GEOGRAPHY PAPER 2 - 2019 KCSE KASSU JOINT MOCK EXAMS (QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)

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Instructions to candidates

  • This paper has two sections A and B
  • Answer all the questions in section A
  • Answer question 6 and any other two questions in section B
  • All answers must be written in the answer booklet provided.

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

  1.  
    1. State two formations in which mineral ores occur.    (2 marks)
    2. Describe three negative effects of open cast mining on the environment.     (3 marks)
  2.  
    1. What is agro-forestry?                   (2 marks)
    2. Give three reasons why afforestation is being encouraged in Kenya.            (3 marks)
  3.  
    1. List two physical factors that influence palm oil growing in Nigeria                 (2mks)
    2. Name three pests facing tea farming in Kenya           (3mks)
  4.  
    1. Give two documents from where information on population data is obtained.            (2 marks)
    2. Give three negative effects of low population growth in a country.             (3 marks)
  5.  
    1. What is visible trade?                                                                                     (2 marks)
    2. State three ways in which trade is of significance to Kenya.                          (3marks)

      SECTION B (75 marks)
      (Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section)
  6. The table below shows the number of tourists who visited Kenya from various parts of the world in 2005 and 2006.Use it to answer questions (a) and (b).

    Place of origin

    2005

    2006

    Europe

    942000

    965000

    Africa

    120000

    154000

    Asia

    97000

    128000

    North America

    94000

    103000

    Australia and New Zealand

    19000

    24000

    All other countries

    29000

    41000

    Total

    1301000

    1415000


    1.  
      1. Which continent had the highest increase in the number of tourists visiting Kenya between 2005 and 2006?       (1 mark)  
      2. Calculate the percentage increase of the number of tourists From Australia and New Zealand between 2005 and 2006      (2 marks)
      3. Draw a divided rectangle 15cm long to represent the number of tourists that visited Kenya in 2006.Show your calculations. (10 marks)
    2.  
      1. State three advantages of using divided rectangles to represent geographical data.             (3 marks)
      2. Give four reasons why in 2005 and 2006 there were more tourists from Europe compared to those from other parts of the world.     (4 marks)
    3. Give five reasons why domestic tourism is being encouraged in Kenya.      (5 marks)
  7.  
    1.  
      1. Name three fresh water fisheries in Uganda.      (3mks)
      2. Explain four reasons why fresh water fisheries are more popular than marine water fisheries in East Africa    (8mks)
    2.  
      1. Identify three types of fish caught in Japan.         (3mks)
      2. Explain three problems facing fishing in Japan       (6mks)
    3. Compare fishing in Kenya and in Japan           (5mks)
  8.  
    1.  
      1. State two factors that favour the development of seaport                     (2mks)
      2. Give three limitations of air transport                                                     (3mks)
    2. Describe the role played by ’matatu’ transport in the economic development of Kenya                   (6mks)
    3.  
      1. Explain three measures the Kenyan government has taken to reduce road accidents in the country     (6mks)
      2. Give three benefits Kenya will get from the construction of the standard gauge railway            (3mks)
    4. Your class intends to visit the Thika super highway to observe traffic flow.
      1. State two preparations you would make for the study                           (2mks)
      2. Identify three problems you are likely to encounter during the study  (3mks)
  9.  
    1. Name three agricultural food processing industries in Kenya.         (3 marks)
    2. Explain how the following factors have favored the development of industries in Thika town:
      1. Proximity to Nairobi.             (2 marks)
      2. Availability of water.               (2 marks)
      3. The hinterland.                     (2 marks)
    3. Explain four ways in which Kenya has benefited from industrialization.      (8 marks)
    4.  
      1. Name two towns in Kenya where motor vehicle assembling plants are located.       (2 marks)
      2. Explain three factors which have favored the development of car manufacturing industry in Japan.  (6 marks)
  10.  
    1.  
      1. Name two non- renewable sources of energy.        (2 mks)
      2. Explain four physical factors that influence the location of a hydro-electric power station.         (8mks)
    2. Apart from generating HEP, give three other benefits that have resulted from the construction of Masinga Dam.    (3 mks)
    3. State three problems facing hydroelectric power projects in Kenya.             (3 marks)
    4. Explain three benefits that would result from rural electrification in Kenya. (6 marks)
    5. In what three ways does the power shortages resulting from drought affect the industrial sector in Kenya.           (3 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

  1.  
    1. State two formations in which mineral ores occur. (2 marks)
      • Some minerals occur as evaporites.
      • Others occur as veins or lodes
      • Some occur as weathered products
      • Some minerals are found in seams or beds
      • Some minerals occur as alluvial deposits     any first 2×1=2mks
    2. Describe three negative effects of open cast mining on the environment. (3 marks)
      • Dust produced during mining pollute the environment
      • Large scale blasting of rocks leads to instability of the basement rocks
      • Gapping holes left on the surface are ugly or interfere with beauty of the landscape
      • Water collects in the hollows left behind by opencast mines creating habitats for disease causing- organisms
      • The heaps of rocks wastes creates a landscape that is expensive to rehabilitate or encourage soil erosion and hinder any other form of land use
      • The natural vegetation which is cleared before mining takes time to regenerate
      • Open cast mining causes land shortage since it hinders settlement and agriculture
        any first 3×1=3mks
  2.  
    1. What is agro-forestry? (2 marks)
      It is the growing of trees and crops on a piece of land at the same time.     1×2=2 mks
    2. Give three reasons why afforestation is being encouraged in Kenya. (3 marks)
      • To ensure continuous supply of wood fuel/timber/herbal/medicine/raw material for paper making
      • To protect the soil from erosion
      • To protect the water catchment areas/create microclimates/maintain hydrological cycle
      • To create scenic beauty
      • To expand the habitat for wildlife/conservation of wildlife
      • To create employment opportunities
      • To reduce importation of forest products/save foreign exchange      any first 3×1=3mks
  3.  
    1. Name two major beef rearing areas in Agerntina(2mks)
      • Formosa
      • Santiago del   Estero
      • Chaco any first 2×1=2mks    
    2. Give two reasons why nomadic pastoralists keep large herds of animals(2mks)
      • a sign of wealth
      • insurance against natural death
      • for payment of bride-price(dowry)
      • for slaughter during cultural festivals any first 2×1=2mks                                                    
  4.  
    1. Give two documents from where information on population data is obtained. (2 marks)
      • National census report
      • Periodicals
      • Journals
      • Magazines
      • Textbooks                 
         any first 2×1=2mks
    2. Give three negative effects of low population growth in a country.                  (3 marks)
      • It leads to underutilization of resources/slow economic growth
      • It leads to reduced market for goods
      • Increased aging population in a country leads to high dependency ratio
      • Leads to reduced labour force/productivity
      • It is expensive to provide social security/medical care/transport.       Any first 3×1=3mks
  5.  
    1. What is visible trade. (2 marks)
      Visible trade involves exchange of goods between countries                        1×2=2mks
    2. State three ways in which trade is of tangible significance to Kenya. (3marks)
      • Transport facilities are developed and expanded due to the need to reach far off areas
      • Through taxation of goods and services, revenue for the country is generated
      • Industrial growth is stimulated through demand for goods
      • Employment opportunities are created in industries that are established
      • The export of goods enable the country to earn foreign exchange
      • Trade stimulates specialization in the production of goods
      • Cooperation is enhanced between Kenya & trading partners
      • Trade leads to the growth of urban centres                                       
        any first 3×1=3mks

        SECTION B (75 marks)
        (Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section)
  6. The table below shows the number of tourists who visited Kenya from various parts of the world in 2005 and 2006.Use it to answer questions (a) and (b).

    Place of origin

    2005

    2006

    Europe

    942000

    965000

    Africa

    120000

    154000

    Asia

    97000

    128000

    North America

    94000

    103000

    Australia and New Zealand

    19000

    24000

    All other countries

    29000

    41000

    Total

    1301000

    1415000


    1.  
      1. Which continent had the highest increase in the number of tourists visiting Kenya between 2005 and 2006? (1 mark)
        Africa                                                                     1×1=1mks
      2. Calculate the percentage increase of the number of tourists
        From Australia and New Zealand between 2005 and 2006                          
        24000-19000=5000
        5000/19000×100=26.32%     2mks
      3. Draw a divided rectangle 15cm long to represent the number of tourists that visited Kenya in 2006.Show your calculations. (10 marks)
        Webp.net compress image 45
    2.  
      1. State three advantages of using divided rectangles to represent geographical data. (3 marks)
        • They allow easy comparison
        • They are used to represent a wide range of data
        • They give clear visual impression of individual components
          any first 3×1=3mks
      2. Give four reasons why in 2005 and 2006 there were more tourists from Europe compare to those from other parts of the world. (4 marks)
        • There was aggressive marketing
        • There were many package tours to Kenya
        • There were many direct flights from Europe to Kenya
        • Europe has good ties with Kenya
        • There were few travel advisories in Europe any first 4×1=4mks
    3. Give five reasons why domestic tourism is being encouraged in Kenya. (5 marks)
      • To make use of tourist facilities during off peak tourist
      • To make Kenyans appreciate their country’s national heritage
      • To ensure that Kenyans become familiar with different parts of the country
      • To expose Kenyans to the wide variety of recreational facilities
      • To create employment in the country
      • To enable people from different communities to interact
      • To enhance circulation of money within the country   any first 5×1=5mks
  7.  
    1.  
      1. Name three fresh water fisheries in Uganda.(3mks)
        • Lake victoria
        • Lake Albert
        • Lake Edward
        • Lake Katwe any first 3×1=3mks
      2. Explain four reasons why fresh water fisheries are more popular than marine water fisheries in East Africa(8mks)
        • There is inadequate capital to purchase modern fishing equipment to facilitate deep sea fishing.
        • There are numerous fresh water fishing grounds e.g lakes ,rivers, swamps which are more accessible.
        • Fresh water fisheries are clean and generally calm as opposed to sea waters. This enables fishing to take place in deeper areas.
        • East Africa has narrow continental shelf which is not suitable for the growth of planktons.
        • Poor technology in East Africa hindering deep sea fishing.
        • Low demand for sea fish and other marine water resource among the East African communities, limiting the exploitation of marine fisheries any first 4×2=8mks
    2.  
      1. Identify three types of fish caught in Japan.(3mks)
        • Sardines
        • Herring
        • Mackerel
        • Salmon
        • Yellow tailfish any first 3×1=3mks
      2. Explain three problems facing fishing in Japan(6mks)
        • Pollution of waters by industrial waste and oil spillage have interfered with aquatic life.
        • Overfishing in the coastal waters has led to depletion of some fish species of commercial value.
        • Japanese fleets are restricted into other nations territories e.g to the North Japanese vessels are not permitted to fish in the Russsian controlled waters of Okhotsk. 
          Any 3×2=6mks
    3. Compare fishing in Kenya and in Japan (5mks)
      • In Japan fishing is mainly in deep sea while fishing in Kenya is mainly carried out in fresh waters.
      • Indented coastline in Japan encourages breeding of fish while the narroe coastline in Kenya discourages fish breeding.
      • High level of technology is used in Japan while low level of technology is used in Kenya.
      • Japan has adequate capital to facilitate deep sea fishing whereas inadequate capital in Kenya hinder deep sea fishing.
      • The volume catch is higher in Japan whereas the volume catch is low in Kenya.
        Any 5×1=5mks
  8.  
    1.  
      1. State two factors that favour the development of seaport (2mks)
        • Deep water to allow ships to anchor.
        • Well sheltered coastline
        • Ice-free coast to allow use of port throughout the year.
        • Rich and extensive hinterland.
        • Low tidal range. Any first 2×1=2mks
      2. Give three limitations of air transport(3mks)
        • Air transport is expensive
        • It is inflexible since most planes must land at airstrips or airport.
        • Air transport is affected by bad weather conditions
        • When accident occur they are usually fatal killing most if not all of those on board
          Any first 3×1=3mks.
    2. Describe the role played by ’matatu’ transport in the economic development of Kenya(6MKS)
      • Matatu generate income to the owners which can be invested in other sectors of the economy.
      • They create employment to many Kenyans as drivers/ conductors raising their standards of living.
      • Matatu transport has promoted the agricultural sector by providing transport for agricultural produce.
      • Matatu transport has promoted the growth of motor assembly to provide vehicles for the fast growing industry.
      • Matatu transport has promoted local trade by transporting goods to various markets.
      • Matatu transport has encouraged the growth of other interrelated industries.
        Any first 3×2=6mks
    3. Explain three measures the Kenyan government has taken to reduce road accidents in the country( 6mks)
      • The govt. has introduced a new law where all public service must be fitted with speed governors.
      • Bumps have been erected on sections of roads where there are many pedestrians crossing especially near schools.
      • The govt. has introduced road safety education through the mass media.
      • The govt. has intensified traffic police checks with the aim of cracking down traffic offenders and unroadworthy vehicles
      • The govt. has tried to repair dilapidated roads with an aim of reducing accidents.
      • The govt. has introduced strict regulations on the issuing of driving licences to motorists.
      • All road users are advised to use reflectors/life saver when a vehicle breaks down.
      • Road signs and traffic lights have been installed to control traffic flow/CCTV cameras have been installed to monitor road use.
      • Zebra crossing/flyovers/subways/ tunnels have been constructed for use by pedestrians.
        Any first 3×2=6mks
    4. Give three benefits Kenya will get from the construction of the standard gauge railway(3mks)
      • It will lead to increases flow of goods/expanded trade.
      • It will lead to increased employment opportunities.
      • It will lead to improved transport links internally and with her neighbours.
      • It will facilitate fast/efficient movement of people.
    5. Your class intends to visit of the Thika super highway to observe traffic flow.
      Any first 3×1=3mks
      1. State two preparations you would make for the study(2mks)
        • Seek permission from relevant authorities.
        • Conduct a pre-visit/reconnaissance.
        • Hold a class discussion and adjust the objectives.Choose methods of data collection.
        • Dividing into groups.
        • Prepare necessary equipment/tools and documents.
        • Preparation of a work schedule any first 2×1=2mks
      2. Identify three problems you are likely to encounter during the study 3mks
        • Challenge of too many vehicles to record.
        • Delay due to traffic jam.
        • Weather changes e.g. sudden rain may cut short the field work.  
        • Fatigue any first 3×1=3mks
  9.  
    1. Name three agricultural food processing industries in Kenya.(3 marks)
      • Tea processing
      • Sugar reefing
      • Meat canning
      • Coffee processing
      • Vegetable canning
      • Fruit canning
      • Grain milling
      • Milk processing
      • Brewing
      • Vegetable oil processing any first 3×1=3mks
    2. Explain how the following factors have favored the development of industries in Thika town:
      1. Proximity to Nairobi.(2 marks)
        • Nairobi provides some inputs for the industries in Thika
        • There is industrial inter-dependence between industries in Thika and Nairobi
        • The railway connection between Nairobi and Thika provides cheap movement of goods for industries in Thika
        • Nairobi provides a ready market for goods manufactured in Thika       
          any 1×2=2mks
      2. Availability of water.(2 marks)
        • River Chania provides fresh water for industrial use
        • River Chania is permanent hence water is available for industrial use throughout the year
          Any 1×2=2mks
      3. The hinterland.(2 marks)
        • Thika has a rich agricultural hinterland which provides raw materials for industries
          The hinterland is densely populated, providing cheap labour for industries  
          any 1×2=2mks
    3. Explain four ways in which Kenya has benefited from industrialization. (8 marks)
      • It has led to increased agricultural production since some industries use agricultural raw materials
      • Kenya earns revenue from taxes on goods sold by the industries which is used to develop other sectors of the economy
      • Kenya exports some of the goods and earns foreign exchangeIt has led to creation of employment, raising living standards of people
      • It has led to development of transport & communication network, facilitating the development of sectors of economy
      • It has led to the diversification of the economy hence reducing reliance on the agricultural sector
      • It has facilitated the creation of social amenities in the area where industries are located
      • It has led to the improvement in the balance of trade since there is added value to the export of products 
        any first 4×2=8mks
    4.  
      1. Name two towns in Kenya where motor vehicle assembling plants are located. (2 marks)
        • Nairobi
        • Thika
        • Mombasa                 
          any first 2×1=2mks
      2. Explain three factors which have favored the development of car manufacturing industry in Japan. (6 marks)
        • Advanced technology has led to high quality cars which are competitive in the world market
        • The country has adequate capital to invest in the industry
        • Japan produces fuel-saving vehicles, leading to higher demand for them in the world market
        • Japan has many sea ports which make importation of raw materials & export of cars easy
        • Japan has a highly skilled labour force which enhances efficient production
        • The presence of a large population provides local market for cars
        • Japan has a rugged terrain unsuitable for agriculture, therefore, car industry is an alternative source of income
        • Japan has highly developed HEP projects which provide power needed by the industries
          Any first 3 ×2=6mks
  10.  
    1.  
      1. Name two non- renewable sources of energy.(2 marks)
        • Petroleum
        • Uranium
        • Natural gas
        • Coal           
          any first 2×1=2mks
      2. Explain four physical factors that influence the location of a hydroelectric power station.(8 marks)
        • A large volume of water from a river to provide water to drive turbines
        • Hard basement rock to provide firm foundation for the construction of a dam
        • Regular supply of water to ensure continuous generation of power
        • Presence of a waterfall to provide a massive hydraulic force for power generation
        • Presence of non-porous rock to prevent water seepage
        • Presence of enough land to construct a reservoir                              
          any first 4×2=8mks
    2. Apart from generating HEP, give three other benefits that have resulted from the construction of Masinga Dam.(3 marks)
      • It filters silt to save the other dams which are downstream
      • It provides water for domestic use
      • It provides employmentIt provides a fresh water fishing ground for the local community
      • It provides water for irrigation
      • The dam is a link across river Tana  any first 3×1=3mks
    3. State three problems facing hydroelectric power projects in Kenya.(3 marks)
      • Inadequate for purchase of spare parts
      • Fluctuation of water levels
      • Situation of dams which block the tail race tunnels
      • Inadequate skills and technology           
         any first 3×1=3mks
    4. Explain three benefits that would result from rural electrification in Kenya. (6 marks)It would encourage setting up of industries in the rural areas hence decentralization of industries
      • Most people would invest in rural areas which would to higher living standards
      • It would reduce the cutting down of trees as electricity for domestic use would be available
      • It would encourage horticultural farming since it would be possible to store perishable products
      • It would improve social amenities in rural areas, reducing rural-urban migration
        Any first 3×2=6mks
    5. In what three ways does the power shortages resulting from drought affect the industrial sector in Kenya. (3 marks)
      • It leads to the closure of some industries
      • It leads to the redundancy of workers
      • It leads to an increase in the cost of electricity
      • It leads to power rationing which slowed down the rate of production
        any first 3×1=3mks

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