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    1. Outline the basic principles of Islamic morality        (6 marks)
    2. Suggest ways that can help curb betting among the youth in the society (7 marks)
    3. Give reasons why Muslims advocate for abstinence in the prevention of HIV/AID (7 marks)
    1. Discuss the circumstances under which a woman can seek for divorce            (6 marks)
    2. Explain the significance of Wasiyyah (will)       (6 marks)
    3. Discuss the causes of increased domestic violence in the society        (8 marks)
    1. Discuss the rationale behind the prophet’s polygamous marriage      (6 marks)
    2. Give the reasons why the family is considered the foundation of the Islamic society   (6 marks)
    3. State the conditions necessary for contracts and agreements to be valid in Islam   (8 marks)
    1. Describe FIVE lessons Muslim youth can learn from the battle of khandaq             (10 marks)
    2. Discuss the effects of Islamic culture on the Kenyan society         (5 marks)
    3.  Explain the reasons that led to the downfall of the Fatimid Dynasty         (5 marks)
    1. State the reforms introduced by Khalifa Umar bin Abdulaziz of the Umayyad Dynasty (7marks)  
    2. Discuss the challenges faced by Muslims in the spreading of Islam in Kenya       (7 marks)
    3. Highlight the reforms introduced by khalifah Umar binul Khatwab in the Muslim army          (6marks)
    1. Outline the objectives of the Muslim brotherhood (Ikhwanul Muslimin) established by      Hassan Al Banna in Egypt              (6 marks)
    2. Discuss the achievements of Sheikh Abdullahi Swaleh Al Farsy (7 marks)
    3. Explain the various contributions made by Muslim scholars in Science (7 marks)


    1. Basic principles of Islamic morality
      Fear of Allah                                                                                                                                                                 
      Belief in Allah                                                                                                                                                     
      Obedience to Islamic teachings based on the Quran and sunnah                                                                                                           
      Avoidance of all the the Islamic prohibitions                                                                                                                                   
      Fulfillment of prescriptions vi) guarding against commiting sins                                                                                           
      Avoiding going against the teachings of islam                                                                                                 
      Seeking for forgiveness all the times
      (6 X 1 = 6 marks)
    2. Ways in which can help curb betting among the youth in the Muslim society
      Creating awareness on the evil of betting through mass media e.g tv, radio or internet                                                       
      Muslims should follow the Islamic teachings on the acquisition and proper use of wealth                                                                                               
      Creating job opportunities among the youth                                 
      Proper utilization of time                                                                                                 
      Establishment of Islamically acceptable projects for generating money                                                                 
      Appealing to the authorities to ban betting and the venues where it takes place                     
      Establishment of recreational facilities for the youth                                                                                             
      Organizing workshops and seminars for experts to strategize on the best way forward of fighting betting                   
      Parents to ensure that the youth are occupied in meaningful activities while at home                                                                                       
      Parents should play their role on training their children on Islamic teachings
      (7 x 1 = 7 marks)
    3. Reasons why Muslims advocate for abstinence in the prevention of HIV/AIDS
      Abstinence gives protection not only against HIV/AIDS but also other evils like drug abuse                                                             
      Abstinence is keeping in touch with the teachings of the prophet                                                 
      Abstinence instills self-discipline and responsibility to Muslims                                                                       
      Abstinence was the practice of the prophets and their companions                                                 
      Abstinence is a quality of being pious                                                                                                                   
      Abstinence is abiding by the teachings of the Qur’an                                                                                         
      Islam does not allow the use of condoms because it leads to high rate of immorality                                                                                                                                          Islam asks its followers to remain pure before and after marriage                                                                     
      It reduces the rate of infection especially by those who are already infected
      (7 x 1 = 7 marks)
    1. Circumstances under which a woman can seek for a divorce
      Failure of the husband to provide for her necessary needs e.g maintenance/housing                                                                                                                               
      When the husband is unable to satisfy her sexually desires                                                     
      When he denounces the Islamic faith and converts to another faith                                       
      When both were non believers and she accepts islam                                                             
      Madness of the husband                                                                                                                       
      When the husband suffers from a serious disease like HIV/AIDS                                                |
      Importence of the husband                                                                                                     
      If the whereabouts of the husband is not known
      (6 x 1 = 6 marks)
    2. Significance of wasiyyah
      It gives the testator the opportunity to help someone who is not entitled to inheritance                                                                       
      It helps in clarifying the nature of joint account                                                                                               
      Helps to avoid conflicts and disputes among members of the family regarding the inheritance                                                                                                                                                                       
      It enables the muslims to contribute to charitable purposes                                                                                                         
      Muslims fulfill the commandment of Allah by writing the wasiyyah                                                                                           
      It gives one piece of mind knowing that their wishes will be carried out after their death                                                                                       
      It earns one a reward                                                                                                   
      It prevents injustice in ensuring that no under deserving people inherit from the deceased (6 x 1 = 6 marks)
    3. Causes of increased domestic violence in the society
      Drug and substance abuse by one or both spouses eg. miraa,alcohol etc
      forced marriages whereby one or both couples are forced in marriage courtship against their wish
      infidelity unfaithfulness lead to misunderstanding and loss of trust between spouses eventually leading to violence
      lack of religious back ground in which marriage values, spouses rites and ways solving misunderstandings are taught.
      western culture influence on the rights of women that negatively influence women to be independent and opt for single parenting
      social differences i.e race,class,occupation,tribe these differences influence violence against couples      
      (4 x 2 = 8 marks)
    1. Discuss the rationale behind the prophet’s polygamous marriage
      To forge political alliance with prominent tribes and clans as a way of strengthening his prophetic mission
      Social rehabilitation of widows whose husbands died in battles
      To give parental care and guidance to orphans
      To abolish certain retrogressive traditions and replace with human ones e.g Maryam bint jahsh
      To demonstrate that islam permits inter-religious marriages with people who are monotheistic e,g swafiyah bint huyay and maria the Coptic
      As a way of destroying or removing social classes and barriers e.g Khadijah bint khuwaylid
      To teach practically that islam allows plural marriages in line with the traditions of most prophet
      Because allah granted him special permission to marry more than four wives
      As a gesture not to disappoint women who offered themselves to the prophet
      (6 x 1 = 6 marks)
    2. Reasons why family is considered as a foundation of the Islamic society
      It serves as a strong foundation of child nursing of the society
      It provides the stable environment for love comfort and mutual compassion for a healthy Islamic education of the child
      Marriage is a shield for decency and value
      It ensures cooperation of the couple in the establishment of islam in themselves their home and childre
      It provides the wife with an opportunity to fulfill her duty of motherhood child upbringing household and chores
      It expresses a legal matrimonial bond to be proclaimed in the name of allah
      The husband is responsible for the livelihood-earning and subsistence of his wife.  
      (6 x 1 = 6 marks)
    3. Conditions an Agreement has to fulfill for it to be binding.
      The agreement must be mutual.
      Term and conditions must be clear/ should have no ambiguity.
      Must be done with god intensions.
      Should be flexible.
      All conditions of the agreements must be in conformity with Islam.
      It must be written (if possible).
      It should be on permissible things/ items.
      It must have witnesses.
      Must be binding to both parties.
      Must be contracted by mature and sound adults.
      The two parties should clearly understand the terms of the agreement and its legal implications.
      (8 x 1= 8 marks)
    1. Lessons muslim youth can learn from the battle of khandaq
      victory comes from allah regardless of the number and material strength of the enemies
      reliance in allah must be preceded by the necessary human efforts in preparation
      there is no harm for a muslim leader to accept wise counsel from among the rest of the muslims
      leadership demands that the leader must lead from the front
      muslim affairs require that they decided through mutual consultation
      seeking the pleasure of allah should be the top most motivating factor in anything a Muslim undertakes
      the leader should motivate his followers using different approaches in the process of accomplishing a task
      matters reported to a leader must be investigated first before further action can be taken
      taking necessary precaution by a leader to minimize loss or injury
      (5 x 2 = 10 marks)
    2. Influence of Muslims Culture on the Kenya Society.
      Language – Kiswahili (mixture of Arabic and Kenyan languages) is the national language of Kenya. It is spoken in every part of Kenya. Arabic or
      Kiswahili loan words have their way in every language. (Including English) and dialect spoken in Kenya.
      A big population of Kenya is made up of Muslims who continue to make Reverts/converts. This means that Muslims are found in every city and town in Kenya and even in the rural areas where they continue to influence the way people live and behave.
      Food and methods of cooking e.g. Pilau, Biriani, Kaimati, Mahamri, use of spices in cooking.
      Etiquettes – manner, behavior, speech.
      Dress – mode of dress, buibui, kangas, kanzu.
      Architecture and design – design of house and use of building materials and way of building.
      Education- Madrassa, school and colleges built and run by Muslims, Muslims history.
      Tourism – attract tourists to come and see historical sites built by Muslims teaching of Muslim culture and celebrations e.g. Maulid.
      Urbanization – coastal urban centres founded and built by Muslims and mostly inhabited by Muslims, their contribution in developing other urban centres in North Eastern and other areas.
      Intermarriages – intermarriages with other people continues to spread Islam. Islamic culture and influence to more areas.
      Politics – Muslim have always been involved in the Kenyan politics as elected members of Parliament, Ministers and Assistance Ministers, elected councilors and Mayors leaders and members of the trade union movement, have been involved in the struggle for independence, for human rights and democracy.
      Public service – working as civil servants, in judiciary.
      In Commerce and Industry – involved in manufacturing as factory owners or workers, as business owners or employers and in other sectors such as Matatu, business, import and export etc. (5 x 1 = 5 marks)
    3. Reason that led to the downfall of the fatimid dynasty
      Vastness of the empire made it difficult to administer law and order this created division which led to the downfall.
      Khalifa Al-Qaim sold government offices to the highest bidders’ thus encouraging corruption in the administration.
      Khalifa Al-Qaim used the oppression policy which resulted in revolts and this contributed to the Fatimid’s.
      Disunity between Sunnis and Shia contributed to the weakening of the Fatimid’s.
      Khalifa Al-Hakim was not tolerant towards other religions, he enforced Christians and Jews to convert to Islam hence creating discontentment.
      Khalifa Al-Qaim enforced the Ismail doctrines on everyone, and increased taxes this created discontentment.
      Al-Hakim introduced very strict measures e.g. he suppressed women, banned alcohol and gambling and this made him unpopular especially among the Christian and Jews.
      Khalifa Al-Hakim took pleasure in killing and torturing people and this led to the rise of the crusaders who campaigned against the Fatimid rule.
      Turkish slaves kept as body guards by the Fatimid’s rulers gained power and overthrew the Fatimid’s.
      Khalifa Al-Aziz patronized the Christians and Jews e.g. allowed them freedom of religion and gave them high offices, this made him unpopular among the orthodox Sunni who lost faith in the Fatimid rule.
      Some rulers were weak and immature e.g. Al-Hakim hence could not control the empire effectively.
      (5 x 1 = 5 marks)
    1. Reforms introduced by khalifa Umar bin Abdulaziz of the Umayyad Dynasty
      Gave equal civil status to the mawalii and exempted them from paying Kharaj (land taxi) and this led to more people converting to Islam.
      He forbade forceful circumcision e.g. forbade the Khorasan governor in to forcing converts to get circumcised.
      Tolerant towards non-Muslims e.g. he reduced taxes for the Christians of Najran also once a Muslim killed a non-Muslim and he ordered that the Muslim be killed.
      Gave equal civil status to the mawalii and exempted them from paying Kharaj (land taxi) and this led to more people converting to Islam.
      He forbade forceful circumcision e.g. forbade the Khorasan governor in to forcing converts to get circumcised.
      Tolerant towards non-Muslims e.g. he reduced taxes for the Christians of Najran also once a Muslim killed a non-Muslim and he ordered that the Muslim be killed.
      He forbade the sale of land by non-Muslims to Muslims because the Muslims did not pay Kharaj.
      He improved the status of the Alids e.g. he restored the privileges which they enjoyed during the time of the glorious caliphate.
      He banned the cursing of Ali (R.A) and his descendants during Friday khutba.
      He appointed official on merit and piety. He instructed his governors to be
      He was strict in administration and took strict measures against dishonest governors and officials e.g. Yazid Ibn Muhallab was imprisoned for misappropriating funds of war.
      Jails were reformed; jailers and warders were strictly ordered not to misbehave with prisoner. Prisoners were given monthly allowances, clothing and education inorder to make them useful people in the society.
      Expended the empire through peaceful on quest, stopped all military expeditions there was no rebellion or war during his rule, the Shia and Kharijites were happy with his rule.
      Improvement in education where a number of books were translated into Arabic e.g. Masal ju..ari who was a Jew from Hasrah translated medical Syrian books into Arabic.
      Eradicated poverty within two years and three months of his rule such that people would walk around with their zakat looking for people to give.
      He took legal measures to check the tendency of purchasing land in cities, he restored land which was grabbed to its original owners.
      (5 x 1 = 5 marks)
    2. Challenges faced by Muslims in the spreading of Islam in Kenya
      The Muslim presence remained mainly along the coastal strip and on the Indian Ocean islands as they could not venture into the mainland for fear of hostile people and other unknown factors.
      During the nineteenth century European nations e.g. British, French, Germans and the Dutch started showing interest on the coastal of East Africa and this posed a threat to the Muslim possessions along the Kenya coast.
      During the nineteenth century European Christian missionaries started their evangelization of the Kenyan people spearheaded by the CMS, UMFC and the Holy Ghost Fathers. The Christian missionary activities posed a threat to the spread of Islam.
      The Europeans regarded Muslims with suspicion and mistrust as they only saw them in terms of slavery and slave trade a fact that made determined to check further Muslim influence among the Kenyan people.
      There was disunity among Muslims rulers. They would not encounter/ countercheck the external interference as a united front.]\
      The weakening of the Ottoman Empire affected what was happening in the Muslim world including the coast of Kenya.
      The signing of treaties between the European powers (especially Britain) and the Muslim rulers undermined the Muslim power and trade.
      The inability of Muslims to take Islam to the interior of Kenya accorded the Christian missionaries the Opportunity to take Christianity to the interior without hindrances.
      The scramble for Africa leading to the Berlin Conference and partition of Africa brought Kenya under the British rule. That meant Muslims lost their political economic and social control of their possessions.
      Colonization by the British meant that the Muslims lost their independence which they had enjoyed for centuries (with the exception of the period of the Portuguese occupation).
      With colonization and building of the Uganda railway, came the influx of European Christian missionaries into Kenya who started evangelization at a great speed undermining the spread of Islam.
      (7 x 1 = 7 marks)
    3. reforms introduced by khalifah Umar binul Khatwab in the Muslim army
      he established a regular way of army and encouraged people to join the army.
      he paid the soldiers good salaries
      he gave spindends to the families of the soldiers
      he established garrisons in town
      he allowed non muslims to participate in the army force
      he did not allow the soldiers to be away from their families for more than six months
      he introduced pension to the muslims who participated in the battles
      he organized training for the army eg swimming
      (6 x 1 = 6 marks)
    1. Objectives of the muslim brotherhood (ikhwanul Muslimin) established by Hassan Al Bannah in Egypt.
      promoting education for all by establishing learning institutions such as schools vocational training and other academic centres
      reviving Islamic traditions such as Suffism
      to reform the political situation in the arab world by imparting new ideas in order to create new governance based on Quran and Hadith
      to establish recreational facilities where sporting events were conducted to promote physical fitnes
      to improve and establish social institutions like hospitals mosques clinics and dispensaries
      to improve the economic of the society by establishing centres to train trading skills to the members of the society
      (6 x 1 = 6 marks)
    2. Contribution of Sheikh Abdullah Swaleh Farsy to the Growth of Islam in East Africa.
      He was an educationist, worked as a Senior Kadhi in Zanzibar (1960 – 1967) and as Chief Kadhi in Kenya (1968- 1982) and during his years of service he promoted Muslim unity through his excellent leadership and arbitration skills.
      He authored over 25 books through which Muslims knowledge of Islam was enriched.
      He translated the Quran into Kiswahili making it possible for non-Arabic speakers to read the Quran.
      His spiritual leadership and decrees were accepted by all Muslims who also respected his authority to interpret Islam.
      He firmly stood for the interest of the Muslims especially their right to education.
      He advocated for separate Muslims schools and for government aid in running them and for the provision of Muslim teachers paid by the Government in public schools.
      He advocated for equity in education. He challenged the government to raise the standard of Muslim education to the level of other community’s education.
      He called for the combination of secular education and Muslim studies in Muslim schools.
      He called on the government to start the teaching of Islamic Religious Education in schools.
      Contributed in the establishment of Madrassa system in East Africa.
      He gave lectures and organized seminars in mosques to educate the Muslims youth. Many young people flocked to his lectures.
      He stood for the pure Islam/ purity of Islam and revival of proper understanding of Islam.
      He was committed to reforming the society through education and by getting rid of outdated cultural practices among Muslims. (7 x 1 = 7 marks)
    3. Various contributions made by Muslim scholars in science.
      The Prophet (p.b.u.h) laid the foundation to the development of science by encouraging Muslims to learn e.g. he taught Muslims on facts about science e.g. he said “the abdomen is the source of all ailments”
      Muslims scholars excelled in chemistry and laid foundations e.g. Jabir Ibn Hayyan (803 CE) is regarded as the father of Chemistry.
      Ibn Sina wrote 246 books in different science e.g. Canons of medicine which was a chief guide for medical colleges in the west from the 12th to 17th century, he discovered TB, meningitis and close to 760 drugs.
      In ophthalmology, Hunain Ibn Ishaq, the head of the famous school of translator founded by Khalif Maamum wrote the first systematic book on ophthalmology.
      In the filed of medicine Al-Razi wrote over 200 books on medicine. He was a physician and a scientist.
      Al-Zahrawi was a famous surgeon who treated patients and taught students from the Muslims world and Europe. His book ‘medical encyclopedia contained 30 sections of surgical knowledge and illustration of 200 surgical instruments; the encyclopedia was used as a standard textbook on surgery in Europe; he was the first to use silk thread in stitching wounds.
      In pharmacy al-Idrisi collected plants and data not reported before him from which a large number of drugs became available to medical practitioners.
      Ibn Al-Baitar was one of the greatest scientists and botanist, he went on mainly expeditions to African and Asia to collect plants, and his book is one of the greatest botanical compilations dealing with medical plant.
      Al-Khuwarizmi was the first great Muslim mathematician who invented algebra which was further developed by other Muslim scholars like Umar-al-Hayyam.
      Al-Batani is considered one of the greatest astronomers of Islam; he discovered the accurate determination of the solar year as 365 days, 5 hours 46 minutes and 24 second as which is very close to modern estimates.
      In the field of philosophy al-kindi is considered as the first philosopher in Islam.
      In geography Ibn Majid invented the compass to determine directions which is in use up to now.
      In geology Al-Bairuni was the first known writer t identify the formation of sedimentary rocks and the great geological changes that happened in the past.
      (7 x 1 = 7 marks)


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