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SECTION A (30marks).
Answer all Questions in this section.

    1. State four characteristics of extensive farming system. (2mks)
    2. List two disadvantages of small scale farming. (2mks)
  2. Name two ways in which predators affect agricultural production. (1mk)
  3. List down four factors that influence formation of soil. (2mks)
  4. State two farming practices that bring about minimum tillage. (1mk)
  5. Name the function of each of the following chemicals in water treatment.
    1. Alum                                             (1mk)
    2. Soda ash                                       (1mk)
  6. State two importance of organic matter in the soil. (1mk)
  7. State three reasons why green manure is not commonly used in the farms. (1 ½ mks)
  8. State four uses of farm records. (2mks)
  9. List three importance of phosphorous in crop growth. (1 ½ mks)
  10. Name four significance of using seeds as planting materials. (2mks)
  11. List two importance of tissue culture in propagating crops. (1mk)
  12. State the difference between the following terms. (2mks)
    1. Rogueing
    2. Gapping
  13. State four effects of applying too much nitrogenous fertilizer to crops. (2mks)
  14. Name four disadvantages of communal land tenure system. (2mkS)
  15. State four precautions farmers should observe when using agro-chemical for their safety and for environmental safety.   (2mks)
  16. State three harmful effects of pests on crops. (1 ½ mks)
  17. State three qualities of a good manager in a farm setting. (1 ½ mks)
  18. State two factors that influence the demand of a commodity. (1mk)

Answer all questions in this section.

  1. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow
    1. Identify the three harvesting methods shown in the diagrams above. (2mks)
    2. Name four sites for agroforestry trees in the farm. (2mks)
  2. The document below was obtained from one of the books of accounts in kimko’s farm. Study the document and answer the questions that follow.








    Sh   cts.






    Sh   cts.

    Feb 20th

    Feb 30th

    Bought 2 bags of dairy meal



    Feb 10th

    Sold 2 heifers



    1. Identify the book from which the above document was obtained. (1mk)
    2. State four importance of keeping proper farm account records. (2mks)
  3. The diagram below shows pests that affect crops when in the field. Study the diagrams and answer the questions that follow. 
    1. Identify the pest J, K and L. (3mks)
    2. State two ways of controlling the pest labeled L above. (2mks)
    3. State one crop attacked by the pest labeled J and K above. (2mks)
  4. The Following weeds were found growing on a maize farm by a form four student. Study the weeds and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Name the weeds labeled X, Y and Z above. (3mks)
    2. State one reason that makes each of the following weeds difficult to control. (2mks)
      1. X
      2. Z
    3. State one reason why the weed labeled M should not be allowed to grow in the farm. (1mk)

SECTION C (40 marks)
Answer only two questions in this section

    1. Explain five cultural methods a farmer can use to control weeds. (10mks)
    2. State and explain five factors considered when establishing nursery bed site. (10mks)
    1. Describe five ways in which a farmer may adjust to uncertainty and risks in the farm. (10mks)
    2. Explain five physical methods used to control crop pests in a crop land. (10mks)
    1. State five types of information contained in a tittle deed.                         (5mks)
    2. State five methods used to control soil and water pollution. (5mks)
    3. State and explain five ways an entrepreneur can use to improve labour productivity in a farm. (10mks)



    1. Four characteristics of extensive farming system
      • Practiced on large tract of land
      • Low capital investment
      • Low labour requirement per unit area
      • Low yields per unit area.                          4x ½ =( 2mks)
    2. Disadvantages of small scale farming. 2x1 (2mks)
      • the yields of produce are low
      • it offers less employment opportunities compared to large scale farming
      • it may be difficult to market farm produce because of middlemen
      • it does not enjoy economies of scale as it practiced on small land sizes
  1. Two ways in which predators affect agricultural production.
    • some predators help control pests by feeding on them
    • predators that kill livestock impact negatively on agriculture.           2x ½ mks (1mk)
  1. Factors that influence soil formation.     4x ½ mks (2mks)
    • parent rock material
    • climate
    • topography
    • time
  1. Farming practices that bring about minimum tillage.   2x ½ (1mk)
    • application of herbicide on controlling weeds
    • use of mulch on the soil surface
    • timing cultivation
    • establishing a cover crop on the field
    • uprooting or slashing weeds in perennial crop.
    1. Alum to coagulate solid particles
    2. soda ash – for softing water being treated             2x ½ (1mk)
  1. Importance of organic matter                     2x ½ (1mk)
    • Improves soil fertility
    • encourage microbial activities in the soil
    • Improves water infiltration   etc
  1. Reasons why green manure is not commonly used.   3x ½ (1 ½ mks)
    • most of crop grown are food crops hence hard for farmers to use them as green manure
    • most of nutrients are used up by micro-organism in process of decomposition
    • it takes long for the green manure crop to decompose.
  1. Uses of farm records.
    • they show the history of the farm
    • help to detect losses or theft on the farm.
    • make it easy to share profit and losses in partnerships
    • helps to settle disputes among heirs                     4x ½ (2mks)
  1. Importance of phosphorous in crop growth
    • development of roots
    • stimulates nodulation
    • essential in cell division
    • strengthens plant stem
    • hasten crop maturation                           3x ½   = 1 ½ mks
  1. Significance of using seeds as planting materials
    • seeds are easy to treat against soil borne pest and diseases
    • they are not bulky hence easy to store
    • easy to use machines while handling them
    • possible to develop new varieties
    • easy to handle during planting                     4x ½ =2mks
  1. Importance of tissue culture in crop propagation
    • it is used in the mass production of propagules
    • it is fast and requires less space
    • easy to recover and establish pathogen free plants
  1. Rogueing- is the uprooting and destroying of infected plants
    Gapping- is the filling up or replacement of the dead seedling
  1. Effcets of excess nitrogenous fertilizer.
    • prolonged maturity
    • cracking of fruits before maturity
    • blossom end rot
    • too much vegetative growth hindering fruit formation           4x ½ =2mks
  1. Disadvantages of communal land tenure system.
    • no individual has the responsibility of taking care of the land or develop it
    • no incentive to manage and develop the land
    • poor yields
    • poor stock breeding programme
    • poor control of pest, parasite and diseases 4x ½ mks= 4mks
  1. Precautions farmers should take when using agro chemicals
    • read manufacturer’s instruction and follow them
    • farmer should wear protective clothing
    • avoid inhaling the herbicide
    • the farmer must bath thoroughly after handling chemicals
    • the farmer must not blow or suck blocked nozzles.   4x ½ =2mks
  1. Harmful effects of pests on crops
    • they damage crops hence low yields
    • destroy crop leaves lowering photosynthesis
    • result to retarded growth of crops
    • lowering the quality and quantity of produce
    • transmit most of crop diseases etc                   3x ½ =1 ½ mks
  1. Qualities of a good manager in a farm. 3x ½ =1 ½ mks
    • should be knowledgeable on agricultural principles
    • hard working and time conscious
    • should be flexible in decision making
    • should have practical farming skills
    • should be responsible, dynamic prudent, competent and ambitious.
  1. Factors that influence the demand of a commodity. 2x ½ =1mks
    • population
    • income
    • price of related goods
    • advertisement
    • level of taxation
    • price of expenditure
    • preference and taste
    • beliefs, customs and taboos

      SECTION B 20 MKS
      1. coppicing
      2. Pollarding       2mks
    2. Sites for agro-forestry trees in the farm.
      • boundaries
      • riverbanks
      • Terraces
      • slopes
      • homestead                               4x ½ =2mks
    1. ledger book                                     1mk
    2. Importance of keeping proper farm accounts records
      • helps to manage income and expenditure
      • helps to know which enterprises are financially worth while
      • help in working out the value of the farm
      • important when seeking credit facilities
      • help in comparison of farm enterprises
      • help in proper planning of the farm.                       4x ½ =2mks
    1. J -maize weevil
      K -quelea /Sudan dioch
      L- Americanbollworm
    2. two ways of controlling pest labelled L
      • use of appropriate pesticide
      • -crop rotation                             2x1=2mks
    3. J   maize, wheat, rice etc
      K   rice, sorghum                     2x1=2mks
    1. X double thorn
      Y nut grass
      Z coach grass                     3x1 =3mks
      1. X irritate the workers
      2.  Z presence of underground rhizomes   2x1 =2mks
    3. M datura is poisonous to livestock and human

    1. Cultural methods of weed control
      • mulching
      • cover cropping
      • crop rotation
      • timely planting
      • use of clean planting materials
      • proper spacing
      • clean seed bed
      • flooding
      • proper fertilizer placement                   5x2=10mks
    2. factors considered when siting a nursery bed.
      • nearness to the water sources
      • type of soil
      • topography
      • previous cropping
      • security
      • well sheltered place  explained               5x2 = 10mks
    1. ways in which farmer may adjust to uncertainty and risks
      • Diversion
      • Selecting more certain enterprises
      • Constructing
      • Insurance
      • Input rationing
      • Adopting in production
      • Flexibility in production methods         5x2 = 10mks
    2. physical methods of controlling crop pest
      • use of lethal temperature
      • suffocation
      • flooding
      • physical destruction f pest
      • proper drying of produce
      • use of scarecrows
      • use of physical barriers
      • use of electromagnetic radiation     5x2=10mks
    1. Information contained in tittle deed.
      • number of the title
      • size of the land
      • the name and identity number of the ownership
      • type of ownership eg absolute, leasehold or free hold
      • condition of ownership if any
      • seal and signature of the issuing officer
      • date of registration                      5x1 =5mks
    2.  methods used to control soil and water pollution
      • fencing water sources
      • enforcement of laws to those who pollute water
      • planting grass along the river banks
      • employing adequate storm control methods and disposal systems especially in areas with heavy rainfall
      • controlling erosion                               5 x 1 =5mks
    3. Ways used to improve labour productivity in a farm.
      • training
      • farm mechanization
      • improving terms and conditions of service
      • labour supervision
      • assigning the workers according to their skills.
      • Giving incentives to the workers    5x2 = 10mks


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