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Instructions to Candidates

  1. This paper consists of THREE sections; AB, and C.
  2. Answer all questions in sections A and B.
  3. Answer any TWO questions in section C.


Answer all questions in this section on spaces provided.

  1. State four non-chemical method used to control ticks (2mks)
  2. Highlight two management practices carried out on a broody hen (2mks)
  3. Give four characteristics of a good fish pond (2mks)
  4. Mention four physical characteristics of exotic beef cattle breeds (2mks)
  5. Give four features of calf pen that help to control calf diseases (2mks)
    1. What is dry cow therapy (1mk)
    2. At what stage of gestation is dry cow therapy practiced (1mk)
  7. Name four farm structures used for handling livestock (2mks)
  8. Give four symptoms of respiratory disorder in a sick cow (2mks)
  9. Mention two characteristics of abdomen of a poor layers ( 2msk)
  10. Distinguish between mothering ability and prolificacy (2mks)
  11. List two factors that can lead to conception failure after female cow has been served (2mks)
  12. Give four factors that may lead to a farmer culling dairy cattle (2mks)
  13. State four reasons for doing Agriculture as a discipline (2mks)
  14. Name four tools that are used when laying concrete blocks during construction of a wall(2mks)
  15. State four features on the animal which may pre-dispose it to livestock diseases (2mks)


Answer all the questions from this section.

    1. Diagram below show a plunge dip.
      agric2 q16
      1. Using a arrow on the diagram show the movement of cattle (½mk)
      2. State one use of parts A, B and C (3mks)
      3. State two precautions a farmer should take on dip to ensure effective dipping (2mks)
      4. State two uses of the roof of the dip (2mks)
      5. Apart from use of acaricides explain other methods used to control ticks (3mks)
      1. Identify the tools below (1mk)
        agric1 q16biiiii
      2. State the use of tools x and y (2mks)
      3. Explain two maintenance practices carried on tool X                                           (2mks)
    2. Name the tools used in conjuction of following tools (2mks)
      1. Troca 
      2. Hand drill
      3. Leading stick 
      4. Mallet  
  3.  Diagram below show reproductive system of a female cow
    agric2 q1777
    1. Name the part marked D and F (1mk)
    2. State the function of parts marked C and E (1mk)
    3. At what stage should a gilt be mated? (½mk)


Answer ONLY TWO questions from this section

    1. Explain features of ideal calf pen (6mks)
    2. Outline various feeding practices a farmer undertake on calves up to weaning (8mks)
    3. Describe uses of water in the animals body (6mks)
    1. Describe mastitis disease under the following sub-headings
      1. Causal organism (1mk)
      2. Disease pre-disposing factors (4mks)
      3. Symptoms (3mks)
      4. Control measures (6mks)
    2. Describe factors to consider when culling a female (Cow) breeding stock (6mks)
    1. Describe the artificial rearing of layers chick from one day up to the end of brooding (10mks)
    2. Name three types of fences (3mks)
    3. Explain the procedure of establishing wire fence (7mks)



  1. Non-chemical methods to control ticks
    • Burn infested pasture
    • Hand pick and kill
    • Rotational grazing
    • Double fencing
    • Restrict animal movement (zero grazing) (4 x ½=2mks)
  1. Management practices on broody hen
    • Provide drinking water adlip
    • Provide balanced diet
    • Dust with insecticide to control parasites
    • Give hen chance to exercise ( 2 x 1=2mks)
  1. Characteristics of good fish pond
    • Gentle slopping
    • Reliable water source
    • Area with no cracks/anthills
    • Clay soil which is poorly drained
    • Secure from predators /thieves
    • Site should be accessible (4 x ½=2mks)
  1. Characteristics of beef breeds
    • They are blocky
    • They have strong short legs
    • Bodies are well fleshed
    • They have small udder
    • They have thick neck ( 4 x ½=2mks)
  1. Calf pen to control diseases
    • Well ventilated
    • Well lit
    • Easy to clean
    • Free from draught
    • Spacious
    • Lack proof
    • Well drained
    1. A dry cow theraphy – practice of applying mastitis antibiotic in teat canal in cow that is being dried off. (1mk)
    2. Dry cow theraphy done last 2 months of gestation (1mk)
  2. Structures to handle livestock
    • Crush
    • Calf pens
    • Fences
    • Milking shed
    • Cattle shed (4 x ½=2mks)
  1. Respiratory disorder
    • Difficult breathing
    • Coughing
    • Snoring
    • Sneezing
    • Running nose (4 x ½=2mks)
  1. Characteristics of poor layers
    • Hard/stiff abdomen
    • Full/well fleshed abdomen
    • Small space between kneel and pelvic bone allow less than 2 fingers ( 2 x 1=2mks)
  1. Mothering ability is ability of mother to care for young ones while prolificacy is ability of mother to produce many young ones at once. (Mark as a whole) ( 2 x 1=2mks)
  2. Factors leading to female cow fail to conceive
    • Poor nutrition
    • Poor timing of services
    • Infertile cow/bull ( 2 x 1=2mks)
  1. Reason for culling dairy cattle
    • Poor health
    • Poor quality products
    • Old age
    • Wild temperament
    • Low production (4 x ½=2mks)
  1. Reasons for doing Agriculture as a discipline
    • Provide skills in Agriculture and practices
    • It is a career subject
    • Createself-employment and self-reliance in food
    • Agriculture promote environmental conservation
    • Agriculture promote cohesion in diverse culture
    • Agriculture promote school to take part in Agricultural practices eg young farmers
      (4 x ½=2mks)
  1. Tools use to lay concrete block
    • Plumb bob/plumb line
    • Mason’s trowel
    • Spirit level
    • Wood float (4 x ½=2mks)
  1. Factors pre-disposing animal to diseases
    • Sex
    • Colour
    • Age
    • Physiological conditions sickness/pregnancy/emaciation/lactating
    • Physical injuries (4 x ½=2mks)


      1. Direction of movement
        A        →      B         →         C           (1 x ½=½mk)
      2. Uses of parts;
        A – Hold animals before dipping
              - waiting area
        B – Clean cattle hooves
              - Prevent dip contamination
        C – Hold livestock to wait for dip wash to drip
            -  Draining race (3 x 1=3mks)
      3. Precautions farmer should take for effective dipping
        • Proper mixing of dip wash
        • Check concentration of dip wash
        • Top up dip was at correct level ( 2 x 1=2mks)
      4. Uses of roof
        • Reduce evaporation of dip wash
        • Prevent dilution of dip was by rain water (2 x 1=2mks
    2. Methods to control ticks
      • Hand picking and kill
      • Burn heavily infested pasture to kill them
      • Double fencing to starve the ticks
      • Use predictor to feed on ticks
      • Cultivate heavily infested pasture to control ticks ( 3 x 1=3mks)
      1. X – Sickle
        Y – Metal float          (2 x ½=1mk)
      2. Uses of tools
        X – Used to harvest grass small grains and cereal crops
        Y – Used for smooth finishing of concrete work          (2 x 1=2mks)
      3. Maintenance of tool X
        • Clean to remove dirt
        • Sharpen to improve efficiency
        • Apply old engine oil/paint to prevent rusting
        • Fix handle tightly to reduce accidents ( 2 x 1=2mks)
    2. Tools used in conjuction with
      1. Troca - cannula
      2. Hand drill – Bits
      3. Leading stick -  Bull ring
      4. Mallet – Wood chisel (4 x ½=2mks)
    1. D – Fallopian tube
      F – Cervix
    2. Function of;
      C – Produce ova
      Produce hormones
      E – Embryo /Foetus grow       ( 2 x 1=2mks)
    3. Stage gilt should be mated
      8 – 12 months         (½mk)


    1. Features of ideal calf pen
      • Concrete/slatted floor – To maintain cleanliness
      • Adequate space- Large enough for exercises and feeding 1.8m x 1.5m
      • Well lit – For calf to synthesis vitamin D
      • Single housing – Prevent calf from leaking each other to form hair balls on rumen
      • Proper drainage – To avoid dampness
      • Draught free- Windward side should be solid to prevent cold winds.
      • Leak proof – To ensure the floor is dry
      • Well ventilated – For free air circulation
        (Any six ideal features and explanation -6mks)
    2. Feeding practices
      • Ensure calf suckle within 8 hours to get colostrum
      • Feed calf with colostrum for first four days
      • Feed calf 2-3 times a day for the first 4 weeks
      • Feed correct amount of milk upto weaning.
      • Introduce feeding of whole milk after 4th day
      • Feed call with whole milk at regular intervals
      • Provide adequate clean water 3rd week
      • Introduce palatable dry feeds and concentrates 3rd week
      • For any changes in feed should be done gradually to avoid disorders.
      • Clean equipment’s should be used for feeding calves
      • Calf should be trained to suck milk from the bucket. ( 8 x 1=8mks)
    3. Uses of water
      • Make body cells turgid
      • Responsible for transportation in the body
      • It is component of body fluidseg blood
      • Help excretion of body wastes
      • Help to regulate body temperatures
      • Used in various bio-chemical reactions in the body
      • Form animal products eg milk ( 6 x 1=6mks)
      1. Cause organisms
        • Bacteria /Streptococcal mastitis /Staphylococcal mastitis
      2. Pre-disposing factors
        • Old aged animal
        • Beginning and end of lactation
        • Large pendulus /loose under /injured
        • Incomplete milking
        • Mechanical injuries
        • Poor milking techniques (4 x 1=4mks)
      3. Symptoms
        • Swollen udder
        • Pvs /blood/clot/watery milk
        • Death of infected quarter
        • Milk has salty taste and fine clots or flakes on fore milk ( 3 x 1=3mks)
      4. Control measures
        • Use correct milking techniques
        • Use strip cup to test infections
        • Avoid teat injuries
        • Treat open wounds on teats
        • Use separate udder cloth for each animal.
        • Infuse antibiotic into teat canal during drying off.
        • Maintaincleanlinessand use disinfectants ( 6 x 1=6mks)
    2. Factors considered while culling
      • Old age- Old animals are low producers
      • Low levels of performance animals with low level production should be culled.
      • Unhealthy animals-Animals which fall sick frequently should be culled
      • Poor mothering ability – Animals with poor instinct’s should be culled
      • Body conformation- Dairy cow which is blocky should be culled
      • Physical defects animals with poor physical fitness should be culled ie limping mono eyed etc
    1. Artificial reasing of chicks up to end of breeding
      • Ensure brooder corner are rounded
      • Provide enough brooding space according to number
      • Clean and disinfect the brooder
      • Maintain proper range of temperature
      • First week temperature should be 22-350C
      • Maintain proper ventilation by adjusting the opening
      • Provide dim light
      • Provide water adlip
      • Control parasites
      • Sick children should be culled.
      • Keep proper records
      • De-beak 8-10 days before the end of brooding (10 x 1=10mks)
    2. Types of fences
      • Live fence
      • Wire fence
      • Barbed wire fence
      • Plain wire fence
      • Wooden wire fence (3 x 1-3mks)
    3. Procedure of establishing wire fence
      • Clear fence line
      • Measure and mark points 4 -6cm
      • Dig holes – 60cm and 75-90cm for corner posts
      • Place treated posts in upright position
      • Mix concrete 1:3:5 into the hole and firm the base
      • Nail barbed wire into the post
      • Fix the lower strand first which is used to guide the fixing of next wires. (7 x 1=7mks)
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