History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Sukellemo Joint Mock 2020/2021

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SUKELLEMO JOINT MOCK
Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education
HISTORY
PAPER 1

2 ½  HOURS

Instructions to Candidates

  • This paper consists of THREE sections: A, B & C.
  • Answer ALL the Questions in Section A, THREE Questions from Section B & TWO Questions from Section C.

SECTION A: 25 MARKS
Answer all the questions in this section

  1. Give two ways in which study of history and government promotes patriotism in learners. (2 marks)
  2. Identify one community in Kenya which belongs to the southern Cushitic groups. (1 mark)
  3. Name one Bantu community in Kenya whose ancestors settled in Mt. Elgon area before migrating to their present home land. (1 mark)
  4. Give two benefits of the Oman rule along the Kenyan coast during the nineteenth century. (2 marks)
  5. State one factor that facilitated the spread of Christianity in Kenya during the colonial period. (1 mark)
  6. Give one reason why the British allowed the imperial British east African company to administer her possession. (1 mark)
  7. Identify one institution that advised the governors in administration in the colonial period. (1 mark)
  8. Give the main reason why poll tax was introduced in Kenya during the colonial period. (1 mark
  9. State one way in which the colonial government controlled the migration if Africans to urban centres. (1 mark)
  10. What were the ideological differences between KANU and KADU before independence? (1 mark)
  11. Highlight two reforms that resulted from Lyttelton constitution in 1954. (2 marks)
  12. State two terms of the Devonshire white paper on the Africans. (2 marks)
  13. State two provisions of the independence constitution of 1962. (2 marks)
  14. Identify one function of the correctional service in Kenya. (1 mark)
  15. State two ways in which the Kenyan constitution promotes national unity. (2 marks)
  16. State two functions of the county executive committee. (2 marks)
  17. State two types of government expenditure in Kenya. (2 marks)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)
Answer any three questions

  1.    
    1. State five reasons for the migration of the Maasai during the pre colonial period. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the Plain Nilotes into Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)
  2.    
    1. State five factors for the growth of the Kenyan coastal towns by 1700 A.D. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors that led to the decline of Portuguese rule along the Kenyan coast. (10 marks)
  3.    
    1. State five demands of the Kikuyu Central Association against the colonial government. (5 marks)
    2. Discuss five factors that favoured the MAU MAU fighters in their war against the British. (10 marks)
  4.    
    1. State five functions of the National land commission as entrenched in the new constitution of Kenya 2010. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges facing land policies in Kenya since independence. (10 marks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)
Answer any two questions

  1.    
    1. Give three rights of an accused person. (3marks)
    2. Explain six importance of human rights. (12 marks)
  2.      
    1. Identify three functions of the Attorney general in Kenya. (3marks)
    2. Describe the law-making process in the National Assembly. (12marks)
  3.     
    1. State three reasons why the government of Kenya prepares a national budget. (3marks)
    2. Explain six ways in which the government controls the use of public finances in Kenya.

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A(25 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section: 

  1. Give two ways in which study of history and government promotes patriotism in learners. (2marks)
    • It enables one to acquire positive attitude towards the country
    • It enables one to be a responsible citizen
    • It enables one to become loyal to his /her country

  2. Identify one community in Kenya which belongs to the southern Cushitic groups. (1mark)
    • Dahallo / Sanye

  3. Name one Bantu community in Kenya whose ancestors settled in Mt. Elgon area before migrating to their present home land. (1 mark)
    • Abagusii
    • Abaluyia
    • Abakuria

  4. Give two benefits of the Oman rule along the Kenyan coast during the nineteenth century. (2marks)
    • Signing of commercial treaties with foreign nations
    • Establishment of clove plantations
    • Development of long–distance trade
    • Introduction of new crops e.g. cloves
    • Development of international trade

  5. State one factor that facilitated the spread of Christianity in Kenya during the colonial period. (1mark)
    • Support from seyyid said who gave them letter of introduction to the African rulers in the interior.
    • Some Africans were friendly.
    • Support given by the African converts.
    • Learning of local language.
    • Translation of the bible into local languages.
    • Christian teaching of equality appealed to many Africans.
    • Setting up of mission centres.
    • Emergency of African independent churches.
    • Construction of the Kenya Uganda railway.
    • The discovery of quinine

  6. Give one reason why the British allowed the imperial British east African company to administer her possession. (1mark)
    • They had inadequate personnel
    • The company had trading experiences in the region.
    • Britain had inadequate funds for administration.
    • Lack of clear policy on the administration of their colonies.

  7. Identify one institution that advised the governors in administration in the colonial period. (1mark)
    • The legislative council.
    • The advisory council.
    • The executive council.

  8. Give the main reason why poll tax was introduced in Kenya during the colonial period. (1mark)
    • To force Africans to work in European farms.

  9. State one way in which the colonial government controlled the migration if Africans to urban centres. (1mark)
    • Introduction of kipande system.
    • Creation of African reserves.
    • Taking of head count to decide who would remain in town.
    • Putting strict legislation on migration to towns.

  10. What were the ideological differences between KANU and KADU before independence? (1 mark)
    • KANU wanted a centralized form of government with an executive president while KADU was for a federal form of government

  11. Highlight two reforms that resulted from Lyttelton constitution in 1954. (2marks)
    • Africans were allowed to elect representatives to the legislative council.
    • Two Indians and one African acquired executive position.
    • It led to the establishment of a multi-racial council of ministers.
    • The ban of political parties was lifted / allowed political organization to operate at the district level.

  12. State two terms of the Devonshire white paper on the Africans. (2marks)
    • A missionary to be appointed to represent African interest.
    • Kenya was said to be an African country and the interest of the Africans were to be given first priority
    • Racial segregation was to be abolished in residential areas
    • The Kenyan highland were preserved for the white settlers which was a blow to the Africans

  13. State two provisions of the independence constitution of 1962. (2 marks)
    • It spelt out that the party with the majority forms the government.
    • It provided for a position post prime minister to head the government and a government to head the state.
    • It spelt out the powers and responsibilities of the central government and regional government
    • It established regional assemblies and presidents.

  14. Identify one function of the correctional service in Kenya. (1mark)
    • Protect the prisoners
    • Execute court orders
    • Train prisoners in special skills.
    • Rehabilitate prisoners trough counseling
    • Take care of the warfare of the prisoners confine suspect waiting trials.
    • Punishing criminals to deter others from committing crime.

  15. State two ways in which the Kenyan constitution promotes national unity. (2 marks)
    • Guarantees equal opportunities to all the Kenyans.
    • Protect individual rights against any form of discrimination
    • Provide unitary government

  16. State two functions of the county executive committee. (2marks)
    • Implement country legislation.
    • Managing and co-coordinating functions of the county administration and its departments.
    • Prepare proposed legislations
    • Providing the county assembly with full and regular reports on county matters
    • Implement national legislation in the country.

  17. State two types of government expenditure in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Capital expenditure
    • Recurrent expenditure

SECTION B: 45 MARKS
Answer any three questions

  1.    
    1. State five reasons for the migration of the Maasai during the pre colonial period. (5marks)
      • Population pressure in their cradle land forced them to migrate to less populated areas.
      • Diseases that affected both man and animals forced them to migrate.
      • Internal quarrels within the community forced them to migrate.
      • War with other communities forced them to migrate from cradle land.
      • Natural calamities such as drought and famine forced them migrate from their cradle land.
      • Spirit of adventure forced them to migrate from their cradle land.

    2. Explain five results of the migration and settlement of the Plain Nilotes into Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (10marks)
      • They displaced some communities that they found in the areas that they settled.
      • Their settlement led to the increased population in the region they settled.
      • They intermarried with their neighbors e.g. the Agikuyu.
      • Some section of the Maasai become cultivators e.g. the kwavi Maasai.
      • There were ethnic conflicts due to cattle raids / land for settlement.
      • There was borrowing / exchange of cultural practices amongst the communities they interacted with.
      • There increased trade between the Plain Nilotes and their neighbours.
      • They influenced the social political organization of the Nandi who created the institution of the Orkoiyot.

  2.    
    1. State five factors for the growth of the Kenyan coastal towns by 1700 A.D. (5 marks)
      • The coastal cities had able leaders.
      • The spread of Islam along the coast unified them and led to their growth.
      • The development and prosperity of the Indian Ocean trade.
      • The areas where the coastal towns developed were suitable for settlement which attracted people leading to their development.
      • Most of the coastal towns wee islands that could be easily defended hence leading to their growth.
      • Areas where the coastal towns were situated were easily accessible.
      • The areas had good deep natural harbours for easy docking of dhows, this encouraged the settlement.

    2. Explain five factors that led to the decline of Portuguese rule along the Kenyan coast. (10 marks)
      • The harsh Portuguese rule provoked resentment from the coastal people.
      • Some coastal communities organized a series of revolts against the Portuguese.
      • Trade along the Kenyan coast declined therefore, they found retaining their control over the Kenyan coast a liability.
      • The Portuguese were attacked by the zimba terrorist who looted property and killed people.
      • The coastal Arabs and Swahili obtained support from Turks and Oman Arabs.
      • Delays in reinforcement due to distance.
      • Competition of the other European powers over the control of the coastal trade.
      • Corrupt Portuguese administrators embezzled revenue.
      • The Portuguese were attacked by tropical diseases like malaria.
      • Portugal was a small country and lacked manpower.
      • Portugal was annexed by Spain.
      • The defeat and the capture of fort Jesus by the Oman Arabs brought the Portuguese rule to an end.

  3.    
    1. State five demands of the kikuyu central association against the colonial government. (5 marks)
      • Abolish of the kipande system.
      • An end to the racial discrimination
      • An end of the forced labour policy
      • An end of the colonial system of education.
      • Demand for the release of the harry thuku.
      • Reduction of colonial taxes.
      • KCA wanted a return of the alienated African land.
      • Demanded for African representation in the LEGCO.
      • Demanded Africans to be allowed to grow cash crops.
      • Demanded for translation of colonial laws into Agikuyu language.
      • Demanded for more education opportunities for Africans.
      • Demanded the lifting of the ban of female circumcision.
      • Demanded for better living and working condition.

    2. Discuss five factors that favored the MAU MAU fighters in their war against the British. (10 marks)
      • Oathing united people and made them to be committed to the course
      • Fighters used guerilla warfare which made it difficult for the British government to contain them
      • The civilian’s population sustained the rebellion by supplying food, weapons and information.
      • The movement was led by able leaders such as dedan kimanthi and Stanley mathenge.
      • The aberdaresand the mt Kenya forest provided hide out for the maumau fighters
      • The fighters were ex-servicemen therefore had fighting skills
      • The fighters had access to swords , guns and animations which they used against the colonial troops

  4.    
    1. State five functions of the National land commission as entrenched in the new constitution of Kenya 2010. (5 marks)
      • To manage public land on behalf of the national and the county government
      • To recommend a national task policy to the national government
      • To advice the national government on comprehensive programmes for registration of title in land throughout Kenya
      • To conduct research related to task used and natural resources.
      • To encourage the application of traditional land disputes resolutions.
      • To assess tax on land.
      • To monitor land use in Kenya.
      • To investigate historical land injustices and recommend remedies.

    2.  Explain five challenges facing land policies in Kenya since independence. (10 marks)
      • Drought and famine experienced in various parts of the country.
      • The population of has been growing faster than the gains made in agriculture
      • The world market prices for agriculture commodities have been falling.
      • Corruption and mismanagement of cooperative has led to meager earnings.
      • Poor infrastructure in some parts of Kenya has discouraged farmers especially during rainy seasons.
      • Politically instigated ethnic clashes discourage farming due to insecurity.
      • Poor technology has contributed to low yields.
      • Farmers produces is often destroyed by pest and diseases.
      • Corrupt government officials have grabbed research land.
      • The cost of farm inputs has become unmanageable for most farmers due to the high cost of fertilizers and pesticides.
      • Competition from COMESA members and Europeans union has frustrated Kenyan farmers. This is because the competitors subsidize their products.

SECTION C: 30 MARKS
Answer any two questions

  1.    
    1. Give three rights of an accused person. (3marks)
      • The accessed person is presumed innocent until proven guilty
      • He /she should be informed of the charges with sufficient details
      • One should be given adequate time to consult with the advocate
      • One should be present when court proceedings are taking place
      • One should be given chance to plead for leniency
      • One should not be forced to give evidences
      • One should be allowed to be heard
      • One should be allowed to appear against the ruling
      • Right to legal representation

    2. Explain six importance of human rights. (12 marks)
      • Helps human beings to have a dignified life
      • They are inherent to human beings
      • Respect to human rights limits internal and external conflicts
      • Provides guidance to state regarding use of state power
      • Justifies the special treatment of the minority and the disadvantaged groups
      • Empowers people by giving control over decision making organs in the state
      • It promotes international relations by observing convention / conclusive environment
      • It promotes the rule of the law by enhancing justice / good government in society

  2.    
    1. Identify three functions of the attorney general in Kenya. (3marks
      • He is the chief legal adviser to the government
      • He represents the national government in courts or any other legal proceedings
      • He promotes and upholds the rule of law
      • Defends public interests
      • Takes part in the drafting of government bills before they are tabled in parliament
      • He appears as a friend of the court in any civil proceedings to which the government is not a party

    2. Describe the law-making process in the national assembly. (12marks)
      • The bill is drafted by the attorney general and presented to parliament for discussion
      • The bill is presented for first reading reading by the attorney general for discussion. The members are supposed to familiarize themselves with the bill as well as approve it.
      • The bill is presented for the second reading in parliament; it’s debated upon in details. it can be either accepted or rejected
      • The bill is taken through the committee stage with objective of making improvements on it.
      • The bill is then taken through report stage for members of parliament to ascertain that the suggestions were accurately effected
      • Third reading, further debates as allowed and amendments to the bill could be made.
      • Presidential assent the bill then taken to the president for his assent
      • After signing the bill becomes law or an act of parliament. Its then gazette to become law.

  3.    
    1. State three reasons why the government of Kenya prepares a national budget. (3marks)
      • The budget helps the government to prioritize its needs
      • The budget enables the government to identify resources of the government revenue
      • The government identifies the development projects to finance in the coming financial year
      • It helps the government to balance its revenue and expenditure deeds.
      • For the government to determine and explain the public the tax structure
      • The government can access its performance in the previous budget
      • The budget ensures balanced and equitable developments in the country
      • Supplementary expenditure enables the government to plan for certain need stat emerges in the counter of the years e.g. diseases outbreak , floods , locust

    2. Explain six ways in which the government controls the use of public finances in Kenya. (12 marks)
      • Government expenditure by state has t be approved by the parliament
      • The controller of the budget oversees the implementations of the national budgets
      • The cabinet secretaries for finance with the approval of the parliament , may stop the transfer of funds to sate organs or any other public body if they fail to to adhere to laid down procedures
      • Financial records are carefully maintained and the audit of the accounts of all the government and other public bodies is conducted to ensure that they adhere to laid down procedures.
      • There are accounting officers answerable to the national assembly for the financial management of the various public bodies
      • The auditor general is responsible for the audit of the accounts of all the government and state organs at the end of the financial year.
      • Public procedure and disposal act sets procures for acquiring and disposing of the absolute and extra assets and equipment to ensure fairness transparency and cost effectiveness.
      • Sanction have been imposed against construction who fails to fulfill their contractual obligations / sanctions have also been imposed on people who fail to pay their taxes
      • The government establishes the Kenya anti-corruption commission (KACC). The commission investigates corruption cases in a non-partisan manner.

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