Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow
The process of developing social skills among children at an early age is important. Researchers have cited rejection by peers as the greatest challenge children face in their quest to build meaningful social skills. It has been reported that children who get bullied and snubbed by peers are more likely to have problems in relating with others. In recent times, researchers have found at least three factors in a child’s behaviour that can lead to social rejection. The factors involve a child’s inability to pick up on and respond to nonverbal cues from their pals. In the United states 10 to 13 percent of school-going children experience some form of rejection by their peers. In addition to causing mental health problems, bullying and social isolation can increase the likelihood of a child getting poor grades, dropping out of school,, or developing substance abuse problems.
It is reported that the social skills that children gain on the playground or elsewhere could show up later in life, according to Richard Lavoie, an expert in child social behaviour. He says that children experiment with the relationship styles they will have as adults during unstructured playtime-when children interact without the guidance of an authority figure. Researchers say that the number-one need of any human is to be liked by other humans. However, researchers have expressed concern that our children are like strangers in their own land. They don’t understand the basic rules of social behaviour and their mistakes are usually unintentional.
Children who face rejection may have problems in at least one of three different areas of nonverbal communication, which is the reason they are rejected. These are reading nonverbal cues; understanding their social meaning; and coming up with options for resolving a social conflict. A child, for example, simply my not notice a person’s scowl of impatience or understand what a tapped foot means. In another situation, a child may have trouble reconciling the desires of a friend with her own. Anyone trying to help children on their social skills should try to pinpoint the weaknesses a child has and then build those up.
When children have prolonged struggles with socializing, “a vicious cycle begins,” children who are shunned by others have few opportunities to practice social skills whereas popular children have more than enough opportunities to perfect theirs. However, having just one or two friends can be enough to give a child the social practice he or she need.
Parents, teachers and other adults in a child’s life can help, too. Instead of reacting with anger or embarrassment to a child who, say, asks Aunt Vera if her new hairdo was a mistake, parents should teach social skills with the same tone they use for teaching numeracy skills or proper hygiene.If presented as a learning opportunity, rather than a punishment, children usually appreciate the lesson. It is important to note that most children are so desperate to have friends that they just jump on board.
To teach social skills, Lavoie advises a five-step approach in his book. The process works for children with or without learning disabilities and is best conducted immediately after a wrongdoing has been made. First, ask the child what happened and listen without judgment. Second, ask the child to identify their mistake. Often children only know that someone got upset, but don’t understand their own role in the outcome. Third, help the child identify the cue they missed or mistake they made, by asking something like: “How would you feel if Emma was hogging the tyre swing?” Instead of lecturing with the word “should,” offer options the child “could” have taken in the moment, such as “You could have asked Emma to join you or told her you would give her the swing after your turn. “Fourth, you can create an imaginary but similar scenario where the child can make the right choice. For example, you could say, “If you were playing with a shovel in the sand box and Aiden wanted to use it, what would you do?” Lastly, give the child” social homework” by asking him to practice this new skill, saying: “Now that you know the importance of sharing, I want to hear about something you share tomorrow.”
(Adapted from livescience.com-Tue Feb 2, 2010)
- In one sentence, explain what this passage is talking about? (2mks)
- What is the number one need of any human being? (1mk)
- What are cited as the causes for social rejection according to the passage (2mks)
- What is social rejection likely to lead to (2mks)
- What vicious cycle is referred to in this passage (2mks)
- How can a parent make children appreciate the lesson on social skills? (2mks)
- “How would you feel if Emma was hogging the tyre swing?” Re-write in reported speech.(1mk)
- Make notes on the five-step approach to teach children social skills (5mks)
- Explain the meanings of the following words and phrases as used in the passage (3mks)
- Authority figure
- Jump on board
- Read the excerpt below and answer the questions that follow (25mks)
A Doll’s House:
Krogstad: (Controlling himself) Listen to me, Mrs. Helmer. If necessary, I am prepared to fight for my small post in the Bank as if I were fighting for my life.
Nora: So it seems
Krogstad: It is not only for the sake of the money; indeed, that weighs least with me in the matter. There is another reason-well, I may we well tell you. My position is this. I daresay you know, like everybody else, that once, many years ago, I was guilty of an indiscretion.
Nora: I think I have heard something of the kind.
Krogstad: The matter never came into court; but every way seemed to be closed to me after that. So I took to the business that you know of. I had to do something; and, honestly, I don’t think I’ve been one of the worst. But now I must cut myself free from all that. My sons are growing up; for their sake I must try and win back as much respect as I can in the town. This post in the Bank was like the first step up for me – and now your husband is going to kick me downstairs again into the mud.
Nora: But you must believe me, Mr. Krogstad; it is not in my power to help you at all.
Krogstad: Then it is because you haven’t the will; but I have means to compel you.
Nora: You don’t mean that you will tell my husband that I owe you money?
Krogstad: Hm! – suppose I were to tell him?
Nora: I would be perfectly infamous of you. (Sobbing) To think of his learning my secret, which has been my joy and pride, in such an ugly, clumsy way – that he should learn it from you! And it would out me in a horribly disagreeable position-
Krogstad: Only disagreeable?
Nora: (Impetuously) well, do it, then! – and it will be the worse for you. My husband will see for himself what a blackguard you are, and you certainly won’t keep your post them.
Krogstad: I asked you if it was only a disagreeable scene at home that you were afraid of?
Nora: If my husband does get to know of it, of course he will at once pay you what is still owing, and we shall have nothing more to do with you.
Krogstad: (Coming a step nearer)Listen to me, MrsHelmwe. Either you have a very bad memory or you know very little of business. I shall be obliged to remind you of a few details.
- What happens just before this excerpt? (2mks)
- Identify and illustrate any two themes evident in the excerpt. (4mks)
- Using about fifty words, summarise why Krogstad is prepared to fight for the small post in the bank (5mks)
- Identify and illustrate any two character traits of; (4mks)
- Identify and illustrate any two stylistic devices used in the excerpt. (4mks)
- Explain the meaning of the following words as used in the extract (2mks)
- “I shall be obliged to remind you of a few details”. Which are those details? (4mks)
- Read the following narrative then answer the questions that follow (20mks)
Once upon a time Hare and Hyena were very good friends. They visited each other every day and herded their cows together.
There came a time when the cows started dying one after the other. The two friends wanted to find out why the cows were dying. Hare said, ‘Let us go and kill our mothers and take out their livers. We shall then cook and taste these livers. The bitter liver will show whose mother was making the cows die. At once Hyena went and killed his mother. He took out the liver and cooked it. Hare went and hid his mother in the garden in bushy banana plants. He then went and killed an antelope, took out its liver and cooked it.
The two friends met to eat their livers. “My liver is very bitter”, said the Hyena. “Mine is very sweet,” said Hare, “So it was your mother who was making the cows die.” Hyena kept quiet and went home feeling sad. He moved from the old house to a smaller one because now he had no mother. Hare did the same
After a short time, there was great famine in the land. The two friends decided that each of them was to look for food on alternate days sharing, on an equal basis what was available. When it was Hyena’s turn, he went and found only honeycombs without any honey. When Hyenabrought these, Hare refused this because he had secretly gone to his mother who had given him some bananas. This went on for many days, and Hyena grew thinner and thinner. Then he started wondering. “How does my friend remain fat and he doesn’t eat anything. I will find out.”
One day he followed Hare. Hare went to his mother as usual. ‘Mother, mother, I have come’ and the mother dropped some bananas which Hare ate quickly. He then looked for some honeycombs and took them to the friend. “This is all I could find my friend.” The Hyena kept quiet. The next day he went to the banana plant and called. His voice however was very deep and no bananas were dropped for him.
There was an old hyenawho was staying at the end of the forest and used to give advice to people. So Hare’s friend went to her and told her his problem. “Go and put your tongue on the path of black ants,” He was told, “Let them bite your tongue until it hurts. That’s how your voice will be soft.”
Hyena went and did as he was told. When he went to Hare’s mother his voice was as soft as Hare’s. “Mother, mother I have come.” And Hare’s mother dropped bananas for his him. Then he told her to come and greet him. When she came down and saw it was Hyena she screamed but there was nobody near to help. Hyena killed her immediately.
Hyena went and met Hare as usual saying nothing about Hare’s mother. The following day it was Hare’s. “Mother, mother I have come.’ And Hare’s mother dropped bananas for his him. Then he told her to come and greet him. When she came down and saw it was Hyena she screamed but there was nobody near to help. Hyena killed her immediately.
Hyena went and met Hare as usual saying nothing about Hare’s mother. The following day it was Hare’s turn. He went to his usual place. “Mother” he called again. He climbed up. There was nobody. Having seen some blood on the ground, Hare knew what had happened to his mother.
When Hare got back to Hyena’s house, he said nothing. At night, Hare took all cows including Hyena’s and went away to live in another part of the country. That ended the Hare and Hyena’s friendship. And that is the end of my story to you.
- With illustrations, classify the above narrative (2mks)
- Identify three features of narratives (3mks)
- Identify three features in this story that are characteristics of oral narratives (3mks)
- Briefly explain the character traits of the following (4mks)
- What moral lesson do you learn from this story? (2mks)
- Identify two socio-economic activities from the community in which the narrative is taken from. (2mks)
- You have been selected for a fieldwork research to collect the above item. Briefly explain two ways in which you would collect information on the item. (2mks)
- Identify two challenges you might encounter during the field work and state how you would solve them. (2mks)
- Then he started wondering “How does my friend remain fat and he doesn’t eat anything. I will find out”. (Re-write into indirect speech) (1mk)
- Describe the irony in the fifth paragraph (2mks)
- GRAMMAR (15MKS)
- Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given (3mks)
- He will not be given a driving license. He passes the road test (Rewrite as one using ‘unless’)
- The woman left the child with a neighbor and went to the market. (Begin: leaving….)
- The boys went to play in the field (underline the adverbial)
- Supply the correct preposition to complete the sentences given. (3mks)
- Property worth millions of shillings went up …………………….flames.
- The three boys shared the bread ……………………………..themselves.
- We should strive to live …………………………………our means.
- Use the correct form of the word in brackets to fill in the blank spaces in the sentences below. (3mks)
- The audience was offended by the ……………………….………..(sense) of the speaker.
- The ………………………………………..(acquire) of a university degree is a great milestone to a student.
- Everyone should obey the law ………………………………of their position in the society.
- Use the correct alternative to complete the sentences below (4mks)
- Teaching ……………………………………(practice/practice) is not an easy job for teacher-trainees.
- The prophet’s ……………………………….(prophesy/prophecy) was misleading to his audience.
- He …………………………………….((insured/ensured) his car with Madison.
- Mwita ………………………………..(hanged/hung) the chart on the wall.
- Write the following sentences in indirect speech (1mk)
“These are juicy mangoes,” Ken said.
- You do not require to cheat to pass (1mk)
(Supply a suitable question tag).
- Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given (3mks)
- Dealing with social rejection in the process of developing social skills among children (2mks
- The number one need of any human being is the need to be liked by other humans (1mk)
- The inability to read non-verbal cues; understanding their social meaning and coming up with options for resolving a social conflict (2mks)
- Social rejection is likely to lead to: (2mks)
- Children getting poor grades
- Dropping out of school
- Developing substance abuse problems
- Problems in relating with others.
- Children who are shunned by others have few opportunities to practice social skills while those that are popular have more than enough opportunities to perfect theirs.
- Present it as learning opportunity rather than a punish parents should teach social skills just like they teach numeracy skills (2mks)
- He/she asked me/him/her how I/he/she would feel if Emma was hogging the tyre swing. (1mk)
- Ask the child what happened and listen without judgment.
- Ask the child to identify their mistake.
- Help the child identify the cue they missed or mistake they made.
- Create an imaginary but similar scenario where the child can make the right choice.
- Give the child “social homework” by asking him to practice this new skill.
If not in note form penalize by half the total mark
- Authority figure- parent/teacher/growth up
- Shunned – avoided
- Jump on board – eagerly follow the lesson on social skills
- A DOLL’S HOUSE
- Krogstad tells Nora that Torvald should be approachable when it comes to his request.
- Nora threatens to turn Krogstad out of the house.
- She say she is no longer afraid of Krogstad.
- Desperation – When Krogstadfights to retain his job at the bank. Nora is equally desperate to continue concealing her secret while Krogstad threatens to divulge everything.
- Deception – To those they interact with, Krogstad and Nora portray a completely different character and conceal their true identities.
- Points to consider
- He has been guilty of an indiscretion
- He was never taken to court but all ways were closed to him after that.
- He, however, must cut himself free from that.
- He must win back as much respect as possible for the sake of his sons.
- The post in the bank is the first step up for him
- Torvald is threatening to kick him out but he vows to resist.
- Krogstand: Resilient and adamant – He would not give up his quest to retain his job.
Firm and decisive - He insists that Nora must plead his case with her husband.
- Nora:Fearful of Krogstad revealing her secret to her husband, what she calls a horrible, disagreeable position
Nora: Defiant: She tells Krogstad that he can go ahead and let out her secret because it will be worse on him.
Optimistic/hopeful: She says her husband will pay off Krogstad.
- Simile – Krogstad says he will fight for his. “small post at the bank as if he were fighting for my life”
Metaphor. “…and now your husband is going to kick me downstairs against into the mud”.
- Compel –force
Blackguard – Immoral man
- Krogstand: Resilient and adamant – He would not give up his quest to retain his job.
- Nora borrowed two hundred and fifty pounds when her husband was ill.
- He gave her conditions which included drawing a bond as security.
- Her father was to sign as security for the amount.
- He left the date blank and the father was t insert it.
- Unfortunately, the date inserted appears to be days after her father’s death that is, 2nd October yet he died on 29th
- ORAL NARRATIVE
- Trickster narrative: Hare tricks the Hyena into killing his mother (2mks)
- Opening formula: once upon a time.
Closing formula: And that is the end of my story to you.
Timelessness – Refers to no particular time in history –once upon a time.
Dialogue – Conversation between Hare and Hyena
Fantasy – Hare and Hyena talking
Mark 3 well illustrated points
Clever/wise/intelligent – hides his mother instead of killing
Cunning – Tricks the Hyena into killing his mother
Loving – hides his mother-and does not kill her as they agreed with the Hyena.
Gullible/foolish –Foolishly kills his mother and believes that the Hare killed his mother too.
Cruel – Kills his mother
Accept any well illustrated trait.
- We should love and respect our parents whatever the circumstances. Because have loved the mother he was always well fed during the greatfamine.
Friendship ought to be genuine –The friendship between Hare and Hyena was not genuine, the Hyena killed Hares mother after have tricked him to kill his mother.
Cattle keeping: Hare took all the cows …in other part of the country.
Banana farming – Hare hid his mother in the garden in bushy banana plants (1mk)
Food sharing. The two friends decided that each was to look for food on alternate days sharing equal basis what was available. (1mk)
- Observation (1mk)
Language barrier – look for an interpreter. (1mk)
Hostile respondent – pre-visit the area seek permission from local administration (1mk)
- He wondered how his friend remained fat and he did not eat anything and decided that he would find out. (1mk)
- It is ironical for the narrator to say there was great famine in the land yet Hare went and hid his mother in a banana plantation and his mother used to give him bananas. (2mks)
- He will not be given a driving license unless he passes the road test. / Unless he passes the road yest, he will not be given a driving license.
- Leaving the child with a neighbor, the woman went to the market.
- In the field
- Ken said that those were juicy mangoes.
- You do not require to cheat to pass, do you? (Award no mark for wrong punctuation)
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