why the industrial revolution intensified the Scramble for colonies in Africa. (2mks)
- State the main reason for the growth of the ancient city of Meroe. (1mk)
- Name two officials who assisted the Shona emperor to administer the Kingdom. (2mks)
- Identify one African country that was colonized by Italy. (1mk)
- Give one reason why the Africans in Tanganyika were against the use of Akidas by the German colonial administration. (1mk)
- State two political benefits enjoyed by assimilated Africans in Senegal. (2mks)
- Give themain reason for the failure of the League of Nations in Preserving world peace. (1mk)
- State one function of the United Nations International court of Justice. (1mk)
- State two social achievements of the common wealth. (2mks)
- Give one function of ECOWAS council of ministers. (1mk)
- Identify two political changes introduced by Mobutu SeseSeko which led to dictatorship in Democratic Republic of Congo. (2mks)
- Give two qualifications for election to the council of states in India.(2mks)
SECTION B (45 MARKS)
- State three limitations of electronic sources of information on history and government.(3mks)
- Explain six reasons why man lived in groups during the Stone Age Period. (12mks)
- Identify three disadvantages of the open field system of farming in Britain. (3mks)
- Discuss six remedies that should be put in place by third world countries to prevent food shortage. (12mks)
- State three uses of canals. (3mks)
- Describe six factors that promoted industrialization in South Africa. (12mks)
- Give three social factors that led to the scramble and partition of Africa. (3mks)
- Explain six characteristics of direct rule in Zimbabwe. (12mks)
SECTION C: (30 MARKS)
- Give five factors that led to the growth of Asante Kingdom. (5mks)
- Discuss five functions of the Lukiiko among the Buganda Kingdom. (10mks)
- Identify five roles played by Kwame Nkrumah in the Liberation of Africa.(10mks)
- Explain five political challenges faced by Tanzania since independence. (10mks)
- Explain five roles of the state governments in U.S.A. (5mks)
- Explain five factors that limit the supremacy of parliament in Britain. (5 marks)
SECTION A (25 marks)
The meaning of Anthropology. (1 mark)
The study of human beings, their origin, development, customs, beliefs and social relationships / way of life
Archaeological site in Tanzania. (2 marks)
- Olduvai Gorge
- Isimila / Eyasi
- Apis Rock
Inventions that promoted the development of Agriculture plough in Egypt (2 MARKS)
- Bronze hoes
- ox – drawn plough.
Negative impacts of Trans-Saharan trade. (2 marks)
- led to increased warfare in the region.
- Intensified slave trade which created insecurity and misery.
- Demand for Ivory led to destruction of wildlife.
Meaning of telecommunication. (1 mark)
- Technology of receiving and sending messages by television, telegraph etc / electronic media.
Two reasons why the industrial revolution intensified the scramble for colonies in Africa. (2 marks)
- Colonies were perceived as sources of raw materials.
- Colonies were seen as market for industrial goods.
- Colonies were seen as regions of possible investment.
Main reason for growth of ancient city of Meroe. (1 mark)
- Abundant wood fuel for the smelting of iron.
Two officials who assisted the Shona Emperor to administer the Kingdom. (2 marks)
- The head cook
- Gate keeper / Chancellor
- Court steward / Chamberlain / Chancellor
- Queen mother
- Head drummer
- Head of the army
- Senior son in law
- King’s sister
- 9 Principal wives of King
One Africans Country that was colonized by Italy. (1 mark)
- Italian Somaliland
One reason why the Africans in Tanganyika were against the use of Akidas by the German Colonial administrators. (1 mark)
- Akidas were foreigners
- Akidas took African vacancies in administering their country.
- Akidas were harsh / brutal / whipped Africans
Two political benefits enjoyed by Assimilated Africans in Senegal. (2 marks)
- They were allowed to send representatives in French chamber of deputies.
- They were allowed to vote during elections
- Subjected to French judicial System
Main reason for the failure of the League of nations to pressure world peace. (1 mark)
- Rearmament of Germany / Lack of military wing.
One function of the United Nations International court of Justice. (1 mark)
- Settling disputes over international borders
- Handling other international disputes
- Handling cases of human rights violation and crimes against humanity.
Two social achievements of the commonwealth. (2 marks)
- Enabled members to share technological information to promote educational research.
- Improved co-operation among members
- Cultural exchange
- Engagement in games etc.
One function of ECOWAS council of ministers. (1 mark)
- The general management of the organization
- Advising the authority of Head of State.
- Giving direction to the subordinate organs.
Two political changes introduced by Mobutu SeseSeko which led to dictatorship in Democratic Republic of Congo. (2 marks)
- He banned all the political parties except the people’s revolutionary movement which led
- He amended the constitution stripping parliament its powers.
- Abolished federal system / centralized powers around himself.
- Civil servant were appointed by centralized powers around himself.
- Declared himself a life president.
Two qualifications for election to the council of states in Idia. (2 marks)
- Indian citizen
- One must be above the age of 30 years
- One must be registered as a voter
- One must be a resident of the state in which one is contesting.
SECTION B (45 MARKS)
Three limitations of electronic sources of information on history and government. (3 marks)Can only be used in areas with electricity.
- They are expensive to obtain and use.
- They require experts.
- They are subject to bias of the producer.
- Contain unrealistic / exaggerated information inaccurate as they depict what appeals to the public (5x1= 5 marks)
Six reasons why man lived in groups during Stone Age period. (12 marks)
- To help each other in times of hardships.
- To give moral support / encouragement to each other.
- To share resources.
- To share work / duties.
- For companionship.
- For security reasons. (6x2 = 12 marks)
- Three limitations of electronic sources of information on history and government. (3 marks)Can only be used in areas with electricity.
Three disadvantages of the open-field system of farming in Britain. (3 marks)
- Land was not fully utilized as land was left fallow.
- Cart tracks and paths wasted land.
- There was wastage of labour / time duet to ploughing fallow fields and leaving idle.
- Discouraged livestock rearing due to spread of diseases on common grazing grounds.
- It was difficult to practice selective breeding of livestock.
- It was not easy to get enough way for winter breeding and farmers slaughtered animals in autumn.
- Discouraged the use of machines.
Six remedies that should be put in place by third world countries to prevent food shortage. (12 marks)
- Land reclamation through irrigation and drainage of swamps.
- Agricultural policies to be reformulated from concentration on cash crops to paying more attention to food production and encourage indigenous crops.
- Provision of extension services e.g. advice research, information dissemination and training of Agricultural officers.
- Infrastructural development be improved e.g. transport, storage and marketing.
- Reforestation programmes by planting more checking soil erosion, protection of water catchment areas and intercropping.
- Intensive agricultural research undertaken to develop drought resident crops, control pests.
- Stoppage of civil string through peaceful conflict resolutions and democracy.
- Subsidies / reduction of taxes on farm inputs to increase production.
- Control the rate of population growth through family planning (6x2 = 12 marks)
- Three disadvantages of the open-field system of farming in Britain. (3 marks)
Three uses of canals. (3 marks)
- To shorten trade routes in transport.
- Linking industrial centres to other parts.
- Water from canals can be used to irrigate land.
- Canals supply water to town.
- Acts as safety measures for controlling floods.
Six factors that promoted industrialization in South Africa.(12 marks)
- Availability of natural resources / minerals / raw materials which were processed by her industries.
- Industrial goods being of high quality can compete favourably for market internally, continentally and the rest of the world.
- High population in South Africa has contributed to both skilled and unskilled labour.
- Development of sources of energy HEP, coal.
- Well developed network of roads, water, air and railway transport to transport raw materials and manufactured goods.
- Availability of capital mainly from trade in minerals earns the country foreign exchange.
- Political stability after the end of apartheid rule has encouraged trade and investment.
- Government support through good polices of promoting industrialization in the country and encouraged local and foreign investors. (6x2 = 12 marks)
- Three uses of canals. (3 marks)
Three social factors that led to the scramble and partition of Africa. (3 marks)
- Missionary factor / the need to spread Christianity / protect missionaries.
- Need to settle their surplus population of Europe.
- Abolition of Slave trade.
- To civilize Africans through western education and medicine.
- Role of influential individuals.
- Racism and paternalism.
Six characteristics of direct rule in Zimbabwe. (12 marks)
- There was a large number of European settlers hence influenced the system of administration.
- Many British settlers believed that the territory was pre-ordained to be white settler colony.
- The colony was administered by a commercial company.
- It was headed by an administrator, followed by other Europeans.
- The method of administration was applied to the Africans.
- Legislative council was started, giving Europeans political rights for self government.
- Europeans acquired large tracks of land hence compel Africans to provide labour. (6x2 = 12 marks)
- Three social factors that led to the scramble and partition of Africa. (3 marks)
SECTION C (30 MARKS)
Five factors that led to the growth of Asante Kindom. (5 marks)
- Agriculture – The land was fertile and well – watered hence suitable for mixed farming.
- Trade – Through Trans- Atlantic Trade, the empire acquired wealth.
- Unity and stability – Golden stool and centralized political system under Asaintehene, provided unity.
- Efficient standing Army – It had a large Army strengthened by introduction of guns and gun powder.
- Conquest – The united against oppression and created a new Kingdom around Kumasi which was closely knit.
- Able leadership – They had able rulers like Obiri, Osei Tutu and Opoku who united the people.
Five functions of the Lukiiko among the Bunganda Kingdom. (10 marks)
- Made laws for the Kingdom.
- Advised the Kabaka.
- Represented the interests of the people.
- Acted as the court of appeal / settled disputes.
- Directed the collection of taxes in the Kingdom and planned government expenditure.
- Checked the activities of government.
- The Bataka were the minor chiefs in charge of clans who were answerable to the Mugema. (5x2 = 10 marks)
- Five factors that led to the growth of Asante Kindom. (5 marks)
Five roles played by Kwame Nkrumah in liberation of Africa. (5 marks)
- He formed a political party, the CPP which fought for independence in Gold coast.
- He wrote a newspaper, the Accra Evening News which articulated the demands of people of Ghana
- He held rallies mobilize Ghanaians towards the struggle for independence.
- He organized industrial boycotts encouraging the people to boycott European goods.
- His arrest and detention in 1950 turned international attention to the plight of Ghanaians.
- He attended international conferences highlighting the cause of the Gold Coast independence.
- He attended constitutional negotiations which red to Ghana’s Independence.(6x2 = 12 marks)
Five political challenges faced by Tanzania since independence. (10 marks)
- Army muting over delayed promotion of Africa in 1964.
- Riots by students of university of Dar-e-salam who opposed forceful service in National Youth Service.
- The assassination of AbeidKarume 1972 caused tension.
- Attack of Tanzania by Dictator Idi Amin put the country into costly and unnecessary war.
- The country had large influx of refugees.
- Resignation of AboudJumbe strained relations between Zanzibar and main land Tanzania.Re-introduction of multi-party democracy reignited ethnic differences and regionalism.
- Failure of ujamaa policy weakened public confidence in the government.
- Personality differnces between Nyerere, Amin and Jomo Kenyatta undermined regional cooperation.
- Collapse of EAC
- Border closure. (5x2 = 10 marks)
- Five roles played by Kwame Nkrumah in liberation of Africa. (5 marks)
Five roles of the state governments in USA. (5 marks)
- It maintains law and order using state police.
- It makes state laws using the state legislative.
- It provides social amenities to its citizens, e.g. education, health and public works.
- It generates revenue from a number of internal sources.
- It administers Justice using the state law courts.
- It provides administrative structure within the states such as counties, municipalities and townships (5x2 = 10 marks)
Five factors that may limit the supremacy of parliament in Britain. (10 marks)
- Local authorities make and pass by – laws without consulting parliament.
- Legislation made by parliament may be altered by a future parliament.
- As parliament makes laws, it takes into consideration the moral values of the society.
- The Action of parliament are heavily influenced by public opinion.
- Before legislation is made in parliament, the interest of the affected institutions are taken into accounts.
- International law is taken into account when parliament is making laws. (5x2 = 10 marks)
- Five roles of the state governments in USA. (5 marks)