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    1. Write a composition ending with the following statement.
      ……a final look at her made me realize that choices have consequences.


    2. Write a composition to illustrate the proverb, “once beaten twice shy”.
    Parenting should build an environment of trust and peace in a family. Write an essay that explores how this statement applies to the Ole Kaelo family in Blossoms of the Savannah                                                                                                   
    1. Drama: David Mulwa: The Inheritance
      Inheriting a top seat without merit only invites ridicule from subjects. Write an essay showing how satire has been used in The Inheritance by David Mulwa.
    2. Short stories: Moran (ED) memories we lost.
      Discuss the major issues highlighted by the writer in the story window seat by Benjamin Branoff.
    3. John Steinbeck. The Pearl
      The Pearl potrays humans as beings inherently greedy. Show the validity of this statement with reference to The Pearl.


    This question is intended to test the candidate’s ability to communicate in writing. Communication is established at different levels of intelligibility, correctness, accuracy, fluency, pleasantness and originality within the constraints set by each question. It is the linguistic competence shown by the candidate that should carry most of the marks. Examiners should not hesitate to use the full range of marks for each essay. It is important to determine first how each essay communicates and in which category A, B, C or D it fits.

    The candidate does not communicate at all 01-05 or his language ability is so minimal that the examiner practically has to guess what the candidates want to say. The candidate fails to fit the English words he knows into meaningful sentences. The subject is glanced at or distorted. Practically no valid punctuation. All kind of errors “Broken English”

    Chaotic, little meaning whatsoever. Question paper or some words from it simply copied.

    Flow of thought almost impossible to follow the errors are continuous

    Although the English is then broken and the essay is full of errors of all types we can at least guess what the candidate wants to say.

    C CLASS (06-07)
    The candidate communicates understandably but only more or less clearly. He is not confident with his language. The subject is often undeveloped. There may be some digression. Unnecessary repetitions are frequent. The arrangement is week and the flow jerky. There is no economy of language mother tongue influence is felt. Watch for repetition for emphasis.

    C – (06-07)
    The candidate obviously finds it difficult to communicate his ideas. He is seriously ham petered by his very limited knowledge of structure and vocabulary. This results in many gross errors of agreement and sentence construction.

    C 08
    The candidate communicates but not with consistent clarity. His linguistic abilities being very limited, he cannot avoid frequent errors in sentence structure. There is little variety or originality. Very bookish English links are week, incorrect, repeated at times.

    The candidates communicates clearly but in flat and uncertain manner. Simple concepts sentence forms ate often strained. There may be an overuse of clichés unsuitable idioms, proverbs are misquoted or misinterpreted. The flow is still jerky. There are some errors of agreement, tenses and spelling can have some merit ticks.

    B CLASS (11-15)
    This class is characterized by greater fluency and ease of expression. The candidate demonstrates that he can use English or normal ay of expressing himself. Sentences are varied and usually well constructed. Some candidates become illogicality ambitious and even over ambitious. There may be items of merit of one word or one expression type. Many essays in this category may be just and clean an unassuming but they still show that the candidate is at ease with the language. There may be a tendency to under mark such essays. Give credit for tone.

    The candidates communicatesfairly and with some fluency. There may be little variety in sentence structure. Gross errors are still found occasionally, but this must not be over punished by t examiner.

    The sentence are varied but rather simple and straight forward. The candidate does not himself in an effort impress. There is a fair range of vocabulary and idiom. Natural and effortless.Some items of merit, economy of language.

    The candidate communicates his ideas pleasantly and without strain. There are errors and slips. Tenses, spelling and punctuation are quite good. A number of items of merit of the “whole sentence” or the “whole expression” type meritticks phrasal verbs, inversions, idioms etc variety of sentences, correct vocabulary.

    The candidate communicates not only fluently but attractively, with originality and efficiency. He has the ability to make us share his deep feelings, emotions, enthusiasms. He expresses himself freely and without any visible constraint. The script gives evidence of maturity, good planning and often humour. Many items of merit which indicate that the candidate has complete command of the language. There is no strain, just pleasantness, clever arrangement, felicity of expression. Contrast, irony.

    The candidate shows competence and fluency in using the language. He may lack imagination or originality which usually provides the “spark” in such essay. Vocabulary, idioms, sentence structure links variety are impressive. Gross errors are very rare.

    A 18
    Positive ability.A few errors that are felt to the slips. The story or argument has a definite impact. No grammar – problem variety of structures. A definite spark many margin ticks.

    The candidate communicates not only information and meaning, but also and especially the candidate’s whole self, his feelings, tastes, points of view, youth, culture. This ability to communicate is deep self may express itself in many ways wide range of effective vocabulary, original approach, vivid and sustained account in the case of a debate or discussion. Errors and slips should not deprive the candidate of the full marks he deserves. A very definite spark.

    Table of categories


    Mark category

    Each essay





























    Gross Errors
    • Almost any error of agreement
    • Serious tense error
    • Error of elementary vocabulary; spelling and misuse
    • Punctuation errors or missing punctuation which cause serious lack of communication.
    • Elementary errors of sentence construction.
    • Ridiculous use of idiom that affects communication.
    • Misuse of common prepositions.
    • Misuse of capital letters –use CAPS underline the first page and use CAPS on subsequent pages where the mistake persists.

    • Decide on the degree of communication achieved A-D
    • After underlining decide on the mark category
    • Allocate a numerical mark to each essay

      All problem scripts must be marked by the examiner and then sent to the team leader with comments.

    • Consistent distortion of questions, writing on a totally different subject with a clumsy attempt at connecting the essay to the subject given, inclusion of memorized passage etc.
    • The question is given an unacceptable or questionable interpretation.
    • Essays contain long, semi-relevant digressions or lack of coherence.

      The examiner marks the essay, gives a linguistic mark and comments on the nature of the irrelevancy. The essay is then passed over to the T.L who judges whether the irrelevancy should be judged as a deliberate attempt to deceive or should be attributed to the candidate’s poor understanding of the subject. Deduct upto 4mks for irrelevancy in the essay. If dishonesty is suspected, the C.E should be informed. Any deduction of 3mks or more should be referred to the C.E
    Since the rubrics may change from year to year, the points of interpretation that are apart of this marking scheme must be consulted and adhered to faithfully. Here are some general rules that usually apply.
      (Broken language)
      Decide on the category D+, D or D-
      Mark the errors on the first page of each essay
      Read the other pages, if the essay still does not communicate, draw a diagonal line across each page.
      Teachers should look at a good number of those scripts and ensure that the mark given is fair.
      1. Must end with the given words.
        The story must demonstrate a situation where the events that took place show clearly how the choices made brought above results.
        Deduct 2mks if story exceeds 2 pages.
      2. Must be a story –if not deduct 4mks
        The story must be relevant to the saying – if not deduct up to 4mks
      3. Introduction – (2mks)
      4. Body: Points of interpretation;
        • The kind of parenting by Mama Milanoi and her husband does not herald peace and trust in their family.
        • The girls desire to join the university does not receive any attention from the parents. The girls get emotionally affected as a result.
        • Ole Kaelo’s acerbic/stinging tongue is a source of discomfort to his daughters. They enjoy hi absence from the house.
        • The parents secretly conspire to marry off Resian to Oloisudori, which leads to her escape from home and her misery. This betrays her trust.
        • Resian is fully aware that the father loves Taiyo and hates her.
        • Reasian is always on the receiving end, being cajoled and criticized for this or for that by the father. She knows no peace in the family.
          (Any 4 well explained points x 3)
          Conclusion – 2mks
          Language       A-4
                             B – 3
                             C – 2
                             D – 1               (20mks)
          Inheriting a top seat without merit only invites ridicule from subjects.
      5. Introduction:
        • In the Inheritance, Mulwa exposes the vices in Kutula colony by Lacuna and his government in a rather exaggerated manner as discussed below. King Lacuna abuses power and takes advantages of his position to exploit and oppress his subjects. He orders the killing of anyone who opposes his leadership. He askedJuda Zen Melo to kill his brother Bengo who is an activist and a threat to his leadership.When he refuses, he faces the consequences by being sacked and evicted from the government house and his car is taken away. He is also forced to sell his farm to Lacuna’s Cronies for peanuts and the wife is forced to work in the same farm to make ends meet.
        • His leadership is also satirized when he uses money meant for the country’s economic grown for his own selfish gains. He buys an aircraft and deposits the rest in his own account in the same banks that lend the money.
        • His greed for power is highly satirized. It is ridiculous that he takes his father’s life so that he can get to power. He colludes with the imperialiststo poison his father so that he is installed the new king.
        • The imperialists are also satirized. Their despising and demeaning attitude towards the blacks is highly criticized.
        • It is laughable that the financiers justify such conditions in the name of helping the people. It is expected that financiers would be sensitive and practical in their demands.
        • Others satirized include kings cronies like chiparde and government officials who worship him, and are ready to do anything to please him.
          From the above discussion, it is quite clear that the author has satirized the poor leadership and the resulting predicaments.
          Introduction 2
          Conclusion     2
          Body               12
          Language       4
          Total               20
          Any 4 well illustrated points. (3:3:3:3) = 12         
    2. Memories we lost
      Every writer sets out to pass a certain message or communicate a particular issue to the audience through their work. Benjamin highlights a few concepts in the story “window seat”
      • Lawlessness our roads, vehicles should always follow traffic rules on the roads for safety in this story law and order on roads is not followed as it should be.e.g public transport vehicles are overloaded. The narrator says a min-van meant for ten passengers now carry twenty four of them. It is even worse in the rush hour.
      • Bribery and corruption-drivers bribe policemen in order to get away with crime. Even when things seem to be okay with the vehicle the policemen solicit for bribes is an extent of removing the car keys from ignition. The bribe is a very powerful voice that the police use to silence the adamant drivers.
      • Suffering a passengers. The narrator says that one learns not to commit to a long road because of discomfort. However they don’t seem to care or they are used to it. They even smack their lip s loudly when the policemen take bribes but they don’t take any step. It is even because of overloading that makes it easy for Kenga to rob the narrator.
      • Poverty people at the bus stop are said to be in sandals and others are barefoot; this means they cannot affordbetter shoes. The passengers could be suffering in silence. In the overloaded daladala because of poverty. This is because they pay less money for fare.The narrator describes Kenga that she has a trim figure probably caused by a lifetime of hardwork and deprivation of luxuries. It also possible that she stole from the narrator because she is poor.
      • The word Mzungu means a white men. The Africans call them this to mean he is from the white race. The Africans see the narrator as more superior than them and use even a spectacle that he is using the public. When the guard greets him at the city Chui, everybody turns to see him Africans perceive the white men as rich and wealthy that’s why Kanga robs him in the vehicle. The narrator chooses to date Monique a French girl because she is from their race. He says “I should be with the France girl la fille because French woman are absolutely like American men.
        Major issues that can be related to our day today life’s are highlighted in the story. Such issues such as poverty, lawlessness on our roads and poverty need to be dealt with for better life.
        Mark         4 well illustrated points
                          Introduction             2mks
                          Content                       12mks
                          Conclusion                 2mks
                          Language mark         4mks  
    3. The Pearl by John Steinback
      Sample introduction
      Greed is evident throughout the text as exhibited from the actions of various characters in the text. Kino, a pearl fisherman finds superb pearl. News of this great discovery spread to admiration and greed for the pearl in equal measure.

      Points to consider
      The priest on hearing about the finding of the pearl starts to think of the need for church repairs. He wonders whether Kino and Juana have been properly married (in church) and whether Coyotito has been baptized. As a result, he makes a trip toKon’s village driven by greed to lay his,hand on the newly found fortune. His was an indirect approach.

      After Kino finds the pearl, the doctor, who had a first refused to treat Coyotito, takes upon himself to deliver the medicine to ‘cure’Coyotito. He injects Coyotito with a drug to ensure he is sick so as to later ‘cure’ him. While in the homestead, his darting eyes are focused on Kino to get a clue on where the pearl might be hidden. This shows his greedy nature.

      The pearl buyers had opened different offices in town with a sole aim of exploiting the pearl fishermen. They had collaborated with an aim of buying the pearl at the cheapest price and when Kino fails to fall for their trap they dismiss his pearl of being of poor quality. This portrays their greed.

      The pearl exposes Kino’s family to so much danger. There are a number of attempts to end his life. Those responsible were driven by greed. they wanted to own the pearl due to its fortune. At the same time, Kino killed in self defense. His hut is burnt down and his boat is knocked. All this shows the greedy nature of the thieves who want to own the pearl.

      Greed is also noted among the beggars who pinched camp outside the church. They also hope to benefit from pearl for they know there is no alms giver like a poor man who suddenly becomes rich. They believe that when Kino sells the pearl they will benefit.
      The villagers followed every detail concerning Kino’s pearl through Kino’s brother Juan Toma. This shows some element of greed.
      It is evident that greed for material wealth is inherent even in some cases where individual effort has not been raised.
      Introduction             2mks
      Body   3:3:3:3            12mks
      Conclusion                 2mks
      Language                   4mks
      Total                           20mks
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