History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Sukellemo Joint Mock 2020/2021

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SUKELLEMO JOINT MOCK
Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education
HISTORY
PAPER 2

2 ½  HOURS

Instructions to Candidates

  • This paper consists of THREE sections: A, B & C.
  • Answer ALL the Questions in Section A, THREE Questions from Section B & TWO Questions from Section C.

SECTION A (25 marks)
Answer ALL questions in this section 

  1. What is oral tradition as a source of History? (1 mark)
  2. Give one characteristics of Homo Erectus. (1 mark)
  3. Give two ways in which the Agrarian Revolution contributed to European expansion to Africa. (2 marks)
  4. Identify the main commodity in the Trans-Atlantic trade (1 mark)
  5. Identity two improvements which were made on macadamized roads in the Nineteenth century (2 marks)
  6. Give one modern means of print media (2 marks)
  7. Give the main use of steam power during the Industrial revolution in Europe. (1 mark)
  8. Give two social functions of the ancient city of Athens in Greece. (2 marks)
  9. State two functions of the Lukiiko in Buganda Kingdom during the 19th Century. (2 marks)
  10. Identify one category of human rights. (1 mark)
  11. State two social factors that led to the scramble for colonies in Africa by European powers. (2 marks)
  12. Mention one consequence of the French Assimilation Policy in Senegal. (1 mark)
  13. State two objectives of the African National Congress in South Africa. (2 marks)
  14. Give the main reason why the European countries formed alliances before the outbreak of the first World War. (1 mark)
  15. Name two principal organs of the United Nations. (2 marks)
  16. State two ways in which poverty has undermined economic development in Tanzania since independence. (2 marks)
  17. Identify one parliamentary duty of the Monarch in Britain. (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 marks)
Answer any three questions from this section in the space provided after Question 24.

  1.    
    1. State five reasons why early people domesticated crops and animals during the Neolithic period. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five causes of food shortages in Africa today. (10 marks)
  2.      
    1. Identify the three types of trade. (3 marks)
    2. Describe the Organization of the Trans Saharan trade. (12 marks)
  3.       
    1. Identify any three economic activities of the Asante people in the pre-colonial period (3 marks)
    2. Describe the social organization of the Shona people in the pre-colonial period. (12 marks)
  4.      
    1. State three ways used by nationalists in Ghana to fight for independence. (3 marks)
    2. Discuss six factors that led to the development of African Nationalism in Ghana. (12 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the space provided after Question 24.

  1.    
    1. Why did the British use direct rule in Zimbabwe? (3 marks)
    2. Explain the effects of British rule in Zimbabwe. (12 marks)
  2.     
    1. List three Europeans Countries that formed the Triple alliance before the outbreak of the First World War. (3 marks)
    2. Describe six functions of the General Assembly of the United Nations (U.N) (12 marks)
  3.     
    1. Identify three circumstances that may make a vice president assume presidency in India (3 marks)
    2. Explain six functions of the president of India (12 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A(25 marks)

  1. What is oral tradition as a source of History?
    • Oral tradition as a source of History involves the study of historical information based on what has been handed down from one generation to another by word of mouth/ verbally. 

  2. Give one characteristics of Homo Erectus.
    • Homo Erectus was upright/bipedal/waked upright /walked in two legs
    • Homo Erectus was more intelligent than the earlier apes/higher thinking capacity
    • Homo Erectus had a bigger bran capacity/775-1225 cc
    • Homo Erectus had more developed hand for grasping tools.
    • Homo Erectus had more developed hand for grasping tools.
    • Homo erectus had a long skull
    • Homo Erectus had a long protruding jaws.

  3. Give two ways in which the Agrarian Revolution contributed to European expansion to Africa. 
    • They were looking for markets for their manufactured goods.
    • They wanted raw materials for their industries
    • They wanted to invest their surplus capitals
    • They wanted to settle their excess population

  4. Identify the main commodity in the Trans Atlantic trade
    • slaves 

  5. Identity two improvements which were made on macadamized roads in the Nineteenth century.
    • Tar was put on the top surface to make them smooth
    • Roads were widened to create highways
    • Roads were straightened
    • The roads wee strengthened by adding more layers of gravel/ stones made durable 

  6. Give one modern means of print media
    • Newspapers Pamphlets Posters
    • Journals Periodicals Books
    • Magazines Braille Bronchures 

  7. Give the main use of steam powder during industrial revolution in Europe.
    • Driving engines/ machines in industries 

  8. Give two social functions of the ancient city of Athens in Greece.
    • It was a cultural centre/music/art/theatre
    • It was an educational centre
    • It was a sports centre
    • It was a religious centre

  9. State two functions of the Lukiko in Buganda Kingdom during the 19th Century.
    • It advised the Kabaka.
    • It represented the wishes of the people.
    • It assisted in settling disputes/acted as final court of appeal.
    • It directed the collection of taxes/how the wealth of the kingdom would be spent.
    • It was the law formulating body in the Kingdom.
    • It assisted/no general/administration 

  10. Identify one category of human rights. (1 mark)
    • economic
    • social
    • cultural
    • civil
    • political.

  11. State two social factors that led to the scramble for colonies in Africa by European Powers.
    • The need to abolish slave trade
    • The desire to spread Christianity/to protect missionaries
    • The desire to spread western civilian/education/western civilization
    • The need to settle surplus population 

  12. Mention one consequence of the French Assimilation Policy in Senegal
    • All colonies were subjected to the same law.
    • Racial discrimination was minimal in the colonies.
    • It undermined African culture.
    • French goods and modern ways spread in West Africa.
    • Educated Africans spearheaded nationalism in Africa.
    • Africans were represented by deputies in the National Assembly

  13. State two objectives of the African National Congress in South Africa.
    • To unite all black people to win majority rule in South Africa.
    • To encourage a united anti-racial activities/oppose apartheid.
    • To remove all forms of injustices.
    • To win a vote/franchise for all the people of South Africa 

  14. Give the main reason why the European countries formed alliances before the outbreak of the first World War.
    • To assist/help each other in case of military attack on any of their members.

  15. Name two principal organs of the United Nations
    • The General Assembly
    • The Security Council
    • The Economic and Social Council
    • The Secretariat
    • The Trusteeship Council
    • The International Court of Justice 

  16. State two ways in which poverty has undermined economic development in Tanzania since independence.
    • It has reduced the purchasing power of many people/unable to access goods/services.
    • It has made it difficult for Tanzania to compete favorably with other countries.
    • It has resulted to dependency on foreign aid/loans.
    • It has made it difficult to fully exploit the resources/minerals/land.
    • It has led to low infrastructure development/roads/railways.

  17. Identify one parliamentary duty of the Monarch in Britain.
    • Summons parliament after a general election.
    • Prologues parliament
    • Dissolves parliament
    • Assents bills of parliament
    • Nominates members to the House of Lords

SECTION B (45 marks)
Answer any three questions from this section in the space provided after Question 24.

  1.    
    1. State five reasons why early people domesticated crops and animals during the Neolithic period.
      • Due to increased Human population more food was required.
      • There was competition for food between human beings and animals.
      • Over hunting developed stocks of animal on which human beings relied on for food.
      • Hunting and gathering had become tiresome/insecure.
      • Calamities such as bush fire/floods destroyed vegetation/drove away animals.
      • Some crops and animals had economic value.
      • Animals were domesticated to provide security.
      • There was a change in climate which caused aridity/weather sometimes hindered gathering and hunting. 

    2. Explain five causes of food shortages in Africa today.
      • Many parts of Africa experience little or no rain at all over several years leading to crop failure and hence food shortages/natural hazards.
      • The rapid population growth rate has overtaken food production rate resulting into food shortages.
      • Inadequate/food storage facilities had contributed to food wastages as farmers cannot store store food for a long period.
      • Poor state of roads in many African countries hinders transportation of food from the areas of surplus to those of deficit.
      • Low prices of food stuff has discouraged many farmers who may have invested so much capital leading to food shortages.
      • Many farmers in Africa lack enough capital to buy required farm inputs.
      • Due to crop diseases and pest, a lot of food is destroyed either on the farms or in stores resulting to food shortages.
      • The emphasis on cash crop farming at the expense of food crops has contributed to low food production leading to food shortages.
      • Environmental degradation through deforestation/overgrazing of animals had led to soil erosion leading to wasteland, hence low food production/desertification.
      • Civil wars in many African countries have displaced people from their farms and therefore diverted their attention from farming resulting in food shortages.
      • Poor food policies have discouraged farmers as they are not given enough incentives incase of crop failure/poor economic planning.
      • The young-able bodied persons migrate to urban centres thus leaving farming to the aged who are not able to contribute much towards food production.
      • HIV and AIDS pandemic has impacted negatively on the labour force in food production.
      • Poor land tenure system/land fragmentation has reduced the acreage that would have been used for production scarcity.
      • Over reliance/dependence on famine relief food/other forms of aid has made people not to look for permanent solutions to food shortages.
      • Lack of modern farming methods her led to low food production. 
          
  2.      
    1. Identify the three types of trade
      • Local trade
      • Regional trade
      • International trade.

    2. Describe the Organization of the Trans Saharan trade
      • It involved traders from North Africa and people of North Africa and people of West Africa.
      • The people involved were Arabs and Berbers from the North, Tuaregs from the desert and the people of West Africa.
      • Arabs in the North organized the caravans. Preparations were made in advance to have enough goods, food especially indigenous foods.
      • Departure dates were set after the end of the rainy season when the storms were minimal.
      • The Berbers and Tauregs acted as guides and provided security in the desert.
      • The traders moved in caravans of up 1000 camels for security in the desert.
      • In the south the traders stayed for up to three months selling goods.
      • If they had not finished selling the goods by the end of the tree months they hired local agents to continue selling goods and buying others on their behalf.
      • The local agents also maintained good relations with local rulers by giving them gifts and paying tribute.
      • In return the local rulers offered security to the traders. They also regulated the precaution and supply of gold.
      • From the North they brought salt, copper, needles, spices, beds, grass ware horses, clothes , daggers, firearms e.t.c.
      • There were several trade routes that were used by the traders e.g. the Western route, central and eastern route. 

  3.    
    1. Identify any three economic activities of the Asante people in the pre-colonial period
      • They participated in the Trans-Saharan trade
      • They engaged in gathering of Kola nuts
      • They hunted wield animals in the forest
      • The did iron working activities
      • They cultivated crops like yams
      • They engaged in the mining of gold
      • They waged economic wars on their neighbors/ raiding activities
      • They kept livestock like cattle
      • They participated in craftsmanship like weaving and basketry

    2. Describe the social organization of the Shona people in the pre-colonial period.
      • Mwene Mutapa was head of the religion and was therefore a divine king
      • Shona religion was based on the Mwari cult and Mwari was believed to be the supreme creator
      • The community had several priests who led the rest of the people in the worship of Mwari 
      • Priests were believed to possess spiritual powers which they could use to ward off diseases, epidemics ,wars and in rainmaking
      • They believed in different types of spirits such as family spirits(Vadzimu), Clan spirits(Mhondoro) and national spirits(Chamiruka)
      • The Shona had a kinship system which was patrilineal(inheritance through the father
      • The community was divided into clans and clan names were coined from animal names such monkey, Leopard and elephant
      • They were a largely polygamous community where a man could marry many wives
      • They also practiced exogamy where marriage between related clans (paternal or maternal clan) was prohibited
      • They were relatively civilized owing to the fact that they lived in stone buildings

  4.    
    1.  State three ways used by nationalists in Ghana to fight for independence.
      • They formed political parties.
      • They used boycotts/demonstrations/strikes/go-slows.
      • They organized political rallies to mobilize mass support.
      • They used newspapers to articulate their views.
      • They used the legislative council
      • They composed songs/poems to attack colonialism.
      • They used trade unions.
      • They used international forum. 

    2. Explain six factors that led to the development of African Nationalism in Ghana.
      • Inadequate African representation in the Legislative council based discontent among the Ghanaians.
      • Loss of powers by the traditional African chiefs created discontent against the colonial government.
      • The need to guard against possible land alienation by the British united the Africans.
      • Introduction of taxation by the colonial government was resented by Ghanaians.
      • The meagre earnings by Africans from the sale of cocoa to Europeans created discontent among them.
      • The order by the colonial government that farmers uproot their crops due to prevalence of the “swollen shoot” disease upset them.
      • Then involvement of the ex-servicemen in the Second World War inspired them to fight for their independence.
      • The attainment of independence by India/Pakistan in 1947 encouraged the Ghanaians to demand for their right to govern themselves.
      • The existence of young educated Ghanaians who had understood the ideals of democracy/freedom who inspired the masses towards a worthy cause.
      • High rate of unemployment among the Africans created resentment/discontent.
      • The United Nations Charter’s declaration of the importance of political independence for all people inspired the Ghanaians and other leaders.
      • The charismatic leadership provided by Kwame Nkrumah united the people in their struggle against colonial domination.
      • The selective granting of trading licenses to Europeans traders while denying the same to the Africans created discontent. 

SECTION C (30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after Question 24.

  1.    
    1. Why did the British use direct rule in Zimbabwe?
      • They desired to control the economy of Zimbabwe to maximize profits.
      • The indigenous/local political institutions based on Induna system had been destroyed during the British occupation of Zimbabwe.
      • To ensure complete control of the African company personnel on the spot who were familiar with the area as well as the British system of administration.
      • Existence of the British South African company personnel on the spot who were familiar with the area as well as the British system of administration
      • The British S. Africa company had enough finance to pay administrative officers.

    2. Explain the effects of British rule in Zimbabwe.
      • It led to the alienation of African land to white settlers resulting to displacement of Africans.
      • African traditional rulers lost their political autonomy and served as puppets of the British/loss of independence.
      • The day-to-day running of the colony was vested in the hands of the British without much reference to the African interest.
      • Africans were subjected to heavy taxation
      • The British South African company was given too much power in the administration of colony.
      • It undermined African traditional economy as some Africans worked in White farms.
      • It led to the development of transport network/infrastructure
      • It led to the introduction of new crops in the region.
      • It undermined African culture
      • Establishment of white settlement subjected Africans to poverty
      • Africans were denied freedom of movement by being confined to the reserves and required to carry identity cards.
      • Africans were subjected to forced labour.

  2.    
    1. List three Europeans Countries that formed the Tripple alliance before the outbreak of the First World War.
      • Germany
      • Austria – Hungary
      • Italy 

    2. Describe six functions of the General Assembly of the United Nations (U.N)
      • The general Assembly liaises with the Security Council in making recommendations on maintenance of peace and security
      • Discusses issues relating to international peace and security.
      • It elects jointly with the Security Council, the judges of the international court of Justice/ appoints the secretary/ general
      • It receives/ acts on report from Security Council and other U.N organs
      • It approves U.N budget/ apportions the amounts of construction to be paid by each member state.
      • It elects non- permanent member of the security/ Economic/ Social fields
      • It promotes the development / codification of the international law
      • It facilitates the realization of human fundamental freedoms
      • It promotes higher/ better standards of living among nations. 

  3.    
    1. Identify three circumstances that may make a vice president assume presidency in India
      • When the sitting president dies
      • If the president becomes incapacitated
      • When the president resigns
      • When the president is removed/impeached 

    2. Explain six functions of the president of India
      • He/ She dissolves/calls elections of the lower house of parliament/Lok Sabha / House of the people
      • The president assents /vetoes bills that have been passed by parliament
      • The president is the commander in chief of the armed forces
      • The president declares a state of emergency when national security is threatened
      • The president appoints the Prime Minister on the advice of parliament/ He calls the leader of the winning party to form the government
      • The president is the major symbol of national unity as every Indian citizen is supposed to identify with him/her as their leader
      • The president has powers to appoint the state governors and supreme court judges
      • He /She has powers to make regulations for certain union territories
      • He /She establishes special council to arbitrate on inter-state disputes
      • The president nominates twelve members to the Council of States /Upper House/ Rajya Sabha
      • He is the leader of the political party that nominates him for elections
      • He has been given powers to pardon offenders 


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