GEOGRAPHY PAPER 2 - 2019 LANJET JOINT MOCK EXAMINATION

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SECTION A
Answer all the questions in this section.

  1.  
    1. What is mining?         (2 marks)
    2. State three ways in which opencast mining affects the environment. (3marks)
  2.  
    1. What is urbanization? (2marks)
    2. Give three differences in the function of New York and Nairobi cities. (3marks)
  3. The map below shows some major fishing grounds in the world. Use it to answer question (a)
    geo2 q3a qsns
    1.  
      1. Name the countries marked P and Q                                                         (2marks)
      2. State three conditions that favour fishing in the shaded coastal waters (3marks)
  4.  
    1. Give two primary sources of population data(2marks).
    2. What information can be derived from a population pyramid (3marks?)
  5.  
    1. Apart from windstorms, name two other environmental hazards associated with climatic conditions. (2 marks)
    2. Identify three ways that are used to control floods in Kenya (3 marks)

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section.

  1. The table below shows the Hypothetical value of some cash crops produced in Kenya in ksh.million.

    Crop

    1999

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    Tea

    15000

    15000

    16000

    17000

    18000

    17000

    Coffee

    10000

    11000

    12000

    13000

    14000

    15000

    Maize

    800

    1000

    1100

    800

    800

    750

    Sugarcane

    1,300

    2000

    3,000

    800

    1,900

    2,000


    1. Using a scale of 1cm to represent 2,000 million ksh draw a comparative line graph based on the data above. (8marks)
    2. State two advantages of using comparative line graph. (2marks)
    3. State three physical conditions required for the growing of
      Tea                       (3marks)
    4. Describe the stages involved in coffee production from picking to marketing(8 marks)
    5. Identify four ways in which drought affects the agricultural sector in Kenya     ( 4 marks)
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Apart from coniferous forest, name two other types of natural forests.                    (2marks)
      2. State two characteristics of coniferous which favour their exploitation.   (2marks)
    2. Explain three factors that favour the growth of natural forests on the slopes of Mt.Kenya. (6marks)
    3. Use the map of Kenya below to answer questions    (i) and (ii).
      geo2 q7c qsns
      1. Name the forest reserves marked H, J and (3 marks)
      2. Explain Three factors that favour the growth of natural forest in the area marked L.   (6 marks)
    4. Explain Three problems facing forestry in Kenya.     (6 marks)
  1.  
    1.  
      1. What is industrialization (2marks)`
      2. Name a town in Kenya where each of the following industries are located
        1. Oil refining                         1mark)
        2. Paper manufacturing           ( 1mark)
        3. Motor vehicle assembly               ( 1mark)
    2. Explain Three factors which influenced the location of iron and steel industry in the Ruhr region of Germany                 (6marks)
    3.  
      1. State two characteristics of the cottage industry in India.         (2marks)       
      2. Explain three factors which have favoured the development of car manufacturing industry in Japan.  (6marks)
    4.  
      1. You intend to carry out a field study of furniture – making industry in the local (i)State two reasons why it would be necessary for you to visit the area of study in advance     ( 2 marks)
      2. For your field study you have prepared a work schedule. State two items you would include in the schedule                                              ( 2 marks)
      3. Give two advantages of studying about furniture making through fieldwork.(2marks)
  1.  
    1.  
      1. State two advantages of written communication. (2 marks)
      2. State two ways in which Kenya is benefiting from the construction of the Standard gauge railway.                                                                       (2 marks)
    2. The sketch map below shows the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway. Use it to answer the following questions.
      geo2 q9b qsns
      KEY:
      xxxxxx - International Boundary.
      Name:
      1. the ports marked M and P.                             (2marks)
      2. the Lake marked N.                                       (1marks)
    3. Explain three ways in which the great lakes St.Lawrence sea way has contributed to the economy of Canada and the United States of America (U.S.A)       (6marks)
    4. Give four reasons why there is limited use of river transport in Africa.           (4marks)                                                                                                                                       
    5. Explain four measures that the government has taken to improve road transport in Kenya                                                                                                (8marks)
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Distinguish between visible and invisible exports. (2 marks)
      2. Name two seaports that handle exports in East Africa. (2 marks)
    2. Explain three measures Kenya can take to reduce her unfavourable balance of trade.        (6 marks)
    3. Explain three reasons for low volume of trade between the countries in Africa.   (6 marks)
    4.  
      1. State three benefits of ECOWAS to the member states.               (3 marks)  
      2. Explain three negative effects of international trade (6marks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1.  
    1. what is mining?
      It is the extraction of minerals on or below the earth’s surface
    2. State three ways in which opencast mining affects the environment. (3marks)
      -it leads to soil erosion
      -it leaves behind ugly craters/dereliction
      -it causes air/water pollution
      -leads to destruction of biodiversity/plants and animals
      -dumped rock’s wastes litters the environment
      -craters left behind accumulate with water to form breeding grounds for mosquitoes.
  1.  
    1. What is urbanization? (2marks)
      - It is the process by which population is transferred from rural based settlement to urban based life/ growth of town in number and size/
    2. Give three differences in the function of New York and Nairobi cities. (3marks)
      New York                                                   Nairobi
      It is a sea port                                             it is an inland port
      It is a state capital                                       it is a national capital
      It is an international commercial center     it is a national centre
  2. The map below shows some major fishing grounds in the world. Use it to answer question (a)
    1.  
      1. Name the countries marked P and Q                                                      (2marks)
        P Norway               Q Japan
      2. State three conditions that favour fishing in the shaded coastal waters (3marks)
        -have shallow continental shelves/
        -convergence of cool and warm currents
        - most of the coast are indented/ have numerous sheltered bay
        -large population in this area limit agricultural activities thus turn to fishing / cold climate limit agriculture
        - Cold climate provide natural preservation of fish
  3.  
    1. Give two primary sources of population data(2marks).
      -Sample survey
      -Census
      -vita statistics/registration of birth / death/ marriage/ migration
    2. What information can be derived from a population pyramid (3marks?)
      -size of the population
      -the different age groups/cohorts
      -the proportion of males to females
      -the composition by sex
      -the proportion of the youth/working/ageing/dependency ratio
  1.  
    1. Apart from windstorms, name two other environmental hazards associated with climatic conditions. (2 marks)
      -lightening                    
      -dust storms                
      -hailstorms
      -floods                          
      -Soil erosion
      -landslides
      -strong winds
    2. Identify three ways that are used to control floods in Kenya (3 marks)
      1. Constructing channels/ditches/furrows to drain off the water.
      2. Constructing dykes / levees along river banks.
      3. Dredging / widening of river channels.
      4. Building of dams across rivers/earth dams.
      5. Training / re-directing / straightening of rivers.
      6. Planting trees in the catchment areas.

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section.

  1. The table below shows the Hypothetical value of some cash crops produced in Kenya in ksh.million.

    Crop

    1999

    2000

    2001

    2002

    2003

    2004

    Tea

    15000

    15000

    16000

    17000

    18000

    17000

    Coffee

    10000

    11000

    12000

    13000

    14000

    15000

    Maize

    800

    1000

    1100

    800

    800

    750

    Sugarcane

    1,300

    2000

    3,000

    800

    1,900

    2,000

    1. Using a scale of 1cm to represent 2,000 million ksh draw a comparative line graph based on the data above. (8marks)
      geo2 q6a ms
    2. State two advantages of using comparative line graph. (2marks)
      -easy to compare different variables
      -easy to read and interpret
      -it gives a clear visual impression
      -the tread of each variable can be traced easily
    3. State three physical conditions required for the growing of
      Tea                       (3marks)
      -gently sloping landscape to facilitate mechanization
      -deep and well drained slightly acidic soil
      -high rainfall between 1000-2000mm throughout the year
      -cool to warm between 15˚c to 30˚c
      -shade to protect from strong wind and sunshine
      -high altitude between 1000-1700m above sea level
    4. Describe the stages involved in coffee production from picking to marketing(8 marks)
      • The ripe/deep red berries are picked by hand
      • The harvested berries are carried in baskets/sacks to the factory
      • The berries are sorted out to remove the outer/diseased berries
      • The different grades are weighed
      • Berries go through a machine that removes the outer covering /pulp
      • The beans are fermented in tanks for sometime.
      • The beans are washed and then sun dried for about a weak
      • The husks are removed and the beans winnowed.
      • The beans are sorted out and graded according to size and quality
      • The beans are roasted at temperatures of about 100C
      • The beans are ground into powder ready for sale.                                                                                    
    5. Identify four ways in which drought affects the agricultural sector in Kenya     ( 4 marks)
      • Leads to shortage / lack pasture
      • Leads to crop failure
      • Leads to shortage/ lack of water for livestock / irrigation
      • Leads to shortage of agricultural raw materials for agro- based industries
      • Leads to reduction in export of agricultural commodities in the farmers income   ( any 4 x 1 =4 mks)
  2.  
    1.  
      1. Apart from coniferous forest, name two other types of natural forests.            (2marks)-
        • Tropical hardwood forests
        • Temperature hardwood forests
        • Mixed forests
        • Bamboo / montane forests
        • Tropical monsoon forest
        • Mangrove forests
        • Mediterrean forest
      2. State two characteristics of coniferous which favour their exploitation.   (2marks)
        • the trees are light in weight
        • the trees occur in pure stand
        • there is little undergrowth
        • the trees have straight trunk
    2. Explain three factors that favour the growth of natural forests on the slopes of Mt.Kenya.                        (6marks)
      • The area receives high rainfall 1000- 22000 mm throughout the year which encourages continuous growth of trees.
      • The area has deep fertile volcanic soils that allow the roots to penetrate deep into the ground to support the trees
      • The area has well drained soil thus there is no water logging which can choke plants and interfere with their growth
      • The area has moderate cool condition/ climate are ideal for the growth of a variety of trees.
      • The area is a gazeted forest reserve/ settlement and cultivation are prohibited hence allowing forests to grow without interference
      • The steep slopes discourages human activities thus enabling forests to thrive well
        Explanation 1 mk Factor 1 mk
    3. Use the map of Kenya below to answer questions            (i) and (ii).
      1. Name the forest reserves marked H, J and K. (3 marks)
        H-Mt. Elgon       J- Mt Kenya           K-Arabukoo sokoke
      2. Explain Three factors that favour the growth of natural forest in the area marked L.  (6 marks)
        • The area receives high rainfall that encourages growth of trees
        • The area has deep well drained soils that allow the roots to penetrate deep into the ground
        • The area has moderate to high temperatures /that allow growth of variety of trees.
        • The area is gazette forest hence the settlement /cultivation is prohibited
        • Some areas are steep which discourages settlement and allow forest growth
        • Enforcement of laws allow re-establishment of forests
      3. Explain Three problems facing forestry in Kenya.     (6 marks)
        • rapid increase in population has led to encroachment into forest land hence destruction of forests
        • occurrence of forest fires which have led to the destruction of large areas under forest
        • illegal logging/indiscriminate cutting of trees threby reducing /depleting indigenous tree species
        • attacks by pest/diseases has led to destruction of valuable terre species
        • Some wild animals debark/ trample /damage trees
        • at times , the government allocates land to private developers /degazzetment thus reducing land under forest
        • Prolonged drought leads to drying of some trees
  1.  
    1.  
      1. What is industrialization (2marks)`
        - is the process and the pace at which a country or community sets to establish industries.
      2. Name a town in Kenya where each of the following industries are located
        - Oil refining- Mombasa                   1mark)
        - Paper manufacturing-Webuye     ( 1mark)
        -Motor vehicle assembly -Thika /Nairobi/Mombasa       ( 1mark)
    2. Explain Three factors which influenced the location of iron and steel industry in the Ruhr region of Germany                 (6marks)
      • Availability of coal- iron ore as well as limestone from the Rhine valley provided raw materials needed in the industry.
      • River Rhine/Ruhr/lipped/wupper/Escher provided water required for cooling machines in the industry/industrial use.
      • The region is served by navigable rivers e.g. R. Rhine/ruhh/ port manual ems, cheap transport for the bulky raw materials and finished products.
      • The region is served by navigable rivers e.g. r. Rhine canals e.g. which provided Rheine
      • Cheap transport for the bulky raw materials and required for cooling machines in the industry/ industrial use.
      • Coal from the Ruhr region/imported petroleum provided power required in the industry
      • The local population had acquired skills on iron working/availability of local skilled labour and this formed the foundation of iron and steel industry.
      • Presence of rich companies e.g. Ruhr Khlet Krupp provided capital for the development of the industry
      • The dense and affluent population in (central and Western) Europe /Germany provided ready mket for iron and steel.
        (any 3x2 6 mks)
    3.  
      1. State two characteristics of the cottage industry in India.         (2marks)
        • It requires little capital to set up and run
        • It is labour intensive.
        • It relies on simple equipment / machines.
        • Different establishments are owned by individual/families.
        • It uses locally available raw materials
        • The products are mainly for local mket.
        • The industrial establishments are widespread in the country/located in homes.
        • Labour is provided by members of the family/individual owners.
        • The craftsmen are highly skilled.  (Any 4 x 1 = 4 mks)
      2. Explain three factors which have favoured the development of car manufacturing industry in Japan.                                         (6marks)
        • The country has adequate capital to invest in the industry
        • Advanced technology / research has led to the efficient methods of production / high quality cars which are competitive in the world mket.
        • Japan has highly skilled / industrious work for which enhances efficiency in production.
        • Japan has many sea ports which mkets the importation of raw materials / exportation of cars possible
        • The government policy / peace and stability has led to rapid development of the industry
        • Japan has highly developed hydro electric power projects which provide power needed for the industries
        • The presence of large population/ high purchasing power provides a large local mket for the cars
        • The presence of large population / high purchasing power provides a large local mket for the cars
        • Japan’s terrain is too lagged unsuitable for development of agriculture and thus industries / provide an alternative source of income to be used for buying and other requirements
        • The strategic position of Japan in relation to other countries encourage trade thus promoting production of vehicles/ Japan is accessible from all direction through the se
          Factor – 1 mk        Explanation – 1 mk ( Explanation alone has no mk)
    4.  
      1. You intend to carry out a field study of furniture – making industry in the local State two reasons why it would be necessary for you to visit the area of study in advance                                                                        ( 2 marks)
        • To be used to be used to prepare a route map
        • To determine the suitability of the area for the study
        • To be able to formulate appropriate objective for the study
        • Preparation of work schedule
        • To be able to formulate appropriate objective for the study.
        • Preparation of work schedule
        • To be able to prepare appropriate data collection methods
        • To find out possible problems likely to be experienced during the field study
        • To seek permission for the visit.
      2. For your field study you have prepared a work schedule. State two items you would include in the schedule                                       ( 2 marks)
        • Time for departure
        • Time to spend in the study
        • Time for lunch
        • time to end the study 
                                             Any 2x1= 2mks
      3. Give two advantages of studying about furniture making through fieldwork.(2marks)\
        • It enables one to get first hand information
        • It makes learning real
        • It enables one to share information
        • It enables one to retain information learned
        • It enables one to apply skills learned
        • It enables one to apply skills learned/acquired skills.
          Any 2 x 1= 2mks)
  2.  
    1.  
      1. State two advantages of written communication. (2 marks)
        • Effective in disseminating information.
        • For marketing/advertisement.
        • For entertainment.
        • To educate citizens on government policies.
        • For certification/reference.
        • Can be used as official document.
      2. State two ways in which Kenya is benefiting from the construction of the Standard gauge railway.                                                                                (2 marks)
        • Employment
        • Faster mode of transport.
        • Efficient transport.
        • Increase trade between East African countries.
        • Handle bulky goods with ease.
        • Development of towns/port
    2. The sketch map below shows the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence  Seaway. Use it to answer the following questions.
      KEY:
      xxxxxx - International Boundary.   Name:
      1. the ports marked M and P.                             (2marks)
        M       Duluth
        p       Buffalo
      2. the Lake marked N.                                       (1marks)
        N       lake Huron
    3. Explain three ways in which the great lakes St.Lawrence sea way has contributed to the economy of Canada and the United States of America (U.S.A)       (6marks)
      • they have encouraged trade in both countries by providing cheap means of transport
      • the dams constructed along the route provide hydroelectric power for domestic /industrial   use
      • they have created employment opportunities in the transport industry thus raising the standard of living of the people in the area.
      • they are sources of water for domestic/ industrial use
      • they are tourist attractions hence generate income for their attractions
      • cheap/easy movement of raw materials
    4. Give four reasons why there is limited use of river transport in Africa.           (4marks)       
      • Some rivers have rapid/ water falls/ cataracts
      • Some rivers have seasonal regimes/ varying volumes
      • Some rivers have shallow water/ sited five mouths
      • Some have floating vegetation that choke the course
      • Some rivers have narrow channels unsuitable for sailing vessels
      • Some are short
      • Inadequate capital to develop waterways/ purchase vessels to develop ports
    5. Explain four measures that the government has taken to improve road transport in Kenya  (8marks)
      • Construction of by passes/ sub ways/ tunnel/ flyovers/ under passes to reduce congestion of the large towns
      • Construction of highways/ dual carriages road expansion to accommodate more traffic/ improve traffic flow
      • Repair/ maintain the roads in goods state to reduce accidents/ improve traffic flow
      • Educate road users on road safety precautions/ discipline on roads to ease traffic on roads/ reduce road accidents
      • Control the amount of load carried by large lorries/ trucks to reduce damage on road surface
      • Enforce traffic rules to regulate traffic flow/ reduce road accidents
      • Provide paths for cyclists / pedestrians to reduce congestion on roads/ improve road safety
  1.  
    1.  
      1. Distinguish between visible and invisible exports.(2 marks)
        • Visible exports are tangible goods sold to other countries while invisible exports are intangible goods and services that earn foreignexchange without transfer of goods from one country to another.
      2. Name two seaports that handle exports in East Africa.     (2 marks)
        • Mombasa
        • Dar-es-salaam.
        • Lamu
        • Tanga
    2. Explain three measures Kenya can take to reduce her unfavourable balance of trade.(6 marks)
      • Encourage the Juakali/cottage industries to produce locally manufactured  goods for export.
      • Restricting the importation of luxury items through high taxation.
      • Provide incentives for industries to manufacture goods for exports.
      • Establishing of import substitution industries to manufacture goods initially imported and cut down on imports.
      • Protecting local industries from unfair foreign competition from imported goods through quotas and taxation.
      • Development of alternative energy sources to reduce oil importation.
      • Encouraging production of high quality manufactured goods for export in order to earn higher income.
      • Diversifying the agricultural exports to enable the country have a variety of exports.
      • Open up new markets to reduce overdependence on traditional trading partners.
      • Encouraging local assembling of machinery since importation of parts is cheaper.
    3. Explain three reasons for low volume of trade between the countries in Africa.                           (6 marks-             
      • Political instability discourage trade
      • Most countries produce similar goods mainly agricultural or minerals thus                                                     low demand.
      • Poor transport and communication links hinder movement of goods.
      • The flow of trade still follows colonial patterns.
      • Industrialized countries have better trade partners as they provide essential manufactured goods while African countries produce mainly agricultural produce.
      • Different political ideologies discourage trade
    4.  
      1. State three benefits of ECOWAS to the member states.     (3 marks)  
        • The volume of trade has been boosted as a result of expanded market.
        • More transport facilities e.g. roads have been constructed to link member states.
        • Removal of trade barriers has extended market for the finished products.
        • The transfer of technology or capital within the bloc is enhanced.
        • Cooperation in other fields such as education health is enhanced.
        • The reduction in hostilities between member states has enhanced peace resulting in rapid economic development
      2. Explain three negative effects of international trade (6marks)
        • Overspecialization/overdependence on a particular item is risky incase of a fall in the prices in the world mket.
        • Imported items may become a threat to the local industries leading to closure of some of them
        • some imported goods e.g expired goods or sub standard goods may have adverse effects on the citizens
        • If a country depends on another, it may sometimes have to tolerate some undesirable gestures from such countries
        • There may over exploitation of natural resources leading to their depletion e.g. minerals.         (any 4x 2=8mks)

 

                       

                               


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