Read the passage below and then answer the questions which follow. (20 Marks)
The country’s health system could grind to a halt in the not-too – distant future due to the excessive consumption of sugar in the country. Addressing the African Food Manufacturing and Safety Summit in Nairobi last month, Mr. Bimal Shah, the director of Broadways Bakery Ltd, said the looming crisis in the healthcare system is attributable to poor food choices. “More than five per cent of 25-year-old Kenyans are developing diabetes, a life long condition that causes kidney failure, loss of limbs, comas and a range of debilitating and life-threatening complications triggered profoundly by excessive sugar consumption,” he said, quoting a World Health Organisation report on diabetes in Kenya.
According to WHO, Kenyans consume twice as much sugar as Tanzanians, and more than all other Africans, with the exception of South Africans and Swazis. Kenyans consume 60gms of sugar per day, compared to Tanzanians’ typical 23gm, 5gms for Indians, and an average of just over 15gms a day for the Chinese. “The consequences of this are feeding straight to surging diabetes and other lifestyle diseases amongst Kenyans,” Mr. Shah said.
The wrong choice of breakfast foods has resulted in the consumption of foods high in sugar and health problems, including type 2 diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure. The country’s mounting diabetes crisis is placing acute pressure on hospital services and in particular, facilities such as kidney dialysis, Mr. Shah says. By 2025, 22 million Kenyans will be between the ages of 10 and 40 years, and around 1 million of them will have diabetes, Mr. Shah said, adding that the Ministry of Health alone will not be able to cope with the onslaught of lifestyle diseases. He noted that Kenyans consume 49.5gm of sugar at breakfast alone, compared with the WHO’s recommended 50gm per day.
Poor eating habits and availability of substandard processed foods are among the major causes of lifestyle diseases in Africa, and Kenya, in particular. Despite growing public pronouncements and awareness that the intake of too much sugar in the country is on the rise, Mr. Shah said.
“As diets shift towards manufactured and processed foods, we have a responsibility as an industry, to start addressing the excessive sugar content in some of our foods and beverages,” he said while launching the “be sugar smart” campaign, which is aimed at raising awareness on sugar consumption across Kenya. Kenya’s processed foods manufacturing recorded a six percent growth in 2015. This is predicted to rise to 6.6 per cent in 2016, and to 7 percent in 2017, according to the Kenya Economic Update 2015.
As a result, sugar consumption in the country will continue to increase in demand and the growth of industrial and food service sectors in Kenya. “Therefore, manufacturers of processed foods should be urged to become more health conscious, and work towards producing healthier foods with low sugar, fat and cholesterol content,” said Mr. Shah. “Bad foods are bringing on a health disaster in our nation. It is an issue that food producers need to act on. Consumers need to wake up too, parents need to understand, and we all need to play a part in preventing their consumption,” he added “Sugar is not bad if it is consumed in moderation. However, when Kenyans shift to excessively high-sugar diets, the price is paid by many in hospitalization and long-term health issues. The key is to be vigilant and check labels where applicable, as well as enquire from manufacturers if there is uncertainty,” Mr. Devan Shah, the Business Development Executive at Broadway Bakery Ltd, said.
- What is likely to cause the health system to come to a halt? (2 marks)
- Make notes on the consequences of developing diabetes. (4 marks)
- Identify the result of having too many diabetics in the country. (2 marks)
- What seems to be causing the crisis in the health care system? (2 marks)
- In which way can manufacturers of food help combat the crisis discussed here? (2 marks)
- Lifestyle diseases are likely to be a headache in the future. Explain. (3 marks)
- “Kenyans consume 60gms of sugar per day.” Rewrite the sentence replacing the underlined word with a phrasal verb. (1 mark)
- Give the meaning of these words as used in the passage. (4 marks)
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. (25 Marks)
Nora: I have waited so patiently for eight years; for goodness know, I knew very well that wonderful things don’t happen every day. Then this horrible misfortune came upon me; and then I felt quite certain that the wonderful thing was going to happen at last. When Krogstad’s letter was lying out there, never for a moment did I imagine that you would consent to accept this man’s conditions. I was so absolutely certain that you would say to him: Publish the thing to the whole world. And when that was done —
Helmer: Yes, what then? — when I had exposed my wife to shame and disgrace?
Nora: When that was done, I was so absolutely certain, you would come forward and take everything upon yourself, and say: I am the guilty one.
Helmer: Nora —!
Nora: You mean that I would never have accepted such a sacrifice on your part? No, of course not. But what would my assurances have been worth against yours? That was the wonderful thing which I hoped for and feared; and it was to prevent that that I wanted to kill myself.
Helmer: I would gladly work night and day for you, Nora — bear sorrow and want for your sake. But no man would sacrifice his honour for the one he loves.
Nora: It is a thing hundreds of thousands of women have done.
Helmer: Oh, you think and talk like a heedless child.
Nora: Maybe. But you neither think nor talk like the man I could bind myself to. As soon as your fear was over — and it was not fear for what threatened me, but for what might happen to you —when the whole thing was past, as far as you were concerned it was as if nothing at all had happened. Exactly as before, I was your little skylark, your doll, which you would in future treat with doubly gentle care, because it was so brittle and fragile. (getting up) Torvald — it was then it dawned upon me that for eight years I had been living here with a strange man, and had borne him three children —. Oh, I can’t bear to think of it! I could tear myself into little bits!
- What happens before this excerpt? (3 marks)
- Identify and explain two themes brought out in this excerpt. (4 marks)
- Identify any two character traits of Helmer from the excerpt. (4 marks)
- Cite any two stylistic devices and explain their effectiveness. (4 marks)
- Rewrite the following sentences as instructed. (3 marks)
- I have waited so patiently for eight years. (Begin: So…
- I am the guilty one. (Rewrite the sentence adding a question tag)
- “I could tear myself into little bits!” (write in reported speech)
- From elsewhere in the play, explain content of Krogstad’s letter that Nora is referring to.(3 marks)
- What is Nora’s attitude towards her husband Helmer as portrayed in the excerpt?(2 marks)
- What happens immediately after this excerpt? (2 marks)
Read the poem below and answer the questions that follow. (20 Marks)
THE DEATH OF MY FATHER BY Henry Indangasi
His sunken cheeks, his inward-looking eyes,
The sarcastic, scornful smile on his lips,
The unkempt, matted, grey hair,
The hard, coarse sand-paper hands,
Spoke eloquently of the life he had lived.
But I did not mourn for him.
The hammer, the saw and the plane,
These were his tools and his damnation,
His sweat was his ointment and his perfume,
He fashioned dining tables, chairs, wardrobes,
And all the wooden loves of colonial life.
No, I did not mourn for him.
He built mansions,
Huge, unwieldy, arrogant constructions;
But he squatted in a sickly mad-house,
With his children huddled stuntedly
Under the bed-bug bed he shared with mother.
I could not mourn for him.
I had already inherited
His premature old-age look,
I had imbibed his frustration;
But his dreams of freedom and happiness
Had become my song, my love.
So, I could not mourn for him.
No, I did not shed any tears;
My father’s dead life still lives in me,
He lives in my son,
I am my father and my son,
I will awaken his sleepy hopes and yearnings,
But I will not mourn for him,
I will not mourn for me.
- What kind of life had the persona’s father lived? (3 marks)
- Pick out and explain two examples of personification used in the poem. (4 marks)
- Explain the contrast in second and third stanza. (3 marks)
- Cite one other stylistic device used in the poem and explain its usefulness. (2 marks)
- Explain the meaning of the last two lines of the poem in relation to the rest of the poem. (3 marks)
- Briefly discuss the tone of this poem. (2 marks)
- Explain the meaning of the following phrase/lines as used in the poem.
- Bed-bug bed (1 mark)
- I had already inherited his premature old-age look (1 mark)
GRAMMAR (15 Marks)
Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given after each.(4 marks)
- It was difficult but we completed the task. (Begin: Difficult …)
- He said that he had not insulted me. (Use: ‘denied’)
- I will not at any cost support your evil plans. (Begin: At no cost…)
- She is renovating her house so that she may sell it. (Rewrite using ‘with a view’)
Fill in each blank space with the appropriate word. (2 marks)
- I stopped the child from chewing a ____________ of grass.
- The doctor told her to take ___________ of medicine according to the prescription.
Fill in the blank spaces with the correct form of the word in brackets. (3 marks)
- A nurse ought to be _____________ (respond) to the needs of the patient.
- The substance will _____________ (solid) if exposed to cold air for a few minutes.
- Such negative _______________ (utter) may put you in serious trouble.
Complete the following sentences with the most appropriate preposition. (3 marks)
- I am vexed ___________ her for stealing my books.
- “I differ ___________ you on this matter.”
- My parents will be disappointed ____________ me if I don’t go home now.
Fill in the gaps with phrasal verbs that start with the words in brackets to convey the same meaning. (3 marks)
- The rude boy ___________ (cut) his parents discussion.
- He _____________ (take) the forest when the police came to arrest him.
- The soldiers think they are about to make a ________________(break) in search for the organizers of Bungoma killings.
- Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given after each.(4 marks)
Question 1 passage
- The health system is likely to come to a halt because of a sharp increase in the number of diabetics in the country. 2mks
- Consequences of diabetes include:
- Kidney failure
- Loss of limbs
- A range of debilitating and life-threatening complications
4 points each 1 mark= 4 marks. Must be in point form if not; deduct ½ a mark from total. No penalty for faulty expression.
- The result of having to many diabetics in the country is that it places too much pressure on hospital services and in particular, facilities such as kidney dialysis.
- What seems to be causing the crisis in the healthcare system is poor food choices. 2mk
- Manufacturers of food can help combat the crisis discussed here through becoming more health conscious and working towards producing healthier foods with low sugar, fat and cholesterol content. 2mks
- Lifestyle diseases are likely to be a headache in future because: despite growing public pronouncements and awareness that the consumption of excess sugar is bad for health, the availability of manufactured products containing high level of sugar in the country is on the rise. 3mks
- Kenyans eat up 60gms of sugar per day.
- Excessive – too much of something
- Surging – increasing suddenly
- Obesity – the fact of being very fat in a way that is not healthy
- Shift – change slightly 4mks
Question 2 excerpt: A Doll’s House
- Nora declares that she no longer loved Helmer. She also declares that she will not stay there any longer. What had happened that night had made her realise that Helmer was not the man she thought he was. `3mks
- Sacrifice/selflessness – hundreds of thousands of women sacrifice. Nora wanted to kill herself so as to exonerate her husband from blame should the fraud she committed be exposed.
Gender inequality – women are considered not intelligent enough i.e. think like a child. Women are considered fragile, they are treated like a doll, a play thing for amusement. They are treated like children i.e. you think like a heedless child.
Disappointment – Nora is disappointed that her husband Helmer whom she had always believed would take up the blame on her behalf with regards to the case of fraud, confesses that he can’t sacrifice his honour for the one he loves.
(any 2X2=4 Marks)
- He is selfish – he could not sacrifice his honour for the one he loves. He only feared for what might happen to him and not what threatened Nora.
He is fearful – he is afraid of what might happen to him when Nora’s case of fraud got exposed.
- Use of simile – “Oh, you think and talk like a heedless child.” Effect: the perception of Helmer towards Nora is that her level of intelligence is comparable to a child’s.
Use of metaphor – skylark, a doll. Effect: this insinuates that Nora is like a doll, an object of amusement for Helmer.
(any 2X2=4 Marks)
- So patiently have I waited for eight years.
- I am the guilty one, aren’t I?
- Nora exclaimed that she could have torn herself into little bits.
Nora had forged her father’s signature on the bond so that she could get a loan from Krogstad. This was considered a fraud and she could be charged in a court of law. 3mks
- Contemptuous/scornful – she tells Helmer that he neither thinks nor talks like the man she could bind herself to.
Critical – she criticizes his selfishness and disloyalty. He could not sacrifice his honour for the one he loves. 2mks
- Helmer persuades Nora to reconsider her decision to divorce him, but Nora reiterates that that was imminent. 2mks
Question 3 oral literature
- A hard-frustrating life √1 of dire poverty and need √1 his hands are rough like sandpaper and he lives in a “sickly” mud house √1
- Hands spoke eloquently. √1 hands are said to speak like people √1
- Arrogant constructions. √1 The constructions are said to be arrogant like a person√1
- Sickly mud-house. √1 the mud-house is said to be sick like a human being √1
- Sleepy hopes and yearnings. √1 hopes and yearnings are said to be sleepy like a person. √1
(any 2: example √1 and explanation √1)
- The sharp contrast between wealth and comfort. √1 the persona’s father worked so hard to produce for the colonialists √1 and the abject poverty he lived in with his family. √1
- Repetition of the idea of not mourning the father. Helps show how alive the father’s hope ands dreams are still alive, that his dreams are not dead.
Metaphor – sand paper hands. Shows how rough/coarse the hands were suggesting that carpentry work was very difficult.
Alliteration – bed-bug bed -gives the poem/stanza a musical quality.
(Any one device √1 effect √1)
- The persona did not and could not mourn the father because he feels that there is hope √1 of improving the circumstances that they all live in, just as the father had kept all those hopes live. √1 Mourning him would be like giving up√1, resigning himself and posterity to fate. 3mks
- Solemn √1but/optimistic: the persona feels that there is hope in the future, that’s why he feels no need to mourn. √1
- Bed-bug bed – the bed was infested by parasites√1 I had already inherited his premature old-age look – the speaker’s father and himself had acquired looks of old age long before they were that old. √1
Question 4: Grammar 15mks
- Difficult as it was, we completed the task. or
Difficult though it was, we completed the task.
- He denied having insulted me. or
He denied he had insulted me.
- At no cost will I support your evil plans.
She is renovating her house with a view to selling it.
- Difficult as it was, we completed the task. or
- Cut in
- Took to
- Break through