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    1. Write a composition ending:
      ‘…… from that day, whenever I see him my heart is filled with bitterness.’
    2. The use of the social media platform should be regulated. Write a composition for or against this proposition.
    Henry R. Ole Kulet: Blossoms of the Savannah
    Our relatives, friends and acquaintances can often be the cause of our troubles. Drawing illustrations from Henry R. Ole Kulet’s Blossoms of the Savannah, write an essay in support of this assertion.
  1. THE OPTIONAL SET TEXTS (20 marks)
    Answer any one of the following three questions

      Chris Wanjala: Memories we Lost and Other Stories
      Though now independent, African countries still face many challenges. Using illustrations from Benjamin Branoff’s Window Seat, write a composition in support of this statement.


    2. DRAMA
      David Mulwa: Inheritance
      A Leader who is unfit to rule occasions untold suffering for the citizens of his/her country. Drawing illustrations from David Mulwa’s Inheritance, write an essay showing the validity of this statement.


    3. THE NOVEL
      John Steinbeck: The Pearl
      Wealth and money cannot afford happiness. With illustrations from John Steinbeck’s The Pearl, validate this statement.


Paper 101/3 is intended to test the candidates ability to communicate in writing,. Communication is established at different levels of intelligibility, correctness, accuracy, fluency, pleasantness and ability. Within the constraints set by each question, it is the linguistic competence shown the candidate that should carry most of the marks.
Examiner should not hesitate to use the full range of marks for each essay. It is important to determine first how each essay communicates and in which category A,B,C or D as it is(marks indicated below are for question one)



The candidate either does not communicate at all or his language ability is so minimal that the examiner practically has to guess what the candidate wants to say. The candidate fails to fit the English word into meaningful sentences. The subject is glanced at or distorted. Practically no valid punctuation. All kind of errors “Broken English.”

D- (01-02)

Chaotic, little meaning whatsoever. Question paper or some words from it simply copied.

D (3)

Flow of thought almost impossible to follow. The errors are continuous

D+ (04-05)

Although the English is often broken and the essay is full of errors of all types we can at least guess what the candidate wants to say.



The candidate communicates understandably but only more or less clearly.

He is not confident with his language. The subject is often undeveloped. There may be some digressions. Unnecessary repetitions are frequent. The arrangement is weak and the flow jerky. There is no economy of language mother tongue influence is felt

C- (06-07)

The candidate obviously finds it difficult to communicate his/her ideas.

He/she is seriously hampered by his/her limited knowledge of structure and vocabulary. This results in many errors of agreement, spelling, and misuse of prepositions, tense, verb agreement and sentence construction.

C   (08)

The candidate communicates but not with consistent clarity. His/her linguistic abilities being very limited, he/she cannot avoid frequent errors in sentence structure. There is little variety or originality. Very bookish English, links are weak, incorrect, repeated at times.

C+ (09-10)

The candidate communicates clearly but in a flat and uncertain manner. Simple concepts sentence forms are often strained. There may be an overuse of clichés, unsuitable idioms. Proverbs are misquoted or misinterpreted. The flow is still jerky. There are some errors of agreement, tenses and spelling.


This class is characterized by greater fluency and ease of expression. The candidate demonstrates that he/she can use English as a normal way of expressing himself/herself. Sentences are varied and usually well-constructed. Some candidates become ambitious and even over-ambitious. There may be items of merit of the one word or one expression type. Many essays in this category may be just clean and unassuming but they still show that the candidate is at ease with the language. There may be a tendency to under mark such essays. Give credit for tone

B- 11-12

The candidate communicates fairly and with some fluency. There may be little variety in sentence structure. Gross errors are still found occasionally, but this must not be over punished by the examiner.

B 13

The sentences are varied but rather simple and straight forward. The candidate does not strain himself in an effort to impress. There is a fair range of vocabulary and idiom. Natural and effortless. Some items of merit, economy of language

B+ 14-15

The candidate communicates his ideas pleasantly and without strain. There are errors and slips. Tenses, spelling and punctuation are quite good. A number of items of merit of the whole sentence or the whole expression type



The candidate communicates not only fluently, but attractively with originality and efficiency. He/she has the ability to make us share his deep feelings, emotions, enthusiasms. He/she expresses himself freely and without any visible constraint. The script gives evidence of maturity, good planning and often humour. Many items of merit which indicate that the candidate has complete command of the language. There is no strain just pleasantness, clever arrangement, felicity of expression.

A-    16-17

The candidate shows competence and fluency in using the language. He may lack imagination or originality which usually provides the “spark” in such essays. Vocabulary idiom, sentence structure, links, variety are impressive. Gross errors are very rare

A 18

Positive ability. A few errors that are felt to be slips. The story or argument has a definite impact. No grammar problem. Variety of structures. A definite spark. Many margin ticks

A+ 19-20

The candidate communicated not only information and meaning but also and especially the candidate’s whole self: his /her feelings, tastes, points of view, youth, and culture. This ability to communicate is deep self may express itself in many ways, wide range of effectiveness vocabulary, original approach, vivid and sustained account in the case of narrative, well developed   in the case of a debate or discussion. Errors and slips should not deprive the candidate the full marks he deserves. A very definite spark.



A+       19-20

A         18

A-         16-17


C+         09-10

C           08

B-           06-07


B+         14-15

B           13

C-             11-12


D+         04-05

D           03

D-             01-02


  1. Almost any error of agreement
  2. Serious tense error
  3. Error of elementary vocabulary, spelling and misuse
  4. Punctuation errors or missing punctuation which causes serious lack of communication
  5. Elementary errors of sentence construction
  6. Ridiculous use of idioms that affects communication
  7. Misuse of common propositions
  8. Misuse of capital letters


    1. Points of interpretation
      • it must be a story if not deduct 2 marks
      • it must end with the sentence given if not deduct 2 marks (AD)
      • there must present a credible scenario/ situation of betrayal or one which would lead to the ending of the story, if it is not the case treat it as irrelevant and deduct 2 marks (AD)
    2. Points of interpretation
      • Must be an expository essay. If not deduct 2 marks (AD)
      • The essay must either be for or against. If not deduct 4 marks (AD)
      • Expect an introduction and conclusion. However, it is the linguistic ability that should carry the most marks.
    We would expect that those close to us would be the ones to help us out in our time of need. However, many a time, they are the reason for our suffering. For example, a close friend may spread rumours about you and make people hate you. In Blossoms of the Savannah, various characters have gotten in trouble due to the misdeeds of their relatives, friends or acquaintances.

    Accept any other relevant introduction: award 2 marks. (Can be general, contexualized or general-contextualized)

    • Resian suffers a lot because of her father’s greed. Ole Kaelo seeks to marry off Resian to Oloisudori against her will. He in effect trades her for money given to him by Oloisudori who wants to marry her in exchange for the money he lent Ole Kaelo to establish himself in Nasila. As a result, She runs away from home and even contemplates suicide. She lands in the hands of Olarinkoi who puts her through a lot of physical and emotional pain.
    • Olarinkoi subjects Resian to a lot of pain. Olarinkoi lies to Resian that he will take her to Emankererei and she feels grateful to him. However, it turns out that he has different plans. He makes her ride on the back of a pickup where she has to deal with the cold and insects. As if that is not enough, he imprisons her in very deplorable conditions. He also attempts to rape her.
    • Olaisudori makes Ole kaelo suffer due to his demand that he marries Resian. The two had a business arrangement but Oloisudori demands Resian instead of getting money he had loaned him back. This causes Ole Kaelo a lot of sleepless nights and eventually he loses her as she goes to live with Emakererei.
    • Mama Milanoi hands over Taiyo to the circumcisor. Her mother is expected to safeguard her interests but instead hands her over to be circumcised. This subjects her to physical and emotional pain. Also, Taito loses Joseph as he dies when attempting to rescue her.
      Any four well illustrated points 4 *3 =12 (3:3:3:3)
      From the above illustrations, it is clear that those close to us can cause us a lot of physical and emotional pain. We should be careful around our friends and relatives.
      Any other relevant conclusion, award 2 marks
      Introduction: 2 marks
      Content:         12 marks
      Conclusion:    2 marks
      Language:      4 marks
  1. The Optional Set Texts
    1. The Short Stories: The Memories We lost and other stories by Chris Wanjala
      There are various challenges faced by African countries many years after they attained their independence. The ‘mzungu’ while taking a ride in a daladala through Dar es Salaam describes some of these challenges as will be illustrated below
      Accept any other relevant introduction:award 2 marks. (Can be general, contexualized or general-contextualized)

      • Lawlessness on the roads. The vehicles should follow traffic laws for safety. However, law and order is not followed as it should be. Passengers are literally packed. A daladala which is the size of a minivan and should therefore carry ten passengers is loaded with 25 passengers.
      • Poor infrastructure. The roads are in bad condition. We are told that most of the road is a dusty stretch.
      • People on the buses are said to be in sandals and others are barefoot. This means that they cannot afford better shoes or cannot afford any shoes at all. The narrator describes Kanga as having a trimmed figure ‘molded by beautiful genes and a lifetime of never ending work and deprivation of luxuries’
      • The police who are supposed to guarantee safety collude with drivers. They solicit bribes to an extent of removing car keys from the ignition.
      • There is pollution everywhere, air pollution from the dust, noise pollution from conductors advertising their daladalas etc. there is also dirt flying by and people burning rubbish and dead foliage on the sides of the road.
        Any four well illustrated points *3=12 (3:3:3:3)
        From the above illustrations, it is clear that post independent East African countries still face a lot of challenges.
        Any other relevant conclusion, award 2 marks.
        Introduction: 2 marks
        Content:         12 marks
        Conclusion:    2 marks
        Language:      4 marks

  2. Drama: Inheritance
    A bad leader causes a lot of hardships for his or her country. Usually, such a leader is driven by greed. Any decision made is to the detriment of the country. For example, bad leaders give jobs on the basis of tribal affiliation or loyalty. This is bad for a country as such people may not necessary be fit for those jobs. Also, such leaders loot their nation’s economy. In Inheritance, Lacuna Kasoo mismanages Kutula Republic and makes citizens suffer as illustrated below.
    Accept any other relevant introduction: award 2 marks. (Can be general, contexualized or general-contextualized)
    • The citizens are poor. Tamina works for very little pay and what she earns is not enough for the domestic expenses. When she is given eight hundred shillings by her husband, she gets frustrated as the money is not enough to cover all her expenses. Also, from the description of their house, it is clear that the family is poor. This is attributable to the economic mismanagement of the country by Lacuna. For example, he stashes money in foreign countries and lives in luxury, even owning a private jet.
    • Land is taken away from them. Tamina is forced to sell her land to Chipande. Lacuna is to blame as he favours Chipande in decreeing that coffee can only be grown by Chipande. She is now forced to work for very little pay on a land that used to be hers. Also, Lacuna attempts to displace people from their lands by force as demanded by the colonial powers.
    • Citizens suffer false imprisonment. Bengo is imprisoned for daring to stand for election against Lacuna Kasoo. Also, Lulu Zen Melo was held at the palace by Lacuna against her will with the intention of deflowering her for the purpose of cementing his position as leader.
    • There are murders and attempted murders in Kutula. Anyone who is a perceived enemy of Lacuna is killed. Judah Zen Melo is beaten and left for dead for refusing to eliminate his brother Bengo Zen Melo who is perceived as a threat to the leadership of Lacuna. Later, Judah is killed in what is made to look like an accident.
    • Citizens are disillusioned. Lulu and Judah have gotten so disillusioned that they give up on God. Judah says that he has not looked up since he decided to struggle on his own. Lulu also wonders if God is still there in that valley. All this is attributed to the suffering they have undergone as a result of Lacuna’s misrule. Lulu is sent away from school as her mother cannot raise the exorbitant school fees, Judah is overworked and underpaid and Tamina works for very little pay.
      Any four well illustrated points *3 =12 (3:3:3:3)
      In conclusion, when a country is mismanaged by a bad leader, the citizens suffer greatly. It is important for leaders to be accountable to their citizens and to run their country in a democratic manner for the good of the citizens.
      Any other relevant conclusion, award 2 marks
      Introduction: 2 marks
      Content:         12 marks
      Conclusion:    2 marks
      Language:      4 marks

  3. The Novel: The Pearl
    Wealth and money cannot guarantee happiness. One may be rich but that does not mean he is happy. Juana and Kino have the pearl that if sold will earn them a lot of money thus liberating them from poverty. The Pearl in this case signifies wealth. This new found treasure however robs them of the happiness they had when they were poor.
    Accept any other relevant introduction: award 2 marks (Can be general, contextualized or general-contextualized)

    • The pearl brings opportunists to Kino and Juana’s doorstep. They are only interested in Kino’s new found wealth. The priest, the shopkeeper, the doctor, the beggars outside the church and the pearl buyers scheme to benefit from the rare find.
    • The Pearl turns Kino’s friends into enemies, they are jealous of Kino. Kino believes his friends will protect him from the evils that might befall him from the pearl but their jealousy is too great that they turn against Kino and his family.
    • The Pearl turns Juana and Kino against each other. The evil power of the Pearl is strong enough to inspire violence between them. Juana and Kino are so close to one another that conversation isn’t even needed and yet the pearl is able to divide them. It has brought injury and danger and now it pulls Juana and Kino away from each other.
    • Kino and Juana suffer constant attacks because of the pearl. People are so anxious to get their hands on this jewel that they attackhim, ransack his house leaving Kino’s family in constant fear.
    • The pearl also brings death to Kino and his family. Coyotito is killed because of the pearl.
      Any four well illustrated points*3 =12 (3:3:3:3)
      From the above illustrations it is clear that wealth does not bring happiness, and instead has the potential to wreak havoc in the lives of those who posses it.
      Any other relevant conclusion, award 2 marks

      Introduction: 2 marks
      Content:         12 marks
      Conclusion:    2 marks
      Language:      4 marks


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