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    1. Name two branches of Biology that an oncologist needs to study in detail. (2 marks)
    2. Form one students going for an excursion on the sea shore are required to collect specimen for learning biology. Name one apparatus and a specimen it can be used to collect.
      (1 mark)
    1. Distinguish between codominance and incomplete dominance.         (1 mark)
    2. State one major difference between the mitotic telophase of animal cells and that of plant cells.              (1 mark)
    1. Briefly explain the biological significance of pruning in tea plants and other plants used in making live fences                 (3 marks)
    2. State any two roles of the cork cells formed during secondary thickening in the dicotyledonous plants        (2 marks)
  1. Below is a graphical representation of the concentration of hormones involved in the menstrual cycle against time. Study it and answer the questions that follow 
    1. Name hormone K.                 (1 mark)
    2. Did pregnancy occur based on the cycle above? Explain your answer. (2 marks)
    3. Name the organ that secretes hormone T                                                                       (1 mark)
    4. Identify the process that occurs during the time labeled L                                 (1 mark)
  1. Small birds like the European robin puff up (swell up) their feathers during winter Explain the significance of this behavioral response.             (3 marks)
    1. An organism has a pair of short antennae and two body parts, head and trunk. State any two other characteristics that the organism is likely to have.           (2 marks)
  2. Study the diagrams below of organisms P, R and S.
    Construct a dichotomous key that would be used to identify them.                         (2 marks)
  1. State one function of each of the following tissues.         (2 marks)
    Skeletal muscles
    Sclerenchyma tissue
    1. What is cell specialization?             (1 mark)
    2. State two adaptations of a neuron to its function.         (2 marks)
  1. During a microscopy class a student was unable to see the field of view. State two possible adjustments she needed to make to ensure that the field of view becomes visible     (2 marks)
  2. Animals have complex excretory organs as compared to the plants. Explain. (2 marks)
  3. Study the graph below and answer the questions that follow 
    1. Why does the rate of photosynthesis become constant at the point labeled X? (2 marks)
    2. State two other factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis                          (2 marks)
    1. What is osmotic potential?                 (1 mark)
    2. Change in soil pH can affect the rate of which plants absorb mineral salts.
      Explain.                                                                                                                       (3 marks)
    1. A pyramid of biomass shows reducing energy at each successive trophic level. Give a reason for this observation.    (1 mark)
    2. Control of mosquitoes by spraying oil onto stagnant water is effective. Explain why this method is however disadvantageous.     (2 marks)
    1. What is the role of temperature in a terrestrial ecosystem?           (2 marks)
    2. State two limitations of using the capture recapture method to establish population density.                                                                                                                         (2 marks)
  1. Name the apparatus used to measure the following abiotic factors.       (2 marks)
    Penetration of light in water
    Light intensity 
    1. Name a blood vessel that has capillaries on both ends.         (1 mark)
    2. Briefly explain how bee stings can cause death.                                                 (3 marks)
  1. A lion is an exclusive carnivore.   State 2 dental adaptations it has to its mode of feeding.         (2 marks)
  2. During a class experiment green grams’ plants were germinated in two trays containing soil. Tray A contained soil that had been mixed with nitrogenous fertilizer while in tray B the fertilizer had not been added. One week after germination the seedlings were uprooted, their roots washed and their root nodules counted.
    1. What was the aim of the above experiment?(1 mark)
    2. Account for the observation made when the root nodules of the two sets of plants were counted.        (2 marks)
  1. Briefly explain how budding occurs in yeast.             (3 marks)
    1. Distinguish between apocarpous and syncarpous flowers.         (1 mark)
    2. Complete the table below         (2 marks)


      Type of fruit

      Agent of dispersal  

      Black jack    



  1. Moulting is shedding of the exoskeleton of arthropods such as houseflies to allow for growth.
    1. Name the hormone that leads to the formation of the larval cuticle.             (1 mark)
    2. Sketch the life cycle of the housefly.                                                                   (2 marks)    
    1. State an example of structures in animals whose development demonstrates adaptive radiation.                 (1 mark)
    2. Treatment of malaria is still a challenge in the world despite the invention of many antimalarial drugs. Explain.      (3 marks)
  1. Name two parts in the kidney nephron where re-absorption of water takes place.                                           (2 marks)
    1. Name the product of glycolysis.               (1 mark)
    2. What is the role of the cristae in a mitochondrion?    (1 mark)
    3. Which is the most common substrate of respiration in human beings? Give a reason for your answer.         (2 marks)
  1. In the study of distribution of organisms over the world members of the ‘cat family’ are found in different continents. leopards and cheetahs inhabit Africa, jaguars and panthers North America while tigers are found in Asia. Explain the biological phenomenon that could have led to this distribution.           (3 marks)
  2. Name one disorder in humans caused by chromosomal non- disjunction.     (1 mark)


    1. Cytology; physiology; Anatomy; Biotechnology; Biochemistry;
    2. Pair of Forceps – crabs;            
      Fish net – fish/cray fish;            
      Sweep net – insects;      
      Mark first response
    1. In codominance both genes are expressed phenotypically in the heterozygous state (the genes usually have equal dominance) while in incomplete dominance the genes produce an intermediate phenotype in the heterozygous state / they are expressed by blending (neither of the genes completely dominates over the other); Note: Significance given to difference based on products rather than deg ree of dominance of the allelic genes. (b) State one major difference between the mitotic telophase of animal cells and that of plant cells.                     
    2. In animal cells the cell divides by constriction of the cell membrane while in plant cells a cell plate forms within the cytoplasm and grows to separate the cell into two.
    1. Auxins inhibit development of side branches and enhance apical dominance; removal of the shoot tips/pruning removes the auxins reducing the inhibitory effect’s and hence the side branches develop increasing productivity            
    2. Minimises water loss; Protects the plant against infection by fungi; Protects the plant against mechanical injury;
    1. Luteinizing hormone;
    2. Pregnancy didn’t occur; At the end of the cycle the level of progesterone reduces due to degeneration of the corpus luteum;
    3. Ovary;
    4. Menstruation;
  1. To reduce heat loss; since the feathers trap more air; that acts as insulator against heat loss/that is a poor conductor of heat;
    1. Cylindrical body; Body has between 9 – 100 segments; Two dumps of many simple eyes; 2 pairs of legs per segment;
    2. 1 (a) Animal with two body parts ----------------------------crab     (b) Animal with three body parts -------------------------- go to 2 ;
      2 (a) Animal with wings ------------------------------------ House fly                 (b) Animal without wings ---------------------------------- termite ;
      Acc. Correct use of given letters for identity.
  1. Skeletal muscles Contract and relax to bring about movement; Thermogenesis/production of heat through shivering; Provision of support  Sclerenchyma tissue Provide mechanical support in plants;
    1. Structural modification of a cell to perform a particular function;  
    2. Elongated axon for impulse transmission; Presence of nodes of ranvier to speed up/propagate impulse transmission; Myelin sheath provide electric insulation; Dendrites for transmission of impulses to/from adjacent neurons; Schwann cell secretes myelin sheath for electric insulation; Mark 1 st two
  3. Ensure that the objective lens is clicked into position with the eye piece lens; Adjust the mirror; Ensure that the diaphragm is fully open; Mark 1st 2 responses
  4. Animals are more active hence fast accumulation of metabolic wastes; Animal waste is more/highly toxic; Most animal wastes are in liquid or solid form and cannot be excreted by simple diffusion;   Mark any 2 responses
    1. Other factors like carbon (IV) oxide and temperature ; Become limiting/they cannot support a higher rate of photosynthesis;
    2. Carbon (IV) oxide concentration; Temperature; Availability of water; Chlorophyll concentration;
    1. It is the hidden pressure a solution has to draw water molecules from distilled water (which only becomes real) when the two are separated by a semi permeable membrane. / The potential /ability of a hypertonic solution to draw water from a hypotonic solution across a semipermeable membrane;
    2. Plants absorb mineral salts by active transport; change in pH affects respiratory enzymes; hence amount of energy produced for active transport;
    1. Not all the energy in one trophic level is passed on to the next. Some is lost to the environment by excretion, defecation, respiration, decay and decomposition.
    2. It hinders aeration of water/oxygen penetration; and clogs respiratory surfaces of organisms hence may lead to death of other animals and plants.
    1. It influences behavior of organisms and affects their distribution in the habitat) Extreme temperatures may denature/inactivate enzymes; and hence organisms live in environments with temperatures close to their optimum.
    2. Cannot be used for immobile organisms e.g. the plants May be inaccurate due to migration or other animal behavior
  2. Penetration of light in water Secchi disc; Light intensity Photographic light meter;
    1. Hepatic portal vein;
    2. The bodies of some people react to allergens like bee sting by over producing antibodies; An antigen – antibody reaction occurs causing cells to bust to release histamine; which causes blood vessels to be dilated lowering pressure, inflammation increased permeability of epithelial cells which causes swelling and inflammation     OWTTE
  1. Long, conical/curved canines to hold/kill/tear the prey; Has premolars specialized into carnassial teeth with smooth sides and sharp edges to slice through flesh and crush bones;
    1. To compare the number of root nodules of plants growing in soils of different nitrogen fertility/concentrations;
    2. Plants growing in tray B had more nodules than those growing in soil rich in nitrogen; root nodules have Rhizobium bacteria that fix nitrogen in the soil;
  1. The mature parent cell forms an outgrowth/projection/bud; the nucleus divides into two and one of the nuclei moves to the bud; the bud grows and develops into a new independent cell;
    1. Apocarpous has gynoecium whose carpels are free while syncarpous has gynoecium whose carpels are fused.


      Type of fruit

      Agent of dispersal  

      Black jack    






    1. Name Juvenile (hormone);
    2. Adult All stages; Correct arrows; Pupa egg Larva
    1. The vertebrate forelimbs;     The beak of birds;         The feet of birds;
    2. Some parasites have a gene/mutate to acquire the gene for resistance to the drugs used; (the ones without the gene are wiped by the drug). The ones with the resistant gene survive to maturity and their offspring inherit the genes; A new population of resistant parasites is hence developed;   OWTTE
  1. (Descending limb of the) Loop of Henle;   Distal convoluted tubule;
    1. Pyruvic acid/pyruvate;
    2. Increase surface area for attachment of respiratory enzymes;
    3. Glucose; If soluble hence easily transported to respiratory sites; requires less oxygen to oxidize;       any one reason for 1 mrk
  1. The continents were once a large land mass Pangaea; The land mass broke up into parts which drifted from each other; causing isolation of the different animals; The isolated animals evolved along different lines resulting into speciation; 4 max 3 marks
  2. Downs’s syndrome; Klinefelter’s syndrome; Turner’s syndrome;   Rej incorrect spellings


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