Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Kassu Jet Joint Exams 2020/2021

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  • This paper consists of three sections A,B and C.
  • Answer ALL questions in Sections A and B and any TWO questions from section. ALL answers must be written in the spaces provided after every question.

SECTION A(30 Marks)

    1. Give two characteristics of intensive farming system. (1mk)
    2. State two advantages of mixed farming. (1mk)
  2. State two forms in which water is available in the soil. (1mk)
  3. Give three agents of physical weathering. (1 ½ mks)
  4. Give two ways in which mulch control the soil erosion. (1mk)
  5. State four advantages of drip irrigation. (2mks)
  6. Give two benefits of adding organic manure to sandy soil. (1mk)
  7. Give four advantages of using grafting as a method of improving avocado fruits. (2mks)
  8. Give four reasons for using certified seeds for planting. (2mks)
  9. List three methods used to control weeds in pastures. (1 ½ mks)
  10. State two reasons for conserving forage crops. (1mk)
  11. Name two types of labour records kept in the farm. (1mk)
  12. State four causes of land fragmentation. (2mks)
  13. Outline four roles of trees in soil and water. (2mks)
  14. Give two reasons for earthing up tobacco crop. (1mk)
  15. List three examples of working capital employed by a farmer in the production of maize.(1 ½ mks)
  16. State three ways in which labour productivity can be improved. (1 ½ mks)
    1. Give two reasons why nitrogenous fertilizers are suitable for top- dressing. (1mk)
    2. Outline four deficiency symptoms of sulphur in crops. (2mks)
  18. State four symptoms of maize stalk borer infestation in maize. (2mks)

SECTION B (20 Marks)

  1. Study the illustration below and answer questions that follow. 
    1. Identify the weed. (1mk)
    2. Give two harmful effects of the weed illustrated above. (2mks)
    3. State two reasons why tillage is sometimes preferred as a method of weed control.(2mks)
    1. Given that a maize crop is planted at a spacing of 75cm x 25cm, calculate the plant population in one hectare of land if two seeds are planted per hole.( Show your working). (3mks)
    2. Give two reasons for having the correct plant population in the production of annual crops.(2mks)
  3. Study the illustration below and answer questions that follow.
    1. Identify the structure above. (1mk)
    2. Name the parts labelled A,B,C and D above. (2mks)
    3. Give four ways in which the above illustration influences crop distribution. (2mks)
    1. Below is a diagram showing a crop infected by a disease. Study it and answer questions that follow.
      1. Identify the disease. (1mk)
      2. Name the category in which the disease is classified. (1mk)
      3. Give three control measures of the disease illustrated above. (3mks)


SECTION C (40 Marks)

    1. Describe the field production of maize under the following sub-headings.
      1. Seedbed preparation. (3mks)
      2. Planting (5mks)
    2. State and explain six marketing functions. (12mks)
    1. Explain the precautions taken during the harvesting of pyrethrum. (3mks)
    2. The following is a Demand and Supply schedule of eggs to teachers in a school.
      Price per 30 kg crate (Ksh) Demand per day (No of crates)  Supply per day (No. of crates) 
      330.00  5 47
      310.00  11 46
      290.00  15 44
      270.00  19 42
      255.00  24 39.5
      240.00 29 36.5
      225.00 33 33
      210.00 37 29
      200.00 37 27
      190.00 49 20
      1. Using the same axis with price on the vertical axis, illustrate the demand and supply schedule curves for eggs. (6mks)
      2. Determine the equilibrium price. (1mk)
      3. What would be the price if 45 trays were supplied? (1mk)
      4. Apart from price, outline three other factors that influence the demand of eggs in a market? (4mks)
    1. State and explain six ways in which soil lose fertility. (12mks)
    2. Outline eight factors considered in farm p0lanning. (8mks)


SECTION A (30 Marks)

    1. Characteristics of intensive farming system.
      • Involves maximum utilization of all available land
      • High yields per unit area
      • High labour utilization/ much use of manual labour
      • Some little mechanization is used
      • Crops may be planted twice or thrice in one year.
      • Heavy application of manure and fertilization.
      • Use of modern technology i.e irrigation is normally used to make up for inadequacy of moisture( ½ x 2 = 1mk)
    2. Advantages of mixed farming;
      • makes utilization of the available land
      • there is diversification of farming business
      • there is mutual benefit between crops and animals
      • Farmer gets continues flow of income through out the year
      • There is maximum use of permanent labour through out the year.
      • Farmer gets high income
      • Farmer and his family gets a balance diet
      • There is better conservation of soil and water( ½ x 2 = 1mk)
  2. Agents of Physical weathering;
    • Wind
    • Water
    • Moving ice
    • Temperature( ½ x 3 = 1 ½ mks)
  3. Forms in which water is available in the soil;
    • Superfluous water
    • Hycrosgopic water
    • Capillary water( ½ x 2 = 1mk)
  4. ways in which mulch control soil erosion;
    • Reduce speed of surface run – off
    • Insulates the soil reducing direct conduct between the soil and the agents of erosion.( ½ x 2 = 1mk)
  5. Advantages of drip irrigation;
    • Little amount of water is required as compared to other types of irrigation
    • Water under low pressure can be used so long as it can flow along the pipe
    • It discourages fungal diseases i.e blight , CBD and others, as it does not wet the leaves
    • It does not encourage the growth of weeds between the rows( ½ x 4 = 2mks)
  6. Advantages of adding organic matter to Sandy soil;
    • Improved soil structure by binding together soil particles
    • Improves microbial activities in the soil
    • Increase the nutrient level/ fertility of sandy soil
    • Impert dark colour to the soil which hel increase soil temperature
    • Improves water retention capacity
    • Increase soil cation –m exchange capacity , hence PH control
    • Reduce leaching( ½ x 4 = 2mks
    • plants mature early
    • It is possible to produce crops that would otherwise not be propagated through other means like use of seeds
    • Its possible to use root stock with cetain beneficial traits such as drought and disease resistance.
    • More than one type of plant variety can be produced on the same rootstock
    • It makes possible to repair damaged plant parts,
    • Crop variety obtained may have higher /more desirable qualities in terms of taste and size.( ½ x 4 = 2mks)
  8. Reasons for using certified seeds for planting;
    • Certified seeds have high germination percentage
    • They are free from diseases and pests
    • They give high yields
    • Able to adopt to certain ecological conditions
    • Bred true to type
    • Free from foreign materials
    • Free from physical damage( ½ x 4 = 2mks)
  9. Methods used to control weeds in pasture;
    • Use of herbicides
    • Slahiing / mowing/tillage
    • Uprooting( ½ x 3 = 1 ½ mks)
  10. Reasons for conserving forage;
    • To avoid wastage in times of planting
    • To ensure enough supply throughout the year
    • To earn income from selling excess forage
    • To ensure good utilization of land.( ½ x 2 = 1mk)
  11. Types of labour records;
    • Master roll
    • Labour utilization analysis record( ½ x 2 = 1mk)
  12. causes of land fragmentation;
    • Inheritance of land from different people
    • Purchasing of land in different locations
    • Compensation by government
  13. Roles of trees in soil and water conservation;
    • They protect the soil below from rain drop erosion by reducing the force from which it falls onto the ground.
    • Prevent direct conduct between rain drops and soil
    • Provide shade and reduce loss of moisture through evaporation
    • Act as wind breaks
    • Roots of trees bind soil particles together
    • Leaves once they drop, decay to supply humus which improve water infiltration( ½ x 4 = 2mks)
  14. Reasons for earthing up tobacco crop;
    • To improve drainage around the plant
    • To improve the plant anchorage( ½ x 2 = 1mk)
  15. Labour productivity can be improved through;
    • Training labour force
    • Efficient supervision of labour
    • Mechanization of farm operations or providing more efficient tools and equipment
    • Giving incentives to workers i.e good housing, medical facilities etc
    • Proper remuneration of workers
    • Assigning tasks to workers according to skills ability and interest.( ½ x 3 = 1 ½ mks)
  16. Examples of working capital;
    • Seeds
    • Fertilizers
    • Hired equipment
    • Pesticides/ Insecticides
    • Fuel
    • Fungicides
    • Herbicides( ½ x 3 = 1 ½ mks)
    1. Reasons why nitrogenous fertilizers are suitable for top-dressing;
      • Easily leached to lower levels /horizons beyond the root zone of crops before it is utilized by plants
      • Highly soluble in water, hence gets dissolved very fast( ½ x 2 = 1mk)
    2. Defficiency symptoms of sulphur;
      • leaf chlorosis
      • thin stems
      • reduced nodulation in leguminous plants
      • stunted growth in plants
      • delayed maturity.( ½ x 4 = 2mks)
  18. Symptoms of stalk borer infestation in maize;
    • Windowing on leaves/ make holes on leaves
    • Bore into stems and cobs
    • Cause yellowing in seedlings
    • Cause tillering in seedlings
    • Plants of damged stems fall off( ½ x 4 = 2mks)

SECTION B (20 Marks)

      1. Double thorne - (1mk)
      2. Harmful effects of the weed;
        • Its thorns lower the quality and palatability of pasture / cause injury to livestock
        • It irritates workers, thus reducing labour efficiency
        • It competes with crops for nutrients, light and space
        • It increases the cost of production.( 2 x 1 = 2mks)
    2. Reasons why tillage is some times preferred as a method of weed control
      • loosens the soil/ improves aeration and water infiltration
      • it facilitates earthing up in rood crop production
      • Crop residues are incorporated into the soil
      • It helps control soil – borne pests through exposing them on the surface.( 2 x 1 = 2mks)
    1.  plant population is = Area of land x Number of seeds per hole
                                              Spacing of the crop
                                  = 10,0000m2 x 2 =
                                       0.75 m x 0.25m
      (Award 1 mk for the formula, 1mk for the calculation and 1mk for correct answer).
    2. Reasons for having correct plant population;
      • Leads to high yields
      • makes it easy to control pests, diseases and weeds
      • It conserves soil and water/controls soil erosion.
      • It facilitates field operations to be carried with ease
      • It leads to efficient use of resources.( 2 x 1 = 2 mks)
      1. Soil profile (1mk)
        • A- Top soil (horizon A)
        • B – Sub – soil ( Horizon B)
        • C – Substratum/weathered rock (Horizon C)
        • D – Parent rock/Bed rock (Horizon D)( ½ x 4 = 2 mks)
      2. Reasons why farmers should have knowledge of the illustration above;
        • Able to determine the type of crops to grow
        • Enable the farmer be able to determine the depth of ploughing
        • Enable the farmer to choose the implement to use during the time of ploughing- (1 x 2 = 2mks)
    1. The disease is Blight/Late blight (1mk)
    2. Category of the disease is Fungal disease. (1mk)
    3. Three control measures of the disease above
      • Spray the crop with appropriate fungicides
      • Use certified seeds
      • Practice crop rotation
      • Practice close season
      • Observe field hygiene/ destroy infected crops
      • Do rogueing.( 1 x 3 =3 mks)

SECTION C (40 Marks)

      1. Seedbed preparation;
        • Clear land
        • Plough the land early /during the dry period or before onset of rains and remove all all perennial weeds.
        • Seedbed be harrowed to the right tilth
        • Plough it to the right depth
        • Seedbed preparation is done manually or mechanically.(1 x 3 = 3mks)
      2. Planting;
        • Select suitable maize variety for the region
        • Plant at the onset of then rains
        • Plant seeds at the right depth i.e 2.5 cm to 10 cm depending on the moisture content of the soil.
        • Spacing is 75cm to 90cm by 23cm to 30cm. this will give correct crop stand per hectare.
        • Plant one to two seeds per hole depending on the spacing.
        • Plant certified seeds or health seeds.
        • Apply appropriate fertilizer or well decomposed manure.(1 x 5 = 5mks)
    1. Six marketing functions;
      • Buying and Assembling; acquisition of goods from farmers on payment of cash and collecting the produce from farmers. The products are are assembled or stored at a convenient points or stores.
      • Transportation and distributing; farm produce are availed to consumers through transportation. The goods are distributed through middlemen who at times store, blend and package the goods.
      • Storage after harvest to minimize losses.
      • Processing to provide variety, increase value and prolong shelf life of produce.
      • Grading according to quality.
      • Packaging and packing for easier handling, transportation and storage.
      • Collecting, analyzing and interpreting market information.
      • Advertising to create or increase demand.
      • Bearing risks such as damage, price fluctuations and physical deterioration.
      • Taking measures to protect farm produce, for example by taking insurance cover.( 6 x 2 = 12 mks for any well explained point)
      1.  Precautions taken during harvesting of pyrethrum;
        • Picked flowers should be put in open woven basket to allow proper aeration/ventilation.
        • Tins or polythene bags should be avoided because of poor ventilation that would lead fermentation.
        • Wet flowers should not be picked because they may heat and ferment before they are dry.
        • During picking flowers should not be compacted in the baskets to avoid heating up and fermentation.
        • Avoid any contamination or picking flowers with twigs or leaves be avoided.
        • Dry flowers immediately after picking to a moisture content of 10% to 12% to prevent fermentation.( 1 x 3 = 3mks)
      2. Factors that affect rooting of cuttings;
        • Temperature: warm temperature encourages fast rooting of cuttings as opposed to low temperature.
        • Relative humidity: high relative humidity lowers transpiration rate, which favours fast rooting.
        • Light intensity: lack of light encourage rooting in hardwood plants while high light intensity enhances rooting in softwood plants.
        • Oxygen supply: well aerated rooting medium encourages faster rooting.
        • Moisture supply: The root- forming process requires ample supply of moisture.
        • Chemical treatment: Rooting hormones, when applied at the base of cuttings fasten rooting process.
        • Leaf area: Some cuttings require some leaves for photosynthesis to speed up rooting.( 1 x 5 = 5mks)
      1. Using the same axis with price on the vertical axis, illustrate the demand and supply schedule curves for eggs. (6mks)
      2. Equilibrium price is Ksh. 225.
      3. Factor that influence demand of eggs in a market are;
        • Population size
        • Income of the consumers.
        • Price of related goods
        • Tastes and preferences
        • Beliefs, customs, taboos.
        • Advertisement
        • Level of taxation/income
        • Price expectations
        • Perishability.(1 x 4 = 4mks)
    1. Ways through which soil lose fertility;
      • Soil erosion
      • Soil capping
      • Hardpans
      • Leaching
      • Monocropping
      • Continuous cropping
      • Change of soil PH
      • Burning of land
      • Accumulation of salts
      • Infestation of weeds.( award 2 x 6 = 12 mks for any well explained point)
    2. Factors considered in farm planning;
      • Size of the farm
      • Environmental factors
      • The current trends in labour market
      • Farmer’s objectives and preference.
      • Possible production enterprize.
      • Existing market conditions and price trends.
      • Availability and cost of farm inputs.
      • Communication and transport facilities.
      • Security.( 1 x 8 = 8 Mks for any correct 8 points).

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