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Answer all questions in this section on spaces provided.

  1. Name two field management that are carried out to obtain optimum plant population in a crop field    (1mk)
  2. Give two factors which characterize small scale farming (1mk)
  3. Give one examples of each of the following categories of water pipes
    1. Metal pipes (½mk)
    2. Horse pipes (½mk)
  4. Name three forms of horticulture practiced in Kenya (1½mk)
  5. State four disadvantages of growing one type of crop on piece of land continuously(2mks)
  6. Outline four qualities of a mother plant from which vegetative propagation material should be obtained (2mks)
  7. State two ways in which crop rotation controls weeds (1mk)
  8. Give two reasons for imposing quarantine on imported planting materials (1mk)
  9. State two mechanical methods of separating soil particles according to sizes during soil analysis    (1mk)
  10. Name four settlement schemes that the Kenyan government started as a result of the success of the million Acre scheme (2mks)
  11. State three practices which encourage soil erosion (1½mks)
  12. State four characteristics of a good vegetable seedling (2mks)
  13. List four pose-harvest practices that are carried out in maize production (2mks)
  14. List four environmental factors that affect crop production in Kenya (2mks)
  15. Give four reasons for seed selection in crop production (2mks)
  16. Give two benefits of top-dressing in management of grass pasture (1mk)
  17. State four disadvantages of communal land tenure system (2mks
  18. State any two benefits a farmer would get by having correct plant population in the production of annual crops (1mk)
  19. Define the term opportunity cost as used in economic (1mk)
  20. State four pieces of information contained on a land title deed. (2mks)

Answer all questions in this section

  1. The table below shows PH value of different soil samples. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    Soil sample               PH value
    S1                                             3
    S2                                             4
    S3                                             5
    S4                                             6
    S5                                             7
    S6                                             8
    S7                                             9
    S8                                             10
    1. Which soil sample has the highest acidity (1mk)
    2. Which soil sample has the lowest alkalinity (1mk)
    3. State two ways in which the PHvalue of sample 3 can be raised (2mks)
    4. Which of the above soil sample is suitable for growing maize (1mk)
  2. The diagram below illustrates a seed potato prepared for planting. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    AGRI1 Q111111
    1. Name the practice used in preparing the seed potato above for planting (1mk)
    2. Describe the procedure followed in preparing seed potatoes for planting. (8mks)
  3. Below are diagrams of common weeds found in a crop field, study them carefully and answer questions that follow.
    AGRIC1 Q23333333333
    1. Identify the weeds (3mks)
      Weed A
      Weed B 
      Weed C
    2. State one reason why weed A is difficult to control (1mk)
    3. State one economic use of weed B (1mk)
  4. Below is a method used in pasture management. Study it carefully and answer questions that follow.
    AGRIC1 Q244444444
    1. Identify the type of grazing shown above (1mk)
    2. State two limiting of the practice above (2mks)
  5. Below is a diagram of common pest found in the field. Study it carefully and answer questions that follows
    AGRIC 1 Q266666
    1. Identify the pest (1mk)
    2. State the stage at which the pest attack maize (1mk)
    3. State one effect of the pest on crop production (1mk)

Answer any two questions only from this section

    1. Explain five ways in which biotic factors influence crop production in Agriculture (10mks)
    2. Explain four ways in which Government policy improves agricultural production (4mks)
    3. Describes the properties of Nitrogenous fertilizer (6mks)
    1. Describe the effects of pests on Beans in the field (4mks)
    2. Describe the production of cabbage under the following seed headings.
      1. Seed bed preparation (3mks)
      2. Transplanting of seedlings (4mks)
    3. Describe various nursery management practices carried out on cabbage seeding in the nursery (5mks)
    4. Describe how water is treated to remove solid impurities (4mks)
    1. Describe five ways in which a grass cover help to conserve soil (5mks
    2. Describe maize production under following sub-headings.
      1. Land preparation (3mks)
      2. Planting (6mks)
      3. Field management practices (6mks)


  1. Field management for optimum plant population
    • Gapping
    • Thinning ( 2 x½=1mk)
  1. Factors that characterize small scale farming
    • Requires small piece of land
    • Low capital investment
    • Low yields
    • Simple farm tools /equipment’s ( 2 x ½=1mk)
      • Metal pipes
      • Galvanized iron pipes
      • Alluminum pipes ( 1 x ½mk)
      • Hose pipes
      • Rubber hose pipe
      • Plastic hose pipe ( 1 x ½mk)
  1. Forms Horticulture practices
    • Pomology /pomo-culture
    • Olericulture
    • Floriculture ( 3 x½=1½mks)
  1. Disadvantages of growing one crop on a piece of continuously
    • Build up pest and disease
    • Build up weeds
    • depletion of minerals specific to the crop
    • Destroys soil structure ( 4 x ½=2mks)
  1. Qualities of a good mother plant for vegetative propagation
    • Healthy /free diseases/pests
    • Tolerance to salinity
    • Compatible to variety of scion
    • numerous root system
    • High yielding
    • Production of quality products
    • vigorous /fast growing (4 x ½=2mks)
    • alternating different families of crops, makes it easy to control /remove the weeds
    • Weeds specific to certain crops are easily controlled by alternating the crops of different type eg. strigaspecific to grass.
    • Alternating difficult to weed crops with easy to weeds-maker it easily to control weeds (2 x ½==1mk)
  1. Reasons for imposing quarantine on planting materials
    • Prevent introduction weeds
    • Prevent introduction of pests and diseases from other countries ( 2 x½=1mk)
  1. Mechanical method of separating soil particles
    Sieving using sieves of different sizes
    Dissolving soil in jar of water, shaking and allowing it to settle down ( 2 x ½=1mk)
  1. Settlement schemes in Kenya as result of success of million acre
    • Jet schemes
    • Harakaschemes
    • Shirikaschemes
    • Larisettlement schemes
    • Squatters’ settlement schemes
    • Z -plots
    • Harambee schemes
    • Olkalou salient scheme (4 x ½=2mks)
  1. Practices which encourages soil erosion
    • Overstocking
    • Burning vegetation cover
    • deforestation
    • Planting annual crops on steep slopes
    • Ploughing up and down the slope
    • Clean weeding leaving the land unprotected. ( 3 x ½=1½mk)
  1. Characteristics of good vegetable seedling
    • Free from pests and disease
    • Vigorous growth
    • Free from physical deformities
    • Correct stage of growth/height 10-15cm, 4-6 true leaves ( 4 x ½=2mk)
  1. Posts –Harvest practices
    • Drying
    • Dusting /seed dressing
    • Sorting and grading
    • Processing
    • Packing ( 4 x ½=2mk)
  1. Environmental factors affecting crop production
    • Rainfall
    • Temperatures
    • Wind
    • Soil type ( 4 x ½=2mk)
  1. Reasons for seed selection
    • High quality
    • High yield
    • High germination rate
    • To reduce chances of disease/pest attackCrops / avoid spread of weeds
    • Seeds that can grow in specific area ( 4 x ½=2mk)
  1. Benefits of top dressing grass pasture
    • Replenish the soil nutrients
    • High herbage yields
    • High herbage nutritive value
    • Improve chemical and physical condition of the soil
    • Enable microbial to break organic matter ( 2 x ½=1mk)
  1. Disadvantages of communal land tenure system
    • Difficult to control pest/parasites/disease
    • No incentive to conserve land
    • Difficult to make sound farm plan
    • Difficult to control breeding in livestock
    • Land disputes are common
    • An individual cannot use land to get loan ( 4 x ½mk)
  1. Benefits of correct plant population
    • Obtain high quality crop
    • Obtain high yields
    • Help the farmer to control soil erosion/ soil and water conservation ( 2 x ½=1mk)
    • Opportunity cost is the value of foregone best alternative/revenue as result of choosing the best alternative. ( 1 x 1=1mk)
  2. Details of tittle deed
    • Name of owner
    • Size of land
    • Land parcel number/location
    • Type of ownerships
    • Kind of right of owning land
    • Seal of issuing officer
    • Date of registration
    • Signature of issuing officer/name of officer             ( 4 x ½=2mk)


    1. Sample S1 (1 x 1=1mk)
    2. Sample S8 (1 x 1=1mk)
    3. Application of lime
      Application of basic fertilizer     (2 x 1=2mks)
    4. Sample S3 ( 1 x 1=1mk)
    1. Chitting/sprouting ( 1 x 1=1mk)
      • Arrange seed potato in layers of 2/3 deep in partially dark room
      • Arrange the seeds with rose and facing upwards and heel end downwards
      • Allow diffused light through. ( 3 x 1=3mks)
    1. Weed A – Couch grass /Digitariascalarum
      Weed B – Wondering jew/Commelinaspp
      Weed C – Nut grass / Cyperusrotundus    ( 3 x 1=3mks)
    2. Underground rhizomes/structure
      Ability to propagate vegetatively         ( 1 x 1=1mk)
    3. Livestock feed
      Vegetable for human beings  ( 1 x 1=1mk)
    1. Tethering  (1mk)
    2. Few animals can be reared by this method
      Animal can strangle itself to death                                                                 (2 x 1=2mks
    1. Squirrel ( 1 x 1=1mk)
    2. Planting time (1 x 1=1mk)
    3. Unearth seeds/eat reducing the plant population (1 x 1=1mk)


    1. Influence of Biotic factor on crop production
      • Pest – They feed on part /whole plant reducing the yields Transmit diseases to crops
      • Parasites – Transmit diseases to livestock / suck blood leading to anaemia
      • Decomposers – Break down organ matter releasing nutrients to plant
      • Pathogens – Transmit diseases to crops and livestock
      • Predators – They kill other animals/some eat pest reducing population.
      • Pollinators – transfer pollen grains from plant to plant causing pollination and fertilization.
      • Nitrogen fixing bacteria – convert atmospheric nitrogen to nitrate –making it available to plant
        Stating 5 x =5mks
        Explaining 5x1=5mks
    2. How Government policy improves Agricultural production
      • Land reform policy to enable improve land ownership
      • Provision of extension services/education
      • Help control parasites/diseases and weeds effectively
      • Provision of storage facilities for bulky commodities
      • Establish openers to supply inputs and market Agricultural goods.
      • Provide subsidies on Agricultural inputs
      • Impose high taxation on imports to protect local Agricultural products
      • Improve laws toregulate quality of Agriculture
      • Facilitate conservation of naturalresources
      • Establish national food security ( 4 x 1=4mks)
    3. Properties of nitrogenous fertilizers
      • They are highly soluble in soil water
      • They are easily leached to lower horizons
      • They have short residual effect hence need frequent application
      • They are highly volatile, they should be applied on moist soil
      • They have burning effect, they burn the vegetation part, they should not come into contact with green part.
      • They are hygroscopic they absorb atmosphericvapour and cake
      • They are highly corrosive, they burn the epithelial cells of palm
        (6 clearly explain/deserved one mark)                                                     (6 x 1=6mks)
        Note: The underlined is a must to score.
    4. Importance of irrigation
      • Improves crops yields
      • Ensure steady supply of food throughout the year
      • Maximum utilization of resources where the soil is fertile
      • Reclamation of arid/semi-arid areas/land
      • Provide regular and adequate supply of water
      • Source of employment in areas where it is used extensively
      • Promote crop production for export
      • Allow growing of paddy rice
      • Allow growing of crops in green houses (5 x 1=5mks)
    1. Effects of pests on beans
      • Some pests transmit disease e.gaphids
      • Some pest eat growing points causing stunted growth
      • Some pests eats pods/fruit lowering the quality/quantity of crop
      • Some pest eats roots, damage/causing wilting
      • Some pests injure the plant causing wound which allow germs to enter the plant
      • Some pests eat the seeds in the soil reducing plant population.
      • Some insect toxic substances into the plant resulting ……growth (4 x 1=4mks)
      1. Production of cabbage
        Seedbed preparation
        • Prepare the land during dry period
        • Clear the vegetation
        • Remove the stumps
        • dig deeply to remove perennial weeds
        • harrow the land to medium tilth                                     ( 3 x 1=3mks)
      2. Transplanting
        • Transplant at the onset of rain
        • Transplant seedlings are 1 month old 10-15cm /Have 4-6 true leaves
        • Select healthy seedlings
        • Select vigorous growing seedlings
        • Dig transplanting holes 60cm by 60cm
        • Use phosphate fertilizer
        • Water the nursery before uprooting the seedlings
        • Use garden trowel/ uproot seedlings with ball of soil round the root zone to avoid damage
        • Place the seedlings in the hole and fill with soil up the level of soil in the nursery
        • Firm the soil around the base of seeding
        • Put shade if necessary ( 4 x 1=4mks)
    3. Nursery management cabbage seedling in the nursery
      • Water nursery frequently, with enough water morning an evening
      • Uproot the weeds to avoid nutrients competition
      • Control pest by use of appropriate pesticide
      • Erect a shade to prevent sunlight from scorching the seedlings
      • Control diseases by use of appropriate fungicides
      • Carrying out thinning to avoid competition for nutrients
      • Remove the much as seeds start germinating             ( 5 x 1=5mks)
        Clearly explained to score
    4. Treating water to remove solid impurities
      • Filtration at the intake, water passes through series of sieves to remove solid particles.
      • coagulation and sedimentation
      • Allum is added to coagulate solid particles to settle down
      • Filtrating tank-water passes through tank lined with different types of sand to remove the remaining solid particles ( 4 x 1=4mks)
      • Grass cover reduces the speed of run off which lowers the erosive power of run-off
      • Grass cover reduces/intercepts the impact of raindrops which reduces splash erosion
      • Grass cover protects soil surface hence reducing wind erosions
      • Grass roots hold soil particles together from being carried always by erosion agents.
      • Grass cover reduces speed of run-off there by increases infiltration of water
      • Organic matter from grass improves soil structure which improves infiltration rate of water, hence reducing erosive power of run-off ( 5 x 1=5mks)
        NB/must be explanations not stating
        • Clear land and remove stumps
        • Remove all the perennial weeds/plough/dig in dry seasons
        • Carry out secondary cultivation
        • Harrow to medium tilth                         ( 3 x 1=3mks)
        • Select suitable maize variety to the environment.
        • Dig holes 2.5cm -10cm deep depending on soil moisture
        • Digat spacing 23-50cm x 75-90cm apart
        • Apply phosphate fertilizer
        • Apply phosphate fertilizer at 120kg/hectare
        • Place 2 seeds per hole
        • Plant certified /healthy seeds ( 6 x 1=6mks)
        • Gapping
        • Thinning
        • Control weeds by use of appropriate method
        • Top dress using nitrogenous fertilizer
        • Apply nitrogenous fertilizer at height of 40-60cm /knee high
        • Apply 200kg of nitrogen per hectare
        • Control stalk borer by use of appropriate pesticides
        • Control disease by use of appropriate fungicides ( 6 x 1=6mks)
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