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  • This Paper consists THREE sections A, B and C
  • Answer ALL questions in section A, three from section B and two questions from section
  • Answers to all questions must be written in English

Answer all questions

  1. Identify two limitations of using written records as a source of information on History and Government (2 marks)
  2. Give one reason why early people moved from forests to settle on grasslands      (1 mark)
  3. Name one method of irrigation used in the development of Early Agriculture in Egypt    (1 mark)
  4. What was the name given to the ships used during the trans Atlantic Trade.     (1 mark)
  5. Identify two uses of copper in Africa during the 19th Century (2 marks)
  6. Give one invention that revolutionized food preservation during the 19th Century (1 mark)
  1. Identify two factors that led to the growth of Athens as an urban centre (2 marks)
  2. Name two officials who assisted the ruler of the Shona to administer the Kingdom.  (2 marks)
  3. What is the difference between the scramble and partition of Africa in the 19th Century? (2 marks)
  4. Name one colony of Britain in West Africa. (1 mark)
  5. Give two reasons why the Africans in Tanganyika were against the use of Akidas by the German colonial administrators. (2 marks)
  6. Identify two peaceful methods which the Nationalists in South Africa used in their struggle for independence. (2 marks)
  7. Identify two economic results of the First World War. (1 mark)
  8. Name one principal organ of the United Nations. (1 mark)
  9. Identify two ways in which Mwalimu Julius Nyerere promoted the development of Education in Tanzania independence. (2 marks)
  10. State two conditions that a country should fulfill in order to become a member of the Non – Aligned movement (2 marks)
  11. Identify one parliamentary duty of the Monarch in Britain (1 mark)

Answer any THREE questions in this section

    1. State three disadvantages of hunting as an economic activity of the early man.  (3 marks)
    2. Explain six benefits of settling in villages during the late Stone Age period   (12 marks)
    1. Give two uses of the wind as a source of energy in ancient times.    (3 marks)
    2. Explain six effects of iron working technology on African Communities before the 19th    (12 marks)
    1. Outline five European activities in Africa during the 19th Century .  (5 marks)
    2. Explain five effects of the Mandinka resistance against the French invasion in the late 19th Century.   (10 marks)
    1. Outline five grievances by Africans against Apartheid in Africa     ( 5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges faced by African Nationalists in struggle for majority rule in South Africa.(10 marks)

Answer any two questions in this section .

    1. Give three functions of the Kabaka of the Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period.  (3 marks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Shona during the pre-colonial period.   (12 marks)
    1. Outline five African traditional practices that were found to be repugnant by the British in her colonies in Africa ( 5 marks)
    2. Describe the British structure of Administration in Northern Nigeria during the pre- colonial period   ( 10 marks)
    1. Identify three categories of members of the Executive in the United states of America    (3 marks)
    2. Explain six functions of the president of the United states of America (12 marks)


    • May contain biases / exaggerations
    • Information may be misinterpreted / misunderstood by readers
    • There may be factual errors / omissions/ contradictions by the authors
    • These services are limited to literate members of the society
    • They are expensive to obtain / procure
      1 x 2 = 2mks
    • There were more wild animals in the grasslands / Availability f food
    • The climate in the grasslands was warmer
    • The grasslands provided much needed water
      1 x1 = 1mk
    • Basin / Floor
    • Canal
    • Shadoof / Bucket 1 x 1 = 1mk
    • Making utensils
    • To make weapons
    • As a medium of exchange
    • It was mixed with other metals to make alloys
    • It is used for making tools e.g. chisel
    • Used as a trade item
    • Used to make statues, hamlets, plaques
      1 x 2 = 2mks
  1. Pasteurisation ( 1 x 1 = 1 mk)
    • It was surrounded by mountains and sea making it secure / security
    • It was a centre of leaning and all which attracted people Educational center.
    • It was a religious / cultural centre
    • It was a trading centre commercial centre
    • There were valleys with fertile soils for food production
    • It was an administrative centre
      1 x 2 = 2mks
    • The head cook
    • The gatekeeper/ chancellor
    • The court steward / chanter tan/ chancellor
    • The Queen mother
    • The head drummer
    • The head of the army
    • The treasurer
    • The senior sin inlaw
    • The king sister
    • Nine principal wives of the king
      1 x 2 = 2mks
  1. The scramble was the struggle by completion/ rush by Europeans for colonies in Africa whereas partition was sharing/ dividing up Africa into European spheres influence.1 x 2 = 2mks
    • Nigeria
    • Ghana / Gold coast
    • Gambia
    • Sierra Leone           
      1 x 1 = 1mk
    • Demonstration
    • Sending petition to the British government
    • Seeking support organisation of African unity and united nations
    • Formed political parties
    • Condemning apartheid in churches
    • Hunger strikes
    • Use of mass media / newspapers / pamphlets
    • Made ….. / boycotts/ setting go slow
      1 x 2 = 2mks
    • European governments spent huge sums of money
    • There was massive destruction of property
    • It led to economic depression / employment / starvation / inflation
      1 x 2 = 2mks
    • The General Assembly
    • The security council
    • The economic and social council
    • The secretariat
    • The Trusteeship council
    • The international court of Justice
    • He established the universities of Dar-es-salaam and Sokolne
    • He made Kiswahili the medium of instruction in school
    • He made education to be free compulsory from primary schools to university
    • He popularised the philosophy of Education for self-reliance.
    • A country should be independent
    • A country should not be a member of either NATO or WARSAW past military alliance
    • Summons parliament after a general election
    • Prologues parliament
    • Dissolves parliament
    • Assent to bills /signing
    • Nominating members to the house of lords
      1 x 1 = 1mk


      • animals are a threat / dangerous to humans
      • His difficult to locate / spot the animals
      • It requires many people
      • Hunting is tiresome / cumbersome
      • Animals run faster than man.
      • There was security as people could protect themselves against enemies
      • Living as a group enable people to work together henceaccomplishing tasks with ease them work.
      • Settling in village assured man of permanent dwellings thereby reducing movement
      • Man began growing crops there by ensuring regular food supply
      • Man domesticated animals which provided animal products thereby reducing hunting activities
      • Living in villages promoted interaction thereby increasing social cohesion/s shame of ideas / resources.
      • People were able to exchange good / services hence getting what they did not have
      • It enabled them to build better shelter thereby protecting themselves from harsh weather conditions.
      • To winnow grains
      • To dry grains
      • To drive / turn wind mills
      • To propel boats / starting ships
      • To drive water pumps
      • The use of iron tools made cultivation of the land easier
      • iron tools were used to clear forests thereby enable enabling people to migrate / settle in those areas
      • iron weapons were used to fight other communities thereby increasing war/ conflict
      • cultivation of food
      • migration and settlement
      • defencing
      • rise of powerful states
      • increased food production since more land was brought under cultivation
      • decline of other metals
      • the demand for iron tools enhancedtrade between communities
      • Trade
      • Christianity
      • Exploration
      • Were establishing settlements
      • Were signing imperial treaties
      • Were mining
      • Were involved in farming
      • Were involved in stamping out slave trade
      • Were involved in spreading Western education.
      • Many lives were lost due to the protected war between the two groups
      • There was destruction of properly as the Mandinka applied
      • The Mandinka were defeated and hence subjected to French colonial rule
      • The traditional institutions of the Mandinka were disrupted
      • The Mandinka experienced famine as most of the people were engaged in the war at the expense of serving ……….
      • Displacement of many people thereby becoming refugees in the neighbouring states
      • The war created suffering / misery among the people ready to a state of despair
      • SamoreToure was captured and deprived to Garbon
      • The Mandika economic activities were disrupted by mining trade
      • It laid down the ground for African Nationalism
      • Africans were not allowed to vote for black representation in government
      • They were prohibited from living in urban areas/ sharing facilities with whites.
      • The pass laws restricted African movement
      • They were confined into Bantustans / reserves
      • The labour laws denied them equal employment opportunities
      • Low quality education prepared then equal employment
      • The land Acts gave whites exclusive rights over land
        1 x 5 = 5mks
      • Some were arrested / detained which crippled their activities
      • Banning of political partners by the government making it difficult for the Nationalists to coordinate their activities
      • The Nationalists were not united, created tension among themselves rendering their struggle less effective
      • The government enacted / pass laws which restricted movement thus hampering their interaction
      • They lacked adequate funds to finance the struggle thus slowing down their operations
      • They lacked press freedom making it difficult for them to spread their ideas
      • They lacked advanced weapons thereby making them less effective in their armed struggle
      • They had different approaches in their struggle thus creating a loop hole which was exploited by the govt.
      • Some Nationalists were killed which led to low morale hence slowing down the movement of struggle
      • Us of divide and role policy to divide the African
        5 x 2 = 10mks


      • He was the commander in chief of the Armed Forces
      • Appointed / dismissed Saza chiefs / senior govt official
      • He was the head of traditional religion
      • He was the head of judiciary / final court of appeal
      • He awarded honours to officers who offered distinguished service / land as award.
      • They were ruled by an emperior who had absolute authority over the subjects
      • The emperors position was hereditary so as to reduce succession dispute
      • The emperor was assisted in the administration by the queen mother, the queen sister, army commander, head drummer, head door keeper or head cook.
      • There was an advisory council whose work was to advise this emperor
      • The empire was divided into provinces which were headed by provincial / lesser kings
      • The provinces were divided into chiefdoms ruled by chief
      • Under the chief were headmen who were in charge of the village
      • The empire had a stand of army where main duly was to defend/ expand the empire
      • The king /emperor was symbol of unity as he was semi divine
      • There existed priests who acted as spies for the emperor / king
        6 x 2 = 12mks
      • Human sacrifice
      • Polygamy
      • Killing of the twins
      • Watercraft
      • Female Genital mutilation.
      • Colonial secretary - London – Incharge of British colonial government
      • Governor  -           Northern Nigeria ensure effective administration the colony 
      • Resident / Provincial commissioner - province incharge of the protectorate court
      • District officer     - District Maintained law and order in the district
      • Emits       - Emirates (local arithmetic’s)
      • Collected taxes
      • Maintained law and order
      • Filed minor cases in Islamic courts
      • Paid public police and messengers                                              
      • The president
      • The vice president
      • The cabinet
      • The civil service
      • Head of state
      • Chief executive ie ensures that laws and government policies are implemented
      • initiates bills in the congress
      • keeps congress informed on international development i.e. he is the chief diplomat
      • Commander in chief of armed forces
      • He is the national voice of the people
      • He is the overall protector of peace eg he intervenes in natural disasters, raise riots and other emergencies
      • He is the head of the party that nominated him
        6 x 2 = 12mks
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