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SECTION A (30 Marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. State four ways of controlling tsetse flies. (2mks)
  2. Name four breeds of dairy goats. (2mks)
  3. Give four characteristics of a good vaccine. (2mks)
  4. State four advantages of outbreeding in livestock production. (2mks)
  5. Give four factors that affect the quality of honey. (2mks)
  6. Outline three functions of calcium in the body of a dairy cow. (1 ½ mks)
  7. List four cattle diseases caused by virus. (2mks)
  8. State the function of each of the following.
    1. Plumb bob ( ½ mk)
    2. Drenching gun ( ½ mk)
    3. Garden trowel ( ½ mk)
    4. Pipe wrench ( ½ mk)
  9. State two reasons for seasoning timber before use. (1mk)
  10. State four reasons for culling a breeding boar. (2mks)
  11. State four uses of lubrication system in a tractor. (2mks)
  12. Give four observations on the behavior of chicks which would indicate that the temperature in the brooder is too high. (2mks)
  13. State four ways of stimulating milk let – down in a dairy cow. (2mks)
  14. State four measures that should be taken to control brucellosis in cattle. (2mks)
  15. Give four conditions that would encourage hens to eat eggs in poultry production. (2mks)
  16. State four advantages of a hedge fence in a farm. (2mks)

SECTION B ( 20 Marks)

Answer all questions in the spaces provided

  1. Study the diagram below and answer questions the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the implement illustrated in the diagram. (1mk)
    2. What is the method of power transmission for operating implements? (1mk)
    3. State the use of the implement. (1mk)
    4. Give two maintenance practices for implement A. (2mks)
  2. Below is a diagram of a rabbit hutch. Use the diagram to answer the questions that follow.
    1. How should the materials used for constructing parts Q and S be treated to last long? (2mks)
    2. Name the appropriate tools that should be used to cut the materials for constructing parts Q. (1mk)
    3. Give two reasons for raising the rabbit hutch above the ground level. (1mk)
  3. Below is an illustration of an internal parasite in livestock

    1. Identify the parasite. (1mk)
    2. Name one final host for the parasite. (1mk)
    3. Name the intermediate host for the parasite. (1mk)
    4. State two control measures of the parasite. (2mks)
  4. The illustration below represents the digestive system of poultry. Study the illustration carefully and answer questions that follow.
    1. Name the parts labeled E , F and G.
    2. State two ways in which the part labeled G is adapted to its function. (2mks)

SECTION C (40 Marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided.

    1. Name the strokes in a four stroke cycle engine and describe how each operates. (12mks)
    2. Describe four physical characteristics that a poultry farmer would use to identify poor layers from a flock of hens. (8mks)
    1. Describe the disease milk fever under the following sub headings:
      1. Animals affected (2mks)
      2. Symptoms (5mks)
      3. Control measures (3mks)
    2. Describe five calf management practices carried out immediately after parturition. (5mks)
    3. Outline five qualities of eggs for marketing. (5mks)
    1. State and explain five harmful effects of parasites in livestock. (10mks)
    2. Describe any five parts and functions of a Zero grazing unit. (10mks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Spraying with appropriate insecticides at the breeding places;
    • Clearing the vegetation/ breeding grounds
    • Use of impregnated nets
    • Sterilizing the male tsetse flies.     (4 x ½ = 2mks)
  2. Dairy goats
    • Toggenburg
    • British alpine
    • Saanen
    • Anglo – Nubian
    • Jamnapari (4 x ½ = 2mks)
  3. Characteristics of a good vaccine;
    • Easy to administer
    • Do not react with other vaccines administered to the animal
    • Do not have side effects on the animal
    • Produce long lifelong immunity
    • Have a long shelf life. (4 x ½ = 2mks)
  4. Advantages of outbreeding;
    • The offspring acquire hybrid vigour or heterosis, which helps to improve the performance of less productive breeds
    • Characteristics of the pure breeds are maintained
    • The system can be used to upgrade native breeds for increased milk and meat production.
    • It is cheaper compared to buying pure breeds   ( 4 x ½ = 2mks)
  5. Factors that affect the quality of honey;
    • The presence of impurities
    • Source of nectar/food type/ the type of plants from which nectar was collected
    • Stage of ripening
    • The method of extraction
    • The season of the year      ( 4 x ½ = 2mks)
  6. Functions of calcium;
    • A component of milk
    • Formation of the skeleton and teeth
    • Blood clotting
    • Nerve functioning/ control milk fever.   (3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks)
  7. Four cattle diseases caused by virus;
    • Rinderpest
    • Foot and mouth disease
    • Mad cow disease.     ( 4 x ½ = 2mks)
  8. Functions of the following farm tools and equipment;
    • Used for checking the verticalness of the building.     ( ½ mk)
    • Used to administer liquate drugs in to the back mouth of an animal.  ( ½ mk)
    • Used for scooping or lifting seedlings; loosening soil in the nursery bed.     ( ½ mk)
    • Pipe wrench is used in holding, tightening and loosening metal pipes and fittings.   ( ½ mk)
  9. Reasons for seasoning timber;
    • To make it resistant to insect attack
    • To avoid warping
    • To make resistant to weather conditions
    • To avoid fungal attack ( 2 x ½ = 1mk)
  10. Reasons for culling a breeding boar;
    • To control inbreeding
    • To prevent/ control diseases
    • Due to old age
    • Due to deformities
    • Because of injury
    • Due to bad temperament
    • Loss of libido ( 4 x ½ = 2 mks)
  11. Uses of lubrication system in a tractor;
    • Reduce friction between moving parts
    • Reduces heat produced by rubbing surfaces/cooling effect
    • Acts as cleaning agent
    • Prevents rust ( 3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks)
  12. Behaviour of chicks which would indicate the temperature of brooder is too high;
    • Chicks move away from the source of heat
    • Parting/ opening beaks
    • Opening wings/spreading wings
    • Making abnormal noise drinking water excessively
    • Chicks may lie flat on their bellies.       ( 4 x ½ = 2mks)
  13. Ways of stimulating milk – let down in a dairy cow;
    • Washing the udder with warm water
    • Allow the calf to suck for a while
    • Feeding the cow with dairy meal during milking
    • Production of sound associated with milking
    • Regular milking time
    • Massaging the udder when washing it.    ( 4 x ½ = 2mks)
  14. Preventive measures of brucellosis in cattle;
    • Use of artificial insemination
    • Cull infected animals
    • Vaccinate all young animals
    • Avoid direct contact with aborted foetus/after birth
    • Observe hygiene/proper disposal of aborted foetus.    ( 4 x ½ = 2mks)
  15. Conditions that would encourage hens to eat eggs;
    • Calcium deficiency in the birds’ body
    • Bright light in the laying nests
    • Birds laying on the floor
    • Presence of broken, soft shelled eggs
    • Prolonged stay of eggs in the laying boxes
    • Idleness of birds
    • Inadequate feeding     ( 4 x ½ = 2mks)
  16. Advantages of hedge fence;
    • Source of firewood
    • Source of fodder/mulch
    • Act as wind breaker
    • Control soil erosion
    • Adds beauty to the farm
    • Provides security/ privacy/block intruders
    • Mark farm boundaries   (4 x ½ = 2mks)

SECTION B (20 Marks)

    1. Liver fluke                           (1mk)
    2. Cattle/Sheep                       (1mk)
    3. Fresh water snail               (1mk)
    4. - Control the intermediate host/fresh water snail                   
      - Draining swampy areas/leveling any depression that may hold water in the pasture
      -Burning of the pastures during the dry season.
      - Not grazing animals near marshy/water – logged areas.
      - Routine drenching of the animals. ( 2 x 1 = 2mks)
    1. The parts labeled E , F , and G.
       E – Crop      (1mk)
       F – Proventriculous    (1mk)
      G – Gizzard   (1mk)
    2. Ways in which the part labeled G is adapted to its function;
      - It is equipped with tough muscles on each side. The sliding movements of these muscles cause the crushing and grinding of food particles.
      - Presence of grit/ sand stones aid in crushing and grinding of food. (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  3.  Implement;
    1. Reciprocating mower  (1mk)
    2. The power take off shaft (PTO shaft)   (1mk)
    3. For harvesting forage crop , Cutting vegetation when clearing the field.   (1mk)
      • Check loose nuts and bolts and tighten where necessary.
      • Keep knife section sharp
      • Lubricate the knife parts
      • Check knife to ledger plate cups for best cutting
      • Keep all the parts tight.    (2 x 1 = 2mks)
    1. How the materials for constructing part Q and S be treated;
      • Q – Painted to avoid rust.   (1mk)
      • S - Smearing with old engine oil, applying insecticide, Charing,

SECTION C (40 Marks)

    1. The strokes of a four stroke cycle engine;
      • Induction stroke;

        The piston is moved down the cylinder causing the inlet valve to open drawing in fresh supply of petrol vapour and air into the cylinder.   (3mks)

      • Compression stroke

        Both the inlet valve and outlet valve are closed, piston moves up the cylinder and the fuel – air mixture is compressed.  (3mks)

      • Power stroke

        -A spark is produced at a spark plug, igniting the fuel –air mixture.

        The increased pressure forces the piston down the cylinder. (3 mks)

      • Exhaust stroke
        Exhaust valve opens
        Piston moves up the cylinder
        Burned fuel – air mixture expelled.  (3 mks)
    2. Physical characteristics of poor layers’
      - the comb and wattles are small or shrunken, dry, scaly, pale and cold
      - Eyes are dull and pale yellow
      - the beak is yellowish in colour
      - it has a dry and round vent
      - the abdomen is hard and sometimes full
      - it is lazy and dull
      - it moults early
      - the shanks are yellowish
      - they go broody or broodiness is common
      - it has a small space between the keel and pelvic bones that can only fit 1 – 2 fingers   ( 8 Marks)
    1. Milk fever
      1. Animals affected ; Dairy cattle, Goats, (2mks)
      2. Symptoms,
        • Newly affected animal become nervous
        • Animal staggers when walking
        • Animal lies down or collapses and cannot stand thereafter
        • The muscles twitch
        • The animal lies with the head twisted towards the body
        • If not treated, the animal gets weaker with the vital body organs failing to work and this leads to death.  ( 1 x 5 = 5mrks)
      3. Control measures’
        • Feed heavy yielding cows with minerals before and after calving
        • Inject the attacked animal with soluble calcium salt solution i.e. calcium borogluconate  ( 1 x 2 = 2 mrks)
    2. Calf management practices carried out immediately after birth;
      • Ensure the calf is breathing by removing mucus from nostrils
      • Cut the umbilical cord and disinfect it to avoid infection
      • Clean the calf of mucus if the mother doesn’t lick it
      • If the calf is not breathing perform artificial respiration.
      • Move the calf to a warm clean pen
      • Ensure the calf gets colostrum from the mother, weak calf is supported to suckle the mother.   ( 1 x 6 = 6mrks)
    3. Qualities of eggs for marketing;
      • they should be clean
      • should be large in size or arranged according to sizes
      • should have high candling qualities
      • the colour of the eggs should be brown   ( 1 x 4 = 4 mrks)
    1. Harmful effects of parasites in livestock;
      • They transmit diseases eg tickborne diseases
      • They lower production in livestock
      • They damage body organs or tissues
      • They lower quality of livestock products
      • They cause irritation and discomfort to the host
      • They cause anaemia by sucking blood from host
      • Increase cost of production when the farmer is trying to control them.
      • They feed on their host causing loss of weight and slowing growth rate
      • Internal parasites cause blockage of internal organs.   ( 1 x 10 = 10 mrks)
    2. Functions of five parts of a zero grazing unit;
      • Milking area- this the part for milking the animal
      • Calf pen – part for keeping the calf
      • Food and water area – used for feeding and watering the animals
      • Fodder chopping area – part for chopping fodder
      • Store – For storing food
      • Walking area
      • Milk recording room
      • A cubicle for the calf
      • Manure storage

           ( 1 mrk for any correct stated part and 1 mrk for well described function of the part named. ( 5 x 2 = 10 mrks)

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