Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Mang'u Mock 2020 Exam

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AGRICULTURE
PAPER 1
TIME: 2 HOURS.

Instructions to candidates

  • This question paper consists of THREE sections; A, B and C
  • Answer ALL questions in Section A and B.
  • Answer any TWO questions in Section C

SECTION A (30 MARKS)
Answer all questions in this section

  1. Name any two methods which can be used to detect mineral nutrient deficiency in crops. (1 mk)
  2. Why should a layer of top soil be added during the preparation of compost manure (1 mk)
  3. Give four reasons for practicing crop rotation. (2 mks)
  4. Give three reasons for practicing minimum tillage.(1½ mks)
  5. Give four reasons why horticultural crops are important to the economy of Kenya. (2 mks)
  6. Give four farming practices which help to improve soil structure. (2 mks)
  7. State three effects of good transport network and communication system on agriculture. (1½ mks)
  8. Give three methods of land reform in the farm. (1½ mks)
  9. State three reasons why leveling is done on the land. (1½ mks)
  10. State Four types of water pumps for lifting water on the farm. (2 mks)
  11. State two methods of breaking seed dormancy in certain seeds before planting(1 mk)
  12. List four materials used in the construction of a gabion. (2 mks)
  13. State four criteria used in classifying herbicides.(2 mks)
  14. State the use of each one of the documents given below(1½ mks)
    1. Cash receipts
    2. Purchase order
    3. Delivery note
  15. State any four farming practices which help to improve soil structure. (2 mks)
  16. What does the term close season mean in crop production.(1 mk)
  17. State two functions of plastic material when used as mulch in crop production. (1 mk)
  18. State four pieces of information contained on a land title deed. (2 mks)
  19. What are the three classifications of farm credit according to the repayment period (1½ mks)

SECTION B: (20 MARKS)
Answer all questions in this section

  1. The diagrams below show particles of three sorghum varieties. Answer the questions that follow after studying them carefully.
    agrmangp1q20
    1. Identify the varieties labeled L, M and N (112 mks)
    2. Which of the three varieties is less likely to be damaged by birds (V2 mk)
    3. Give a reason for your answer in (a) above (1mk)
    4. Name four methods that are used to control bird pests in a field of sorghum(2mks)
    5. Name two other pests that attack this crop (1mk)
    6. Give two effective cultural methods of controlling one of the pests you have indentified in (e) above. (1mk)
  2. Diagrams B and C below show some common weeds. Study them and answer the questions below.
    agrmangp1q21
    1. Identify the weeds (1mk)
    2. State one economic importance of weed C(12 mk)
    3. Why is it difficult to control weed B (1mk)
    4. Name two examples of systemic herbicides which can be used to control the weed labeled B (1mk
  3. The illustrations A and R below show some soil and water conservation structures of the farm. Study them and answer the questions that follow.
    agrmangp1q22
    1. Identify the structures A and R (1mk)
    2. Name the types of soil erosion controlled by the structures (1mk)
    3. State two ways in which the structures help to control soil erosion (1mk)
    4. Give two materials that can be used in the construction of structure A (1mk)
  4. The diagram below shows a maize cob attacked by a certain disease. Study it carefully and then answer questions that follow
    agrmangp1q23
    1. Identify the disease (1 mk)
    2. Name the organism that causes the disease Vente mai(1mk)
    3. State three cultural methods for controlling the disease(112 mks)
  5. Students were to apply a compound fertilizer of grade 5:20:10 on their agricultu plot of dimensions 3m x 4m at the rate of 200kg per hectare.
    1. Calculate the amount of fertilizer they would require for the plot (2mks)

Section C (40 marks)
Answer any TWO questions in this section in the spaces provided after no.2

  1.  
    1. Explain five factors to be considered in farm planning (10 marks)
    2. Explain six factors that should be considered when selecting seeds for planting (6 marks)
    3. Describe the role of magnesium in crop production(4 marks)
  2.      
    1. Explain the importance of irrigation in crop production (5 marks)
    2. Explain five physical methods of controlling crop pests (10 marks)
    3. Explain five management practices that can increase the productive life of a pasture stand (5 marks)
  3.      
    1. Explain five roles of trees in soil and water conservation (5marks)
    2. State five objectives of land reform (5marks)
    3. Explain five factors that may influence the spacing of crops (5 marks)
    4. State five reasons for establishing plants in a nursery before transplanting(5 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Name any 2 methods which can be used to detect mineral nutrient deficiency in crops
    • Soil testing
    • Plant tissue analysis
    • Observing deficiency symptoms
  2. Why should a layer of top soil be added during preparation of compost manure
    • Introduce bacteria for decomposition of organic matter.
  3. Give four reasons for practicing crop rotation
    • Improve soil fertility
    • Improve soil structure
    • Control soil erosion
    • Control weeds
    • Control soil bome pests and diseases
    • Maximum utilization of nutrients
  4. Give three reasons for practicing ininimum tillage
    • Control soil erosion
    • Reduce cost of cultivation
    • Maintain soil structure
    • Conserve moisture
    • Prevent root disturbance and other underground structures
    • Prevent tubers and bulbs
    • Exposure of humus
  5. Give four reasons why horticultural crops are important to the economy of Kenya
    • Foreign exchange
    • Source of income
  6. 4 farming practices which help to improve soil structure
    • Crop rotation
    • Addition of organic matter
    • Minimum tillage
  7. 3 effects of good transport network and communication systems on agriculture
    • Easier, quicker movement of bulky and perishable products
    • Efficient distribution of products to consumers
    • Information on market and research is casily passed on.
    • Reduces transport costs.
  8. Give 3 methods of land reform in the farm
    • Land consolidation
    • Land adjudication and registration
    • Settlement and resettlement
  9. State 3 reasons why leveling is done on the land
    • Uniform depth of planting
    • Facilitate operation of field equipment harvesters
    • Uniform penetration of irrigation water
    • Soil clods with crushed increase seed soil contact
    • Field-ready for agriculture operations-planting, fertilizer and manure
    • Reduces possibility of waterlogging and soil erosion. 
  10. State 4 types of water pumps for lifting water on the farm
    • Hydram
    • Reciprocating pump
    • Centrifugal pump
    • Piston pump
    • Rotary/ semi rotary pump.
  11. State 2 methods of breaking seed dormancy in certain seeds before planting
    • Soaking
    • Chemical treatment
  12. List four materials used in the construction of a gabion
    • Wire mesh
    • Stones
    • Metal bars
  13. State four critin used in classifying herbicides
    • Formulation
    • Selectivity
    • Mode of action
    • Time of application
  14. State the use of each one of the documents given below
    • Cash receipts-issued when payment in cash for goods is made Purchase order
    • Prepared by the consumer-shows description and quantities of goods desired.
    • Delivery note - Prepared by supplier to show items in an order.
  15. State any 4 farming practices which help to improve soil structure
    • Use of organic manure
    • Crop rotation
    • Leaving land fallow
    • Mulching and cover cropping
    • Proper tillage/ cultivation practices
  16. What does the term close season mean in crop production
    • A certain crop should not be grown to control a pest or disease.
  17. State 2 functions of plastic materials when used as mulch in crop production
    • Moderate temperature .
    • Conserve moisture
  18. State 4 pieces of information contained on a land title deed.
    • Name of land owner
    • Size of land
    • Land parcel number
    • Seal of issuing officer
    • Date of registration
    • Type of land ownership
    • Signature of issuing offices
  19. What are the three classifications of farm credit according to the repayment period
    • Short-term credit
    • Medium-term credit
    • Long-term credit
  20. Answer questions that follow after studying carefully
    1. Identify the varieties labeled L, M and N
      • L-Open Panicle
      • M-Compact Panicle
      • N-Goose necked
    2. Which of the three varieties is less likely to be damaged by birds
      • Variety L -
    3. Give a reason for your answer above
      • Curved stalk-swings bird pests
    4. Name four methods that are used to control bird pests in a field of sorghum
      • Scaring
      • Trapping
      • Scarecrows
      • Poisoning
      • Destroy breeding
    5. Name two other pests that attack this crop
      • Sorghum shootfly
      • Midges
      • Stalk borer
    6. Give 2 effective cultural methods of controlling one of the pests you have identified above
      • Destroy infected crop residue
      • Crop rotation
  21. Study diagrams B and C and answer questions below
    1. Identify the weeds
      • B-Tagetes Minilta (Mexican Marigold
      • C-Oxalis Latifolia 
    2. It is edible/ used as a culinary herb thus can be harvested and sold.
    3. Why is it difficult to control weed B
      • Many seeds
  22. Study illustrations and answer questions that follow
    1. Identify structures Q and R
      • Q - Gabion
      • R - Trash line
    2. Name the types of soil erosion controlled by the structures
      • Gabion - Gully erosion
      • Trash line-Rill sheet
    3. State 2 ways in which the structures help to control soil erosion
      • Trap soil
      • Prevent overland flow
    4. Give 2 materials that can be used in the construction of structure Q 
      • Mesh wire
      • Stones/hardcore
  23. Study diagram carefully then answer questions that follow.
    1. Identify the disease
      • Headsmut
    2. Name organism that causes the disease
      • Fungus/ Ustilago nuda
    3. State three cultural methods for controlling the disease
      • Clean seed
      • Crop rotation
      • Destroy crop residues
  24. Calculate amount of fertilizer they would require for the plot
    • 10000m2 require 200kg
      12m2 require ?
      12 x 200   = 24
         10000
      100 - 0.024kg / 240g 25.
  25.  
    1. Factors in farm planning
      • Climatic actors
      • Security
      • Accessibility to main road
      • Communication within the farm
      • Water and power supply
      • Soil type
      • Farm size
      • Government regulations/policy 
      • Personal preference
    2. Factors to be considered when selecting seeds for planting - Quality parent material - healthy, high yielding, vigorous in growth
      • Age of seeds-mature seeds
      • Storage period of seeds
      • Size of seeds
      • Shape of seeds
      • Purity of seeds
    3. Role of magnesium in crop production
      • Component of chlorophyll
      • Promotes nitrogen fixation
      • Activates enzymes
      • Synthesis of oil in oil crops
  26.       
    1. Explain importance of irigation in crop production
      • Farmer can grow crops when rain is in shortage
      • Crops like rice can be grown
      • Method of land reclamation ASAL
      • Crops can be grown throughout the year food supply guaranteed
      • Pest control - armyworms, aphids
    2. 5 physical methods of controlling crop posts
      • Use of lethal temperature - extreme temperature e.g hot water
      • Proper drying of produce-dry against too hard for pests to penetrate, discourage mould
      • Flooding - armyworms and cut worms - drowning moles
      • Suffocation - use of CO, - storage bins
      • Proper spacing
      • Physical destruction-through hand picking or trapping pests and killing eg squirrels
      • Use of scarecrows -structures erected in the field to frighten birds and large animals e.g dikdik
      • Use of physical barriers-materials to prevent pests from getting to crops e.g metal plates in raised granaries, construction of fences, trenches - large animals
      • Use of electromagnetic radiation-radio waves - deactivates enzymes in insects. Moths attracted by UV, aphids - yellow highly destroyed by heat or chemicals.
    3. 5 management practices that can increase productive life of pasture stand
      • Weeding - prevent competition-nutrients, moisture
      • Top dressing-nitrogenous fertilizer-vigorous growing
      • Topping-remove steaming fibrous materials left or after growing-stimulate fresh regrowth.
      • Re-seedling-gapping. Refilling patches of grasses and legumes if partially demanded by overgrazing
      • Controlled grazing - control damage caused by livestock on forage during grazing. Recommendation. Control grazing by paddocking, strip grazing or tethering
      • Pest control - avoid damage to crops c.g moles by trapping and use of pesticides.
  27.       
    1. Roles of trees in soil water conservation
      • Protect soil from rain drop erosion reduce force of falling onto ground
      • Provide shade ad reduce loss of moisture by evaporation
      • Acts as wind breaks
      • Roots of trees bind soil particles together
      • Reduce speed of running water-reduce erosive power
      • Leaves decay and supply humus to soil-improves infiltration rate of the soil.
    2. Objectives of land reforms
      • Encourage conservation measures of land and general improvement of land
      • Increase productivity of both land and labour
      • Encourage commercial instead of subsistence farming - meaning self-employment in rural areas
      • Encourage farmers to invest more-security of tenure improvement
      • Achieve flexibility in farming patterns to moct changing national and market demands
      • Achieve effective use of national land resources eg settlement of unused land and introduction of irrigation schemes where possible and applicable.
    3. Spacing of crops - factors influencing
      • Type of machinery used - free passage of machines e.g coffee tractor spraying equipment
      • Soil fertility-fertile-close spacing-high pop
      • The size of plant -tall varieties - wide spacing, short varieties-closer, katumani, kitale
      • Moisture availability - high rainfall areas
      • Use of crop - forage or silage crop-closer spacing
      • Pest and disease control - proper spacing--movement of pests e.g aphids in groundnuts
      • Growth habit of the crop-spreading and tilling crop varieties-wider spacing
    4. Importance of nursery
      • Production of many seedlings in a small area
      • Routine management practices-casily and timely done
      • Best conditions provided for growth fine filth shading and watering
      • Planting of small sceds develop into strong seedlings before transplanting
      • Ensures transplanting only those seedlings that are healthy and vigorous growth.

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