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SECTION A (40 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section.  

  1. Mention two methods of preserving fruits when in season.             (2mrks)
  2. List three natural means of ventilating a room.             (3mrks)
  3. State two points to remember about clothing when caring for the sick at home.             (2mrks)
  4. Mention three examples of fans.             (3mrks)
  5. Mention three points on how to ensure safety when storing paraffin.             (3mrks)
  6. List three factors to consider when buying a gas cylinder.             (3mrks)
  7. Give three reasons why the wall paper is becoming popular.             (3mrks)
  8. State two reasons for using floor coverings in a house.             (2mrks)
  9. List the stages involved in bottling as a method of preservation.      (2 ½ mrks)
  10. List two importance of blanching vegetables before preservation.             (2mrks)
  11. Define case goods and give an example.          (½ mrk)
  12. List four tertiary colours.          (2mrks)
  13. List four common dehydrated foods which are used as the main ingredients in a dish. (4mrks)
  14. Mention three reasons for wrapping food before storing in the refrigerator.             (3mrks)
  15. Give three reasons for cooling foods before storing in a refrigerator.             (3mrks)

Answer all the questions in this section.  

  1. You are planning to go for a picnic.
    1. Giving reasons outline the procedure you would use to thoroughly clean a synthetic bag. (8mrks)
    2. Outline the steps to follow when laundering the woolen sweater you will wear.        (12mrks)

Answer any two questions in this section.    

    1. State reasons why a consumer needs to be protected.             (6mrks)
    2. Mention six reasons that has popularized the use of convenience foods.     (6mrks)
    3. Discuss four problems related to breast feeding.         (8mrks)
    1. List six qualities of a well-made collar.                         (6mrks)
    2. Use the sketch of a skirt below to answer the questions that follow: 
      1. State six methods of disposing fullness in the skirt sketch shown above.             (2mrks)
      2. Apart from the disposal of fullness symbols, indicate three pattern markings on the sketch above.           (3mrks)
      3. Explain four finishing processes carried out during laundry.             (8mrks)
    1. Explain three causes of malnutrition when sick.         (6mrks)
    2. Explain six points on the importance of budgeting.             (6mrks)
    3. Mention eight points to look for when choosing a toy for a child.      (8mrks)


  1. Methods of preserving fruits when in season:
    • Making jam
    • Making chutney
    • Making marmalade                                                             1x2=2mrks)
  1. Natural means of ventilating a room:
    • Constructing vents
    • Constructing chimneys
    • Open doors
    • Open windows                                                             3x1=3mrks
  1. Points to remember about clothing when caring for the sick at home:
    • Choose light, easy to wash clothing that requires little or no ironing.
    • Use shoes that give support and are comfortable.
    • Use plastic aprons to protect the patients clothing during feeding.
    • Choose garments that are easy to dress and undress like front fastening, brassieres, wrap around skirts and others.
    • For men, Velcro fastenings and elastic waist bands make trousers easier to cope with                                                      1x2=2mrks
  1. Types of fans:
    • Standing fan
    • Table top fan
    • Ceiling mounted fan
    • Wall mounted fan             1x3=3mrks
  1. Measures to ensure safety when storing paraffin:
    • Store in covered and labeled containers
    • Store away from the house if possible
    • Do not store in soda or juice bottles to avoid poisoning children
    • Keep out of reach of children                         3x1=3mrks
  1. Factors to consider when buying a gas cylinder:
    • Buy a good size of cylinder which can serve longer, for example a 13kg cylinder.
    • Check to ensure that all parts are available and without a defect
    • Buy from a dealer who gives a guarantee
    • Buy from a reputable dealer                         3x1=3mrks
  1. Why wall paper is becoming popular:
    • It makes walls look more attractive
    • It makes the walls easier to clean and care for
    • It brightens the room thus making it warmer
    • It helps to cover ugly, unsightly marks             3x1=3mrks
  1. Reasons for using floor coverings in a house:
    • For decoration if they blend well with the colour scheme of the room where used hide/conceal ugly marks.
    • As a protection for the floor from heavy objects
    • To reduce noise
    • Provide warmth in the room
    • Makes the floor less slippery
    • For ease in cleaning 2x1=2mrks
  1. Stages involved in bottling as a method of food preservation.
    • Cleaning
    • Blanching
    • Frilling
    • Sealing
    • Sterilizing
    • Cooling
    • Storage 7x½ =3½mrks
  1. Importance of blanching vegetables before preservation:
    • To stop the action of enzymes
    • To kill bacteria
    • To retain vitamins and minerals
    • To retain the colour of vegetables
    • To reduce bulkiness 2x1=2mrks
  1. Definition of case goods:
    These are furniture made of wood or metals e.g. wardrobes, chest of drawers, tables, chairs desks, etc. definition=1   example=½
  1. Tertiary colours:
    • Red +orange=red orange
    • Blue + purple=blue purple
    • Yellow + green =yellow green
    • Yellow + orange=yellow orange
    • Red + purple=red purple
    • Blue + green=blue green each ½mrk   total =2mrks
  1. Dehydrated foods which are used as the main ingredients in a dish:
    • Bread mixes
    • Cake mixes
    • Crumble mixes
    • Batter mixes
    • Biscuit mixes 4x1=4mrks
  1. Reasons for wrapping food before storing in the refrigerator:
    • To protect against cross contamination from other foods
    • To prevent the food from drying up through loss of moisture
    • To keep out surrounding air which may rise the food temperature
    • To prevent oxidation which bring about changes in colour, taste and nutritive value of food.
    • To keep food from exchanging flavor during storage 3x1=3mrks
  1. Reasons for cooling foods before storing in a refrigerator:
    • Warm temperatures overworks the refrigerator
    • To avoid raising the temperature thus using more power for cooling the food
    • To avoid multiplication of bacteria and microorganisms which is brought about by warm temperatures.                                                 3x1=3mrks
    1. procedure of thorough cleaning a synthetic bag:
      • Collect all the equipment and materials needed (½)
      • Remove loose dirt (½) by wiping with a dry cloth/shaking (½)
      • Clean using a cloth/fibre (½) wrung from warm (½) soapy water and wash using a cloth or fibre, soft brush or sponge
      • Clean both sides (½)
      • Rinse (½) using warm (½) water (clean)
      • Finally (½) rinse in cold (½) water to freshen
      • Drip (½) dry on the wrong side (½) outside under shade (½) with opening facing downwards (½) and well secured (½)
      • Store appropriately (½) 8mrks
    2. Laundering a woolen sweater:
      • Collect all the equipment and materials (½)
      • Repair to prevent tears becoming worse (½)
      • Take measurements to retain original shape (½)
      • Remove stains using a weak solution of stain removal agent (½)
      • Shake off dust to remove dust (½)
      • Wash by kneading and squeezing at bottom of the basin without lifting the garment (½)
      • When lifting bundle it in the palm of your hand (½)
      • Rinse in luke warm water, finally in luke warm again (1mrk)
      • Roll in a dry clean towel (½)
      • Dry on a clean towel flat on the ground under a shade (1mrk)
      • Take measurements once more to agree with previous shape to it the original outline (1mrk)
      • Pull or part to restore measurements (½)
      • Finish by pressing with a warm iron to protect from direct heat (1mrk)
      • Air to remove smell (½)
      • Store in a dry well aired place to prevent rotting (½)
      • Clean and store equipment and materials used (½) 12mrks
    1. Reasons for protecting a consumer:
      • To ensure goods and services provided are of the right quality and avoid conterfeits and low quality goods.
      • To ensure that the goods and services provided are charged fairly.
      • To ensure the goods and services provided are of the right quantity.
      • To ensure that the consumer has the access to adequate and right/correct information.
      • To protect the consumers against sale of harmful products and commodities.
      • To ensure that the health of the consumers is maintained by providing goods and services that is safe.
      • To ensure the products and commodities are availed to the consumers without hoarding of goods.
      • To ensure that the consumer enjoys the right to compensation in case of the goods and services don’t satisfy the needs of the consumer. 6x1=6mrks
    2. Reasons that has popularized the use of convenience foods:
      • The increased availability and accessibility of convenience foods.
      • Some convenience foods are cheap therefore affordable.
      • Ignorance by consumers on nutritional value of food.
      • Change of lifestyle where consumers are moving from traditional lifestyle to western kind of life.
      • Due to increased technology variety of foods are available and produced.
      • Consumers are too busy with life to concentrate in food preparation.
      • Inadequate time to prepare and cook food.
      • Consumers have become lazy to prepare and cook nutritionally balanced food. 6x1=6mrks
    3. Four problems related to breastfeeding:
      • Breast engorgement – when the breasts become too full of milk, become painful when breast feeding]
      • Breast abscess – infection of the breast which may interfere with breast feeding
      • Sore/ cracked nipples – may interfere with breast feeding
      • Baby’s refusal to breast feed, the baby could be ill
      • Mother’s refusal to breast feed the baby/ the mother may be unable to breast feed due to illness/ multiple births.
        (4x2 explained points = 8 marks)    
    1. Qualities of a well-made collar:
      • It should lie flat smooth, on the neckline.
      • The shape should be symmetrical on both sides.
      • The corner should be well rounded and should have a good knife edge.
      • The collar should be neatly stitched.
      • Be interfaced on the under collar.
      • The stitches on the top stitching should be straight and neat. 6x1=6mrks
      1. Methods of disposing fullness on the skirt:
        • Elastic
        • Darts
        • Pleats (box inverted and knife)
        • Tucks – shell, pin tucks, wide tucks
        • Gathers
        • Smocking
        • Easing
        • Shirring 6x½ =3mrks
      2. Pattern markings on the skirt sketch:
    3. Finishing processes carried out during laundry:
      • Ironing – moving a hot iron to and fro/remove creases and kill germs on an article until all areas are removed.
      • Damping – introducing moisture to the dry article to be ironed to make ironing easier.
      • Pressing – placing a warm iron on a garment, lifting and placing it on the next portion until the whole article is pressed to remove creases and kill germs.
      • Airing – hanging ironed clothes for some minutes/remove any traces of dampness before storage for complete dryness/remove smells.
      • Folding /hanging – preparing clothes for storage/prevent creases/fit into storage.
      • Mangling – folding of towels and pressing them between a mangle, roller/storage. 4x2=8mrks
    1. Causes of malnutrition when sick:
      • Loss of appetite leads to reduces intake of nutrients.
      • The diseases increase the body’s need for body building and repair nutrients.
      • There could be parasites that destroy the nutrients taken from food.
      • Fever leads to loss of nutrients through faster breakdown resulting in wastage of muscles.
      • There could be diarrhea and vomiting leading to lack of nutrients or loss of nutrients taken.                                                                               3x2=6mrks
    2. Importance of budgeting:
      • Budgeting acts as a guide to wise purchasing by prioritizing spending.
      • It enables one to live within their means by spending only on items they can afford.
      • It also enables one to avoid impulse buying by buying only the budgeted items.
      • One is able to set priorities and plan for present and future needs.
      • It enables one to accumulate family savings.
      • It provides a basis for analyzing the needs of the family.
      • It also gives psychological satisfaction to the family members because all the needs of family members are met.
      • Budgeting enables a family to estimate all their financial needs and plan for other sources and methods of supplementing their income. (6x1=6mrks
    3. Points to look for when choosing a toy for a child:
      • It should not have sharp/pointed edges.
      • It should be easy to manipulate/handle.
      • It should be suitable for the age.
      • Promote learning.
      • Should be made of non-poisonous materials.
      • It should be of appropriate size.
      • It should be attractive in colour and shape.
      • It should be firmly constructed/well fixed.
      • It should be easy to clean/washable.
      • It should not have small removable parts that can cause chocking in children. 8x1=8mrks


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