Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Sukellemo Joint Mock Examinations July 2020

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INSTRUCTIONS

  • This paper has two sections: A and B.
  • Answer ALL question in section A. Answer question 6 and any two questions in section b.
  • All answers must be written on the answer sheets provided.
  • Candidates will be penalized for not following instructions given in this paper.

EXAMINERS USE ONLY

QUESTIONS  MAXIMUM SCORE  ACTUAL SCORE 
SECTION A    
(1-5) 25  
SECTION B    
6 25  
7 25  
8 25  
9 25  
10 25  
TOTAL 100  


QUESTIONS

SECTION A: 25 MARKS
Answer ALL questions in this section.

  1.                                          
    1. Define environment (2 mks)
    2. Give three components of the physical environment (3 mks)
  2. The diagram below represents parts of a fault.
    Q2 JHFGAUGD
    1. Name the parts marked A and B. (2mks)
    2. State three ways in which faulting influences drainage. (3mks)
  3.                            
    1. Explain how topography influences weathering (2mks)
    2. State three ways in which plants cause weathering  (3mks)
  4.                        
    1. Give three conditions necessary for the formation of the Karst Scenery (3mks)
    2. Name two surface features in the Karst Scenery (2mks)
  5.                                           
    1. Differentiate between emerged coasts and submerged coasts (2mks)
    2. State three conditions that favor the growth of coral (3mks)

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any other two from this section.

  1. Study the map of Taita Hills 1:5000 (sheet 189/4) provided and answer the following questions.
    1.                                
      1. What is the magnetic variation of the declination of the map? (1 mk)
      2. What is the index to the adjoining sheet to the North East of the area covered by the map? (1 mk)
      3. Calculate the area of Taita sisal Estates. (2marks)
    2.                                
      1. Give the latitudinal and longitudinal position of St. Mary's High School. (2mks).
      2. Name two human features found in grid square 4324 (2mks)
      3. What is the bearing of the air photo principal in grid square 4118 from the road junction at grid square 3422. (2mks)
    3.                      
      1. Using a vertical scale of 1cm to represent 40 meters, draw a cross section along northing 19 from Easting 33 to tasting 40. (4 marks)
      2. On the cross section, mark and name the following.
        • A steep slope
        • river
        • Hill
      3. Calculate the vertical exaggeration. (2 marks)
    4.                                            
      1. Citing evidence from the map, explain three factors that have influence distribution of settlement (6 marks) 
      2. Describe the vegetation of the area covered by the map. (3 marks)
  2.                        
    1.                          
      1. What are earth movements. (2 marks)
      2. Describe the continental Drift Theory. (3 marks)
    2.                          
      1. Differentiate between vulcanicity and volcanicity. (2 marks)
      2. Draw a well labeled diagram of an asymmetrical Ash and Cinder cone. (3 marks)
    3.                          
      1. With the aid of a well labeled diagram, describe the formation of lava plateau. (5 marks)
      2. Give two examples of lava plateaus in Kenya. (2 marks)
      3. Describe how hot springs are formed. (4 marks)
    4. Explain two positive significance of vulcanicity to agriculture. (4 marks) 
  3. Below is the map of Kenya showing climatic regions, use it to answer questions that follow:
    Q8 IUYGAUYG
    1.                              
      1. Name the climates marked P, Q & R. (3 marks)
      2. Describe the characteristics of the climate marked VB. (4 marks)
    2.                                
      1. Differentiate between weather and climate. (2 marks)
      2. With the aid of a well labeled diagram, explain how latitude influences climate. (4 marks)
    3. Explain how ocean currents influence climate of the adjacent coastal lands. (4 marks) 
    4. Explain 4 ways in which the desert vegetation adapts to the environmental conditions of the region. (8 marks)
  4.                              
    1.                                        
      1. State two processed of wind crosion in desert areas. (2 marks)
      2. Give three reasons why wind action is effective in hot deserts. (3 marks)
      3. With the aid of well-labeled diagrams, describe the formation of Yardangs. (7 marks)
    2. Explain three benefits of desert landscapes to human activities. (6 marks)
    3. Students from Lowdar High School carried out a study in Chalbi desert.
      1. Name two features resulting form the action of water they may have found during the study. (2 marks)
      2. Formulate two objectives of such a study. (2 marks)
      3. State three problems they may have encountered during the study. (3 marks) 
  5.                                    
    1.                                        
      1. What are ice sheets? (2 marks)
      2. State three factors that influence the movement of ice. (3 marks)
    2. Describe two processes of glacial erosion. (4 marks)
    3. The feature below represents a glacial erosion feature in glaciated lowland. Use it to answer the questions (i) and (ii).

      Q10 IOYA7YED
    4. Explain two benefits of glaciated landscapes to human environment. (4 marks)
    5. A group of students went out for fieldwork to study the action of ice on Mt. Kenya.
      1. Give three methods of collecting data they may have used. (3 marks)
      2. State two follow up activities they were involved in. (2 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A: 25 MARKS
Answer ALL questions in this section.

  1.                            
    1. Define environment (2mks)
      • Environment refers to all external conditions surrounding an organism (be it a plant, an animal or a human being, and has influence over its behavior or activities.
    2. Give three components of the physical environment (3mks)
      • Weather and climate
      • Water ✓
      • Natural vegetation
      • Landforms/rocks Any 3 x 1
  2.                                                                             
    1. Name the parts marked A and B.(2mks)
      • A-Hade
      • B - Throw
    2. State three ways in which faulting influences drainage (3mks)
      • Vertical faulting across a river may result in the formation of a waterfall.
      • Some rivers flow along fault lines leading to the formation of fault guided drainage patterns
      • Faulting may make the river change the direction of flow by following the new line of weakness
      • Faulting may make the river disappear underground
      • Faulting leads to the formation of depressions which are later filled with water to form lakes/ inland drainage basins.
      • Faulting creates lines of weakness which become passages of hot water from the ground to the surface inform of hor springs or geysers.
      • Fault scarp slopes may expose underground water resulting in the formation of scarp springs
  3.                      
    1. Explain how topography influences weathering (2mks)
      • In highland areas where the slope is steep, the weathering process is faster than in the inlands where the slope is usually gentle
      • On steep slopes, the weathered materials are washed away quickly thus exposing the rock surface to more agents of weathering.
      • On gently sloping and flat areas, the weathered materials remain in one place hence slows down the rale at which the rock breaks down.
    2. State three ways in which plants cause weathering (3mks)
      • Plant roots such as those of trees grow in joint and cracks of rocks, widening them and thus cause rock blocks to separate.
      • The widening of joints and cracks provides space and passage for moisture and air to penetrate deeper into the rocks hence facilitating chemical weathering
      • When plants ros on rocks in the presence of moisture, they may produce organic acids.
      • These acids react with some of the minerals within the rocks causing decay. Mosses and lichens that grow on rocks cause the area they occupy to be moist and hence creating enabling environment for chemical weathering process to take place
  4.                                      
    1. Give three conditions necessary for the formation of the Karst Scenery (3mks)
      • The surface rock and the rock beneath should be thick chalk or dolomite.
      • The rocks should be hard and well jointed to allow solution to occur along joints.
      • The climate should be hot and humid to accelerate chemical weathering by solution.
      • The water table in the area should be deep below the surface to allow rocks above to form distinct features. Any 3x1
    2. Name two surface features in the Karst Scenery (2mks)
      • Clints and grikes
      • Dolines Uvalas
      • A polje
      • Swallow hole
      • Gorges 
      • Karst window/ bridge Any 2 x 1
  5.                                      
    1. Differentiate between emerged coasts and submerged coasts (2mks)
      • Emerged coast is when part of the land which was formerly under water becomes permanently exposed whereas submerged coast is when part of the former coastal land lies under segwarer.
    2. State three conditions that favor the growth of coral (3mks)
      • The optimum water temperature range should be between 25°C and 29°C. V
      • The polyps must be submerged but may be exposed during low tide only for a short period of time.
      • The waters must be shallow.
      • The water must be clear and salty.

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any other two from this section.

  1. Study the map of Taita Hills 1:5000 (sheet 189/4) provided and answer the following questions
    1.                          
      1. What is the magnetic variation of the declination of the map? (1mk)
        • 0°30'
      2. What is the index to the adjoining sheet to the North East of the area covered by the map? (1 mk)
        • 190/1 Mudanda
      3. Calculate the area of Taita sisal Estates. (2mks)
        • Complete square - 2
        • Incomplete square - 9
          Are = 2 + 9/2 = 2+ 4.5
          = 6.5 km2 (+/-0.5)  = (6.0 -7.0) km2 
    2.                                        
      1. Give the latitudinal and longitudinal position of St. Mary's High School. (2mks).
        • 3°25'S and 38°20'E
      2. Name two human features found in grid square 4324 (2mks) 
        • Settlement
        • Main track (Motorable)
      3. What is the bearing of the air photo principal in grid square 4118 from the road junction at grid square 3422. (2.mks)
        • = 299° +-1°
          = 298 - 300° c)
    3.                                
      1. Using a vertical scale of lem to represent 40 meters, draw a cross section along northing 19 from Easting 33 to tasting 40. (4marks)
      2. On the cross section, mark and name the following. (3marks)
        q6 ikuaghuyd
        Horizontal scale =  1 cm rep 50,000cm
        Vertical scale = 1 cm rep 40 mtrs
      3. Vertical exaggeration (2 marks)
        VE = Vertical scale
                Horizontal scale
        VS = 1:4000
        HS= 1:50000
        VE =  1          or          1      
               4000                50000
        VE = 12.5 times
    4.                          
      1. Citing evidence from the map, explain three factors that have influence distribution of settlement (6mks)
        • Drainage. 
        • Vegetation. 
        • Transport.
        • Relief slope.
        • Social amenities like Security, Schools, Health etc.
          NB. Evidence should be verified from the map.
      2. Describe the vegetation of the area covered by the map. (3mks)
        • There are patches of forests vegetation in the northern and western parts of the map
        • There is thicket vegetation on the eastern part of the trap.
        • Scrub and scattered trees vegetation are spread out through the map.
        • There is a mixture of forest and thicket to the north of Msau tributary and to the west of riyer Ruhia.
  2.                            
    1.                                
      1. What are earth movements (1 mk)
        • These are movements which occur within the rocks of the earth's crust due totechonic forces
      2. Describe the continental drift theory (4mks)
        • This theory proposed by Wegner states that initially the earth was a single land mass/super continent called Pangea.
        • The land mass was surrounded by a great ocean panthalassa
        • Pangea broke up into two land masses, northem continent called Lauratia and southern continent called Gondwanaland
        • These continents were separated by a narrow ocean called Tethys (later Mediterranean sea)
        • In the Mesozoic era Lauresia broke up into Laurasian shield and Fennoscandia to form Europe and Asia.
        • Gondwanaland broke up to present day Africa, Australia, Americas, Antarctica and India which drifted northwards 
    2.                                      
      1. Differentiate between vulcanicity and volcanicity (2mks)
        • Vulcanicity is the process operating in the interior of the earth by which solid, liquid and gaseous materials are forces out of the interior or into the interior of the earth's crust while/whereas Volcanicity is the process whereby igneous materials reach the surface of the earth through an eruption
      2. Draw a well labeled diagram of an asymmetrical ash and cinder cone
    3.                            
      1. With aid of a diagram describe the form of a lava plateau (5 mks)
        • Lava plateau are formed by eruptions where basic and ultra-basic magma comes out of the ground through a fissure The magma is low in viscosity therefore on reaching the surface it flows for a long distance before cooling and solidifying As the lava flows over fills the depressions and valleys leveling the entire surface Continuous eruption results into a buildup of layers of solidified magma over an extensive level upland area of more than 500m above sea level called a lava plateau.
      2. Describe how a hot spring is formed (4mks)
        • Rain water enters the crustal rocks through cracks, joints and lines of weakness This water percolates through the rocks to the region where the hot rocks are located underground The water is heated by the hot rocks/magma and tums to steam; it is forced by pressure upwards to the earth's surface As the steam escapes to the earth's surface, it heats the ground water in the surrounding rocks and oozes out through cracks as hot springs.
    4.                                        
      1. Explain three positive significance of vulcanicity to Agriculture (6mks)
        • Vulcanicity produces volcanic rocks that are weathered to form fertile volcanic soils that support crop farming in the Kenya highlands. Volcanic Mountain are water catchment areas which are sources of many rivers. The rivers provide water for irrigation enhancing growth of crops Volcanic mountains received high rainfall on the windward side which attracts settlement and crop farming, the leeward side receives little rainfall enables cattle ranching to be practiced.
  3.                                              
    1.                                      
      1. Name theclimate marked P, Q, R (3mks)
        • P-Tropocal continental / semi-desert
        • Q-Modified tropical climate
        • R- Tropical northern climate
      2. Describe the characteristics of the climate marked V.
        • The mean annual range of temperature is small
        • The region experiences moderate temperature ranging from 20 - 26 degrees centigrade
        • The rainfall occurs in double maxima Receives convectional rainfall which occurs in the afternoons High humidity throughout the year
    2. Differentiate between weather and climate
      • Weather is the condition of the atmosphere of a given place during a specific time while climate is the average atmospheric conditions a given place for a long period of time 30 - 35 years
    3. With aid of a well diagram, explain how latitude influences climate 4mks)
      • Areas near the equator experiences high temperature than those away from the equator.
        Reasons;
      • At the equator sun's rays hit the surface of the earth at a right angle, hit a small area, travel shorter distance therefore the areas have high temperatures.
      • At higher latitudes the sun's ray fall obliquely on the earth's surface covering large areas leading to less heat, rays pass through a greater thicker layer of the atmosphere therefore more heat is lost leading to low temperatures in these areas.
      • Latitude influences seasonal variation of rainfall, tropical areas in the north receive rainfall from March to July when the sun is in the northern hemisphere while tropical areas in the southern hemisphere receive rainfall from October to February when the sun is in the southern hemisphere.
        q8 igaygh
    4. Explain how ocean currents influence climate
      • When wins blow from the sea towards the coast, they Cross over the ocean currents The winds adapts to the temperatures of the ocean currents, if the ocean currents are cold, they are cooled and as they approach they bring a cooling effect onto land resulting on lower temperatures on land Warm ocean currents, the onshore winds which cross it carry a warming effect onto land raising temperature of the coastal areas Cold ocean currents chill the rain bearing winds which eventually drop the moisture over the sea. On reaching the land the winds bring little rain to coastal areas leading to semi-arid or arid climate. 11 the ocean currents are warm the onshore rain bearing winds will be warmed up and hey hold on to the moisture until they reach the land where they cause heavy rainfall.
    5. Explain four ways in which desert vegetation adapt to the environmental conditions of the region (5mks)
      • Some plants have thick fleshy succulent leaves to enable them store water Others have long roots to tap ground water Some plants have no leaves/thin leaves/spiky / waxy needle like leaves to reduce transpiration Some plants have thick hard barks to reduce transpiration Some plants have shiny surfaces to reflect light. 
  4.                              
    1.                                
      1. State two processes of wind erosion in desert areas
        • Abrasion. Wind uses it load as abrasion tools to break off parts of surface layers of rocks
        • Deflation. Wind lifts fine light unconsolidated materials and also roll them on the ground
        • Attrition. The weathered rock materials being transported by the wind collide against each other thus reducing in size.
      2. Give three reasons why wind action is effective in hot deserts
        • The presence of loose unconsolidated dry masses of sand and gravel which are easily acted upon by wind The occurrence of strong tropical storms within most hot deserts which move violently Absence of vegetation cover since most hot deserts are bare
      3. With the aid of well-labelled diagrams, describe the formation of Yardangs
        • There are vertical and alternating layers of resistant and less resistant rock outcrops lying parallel to the direction of the prevailing winds
          ans jkgjuygq
        • Wind abrasion and deflation eroded the soft rocks creating large furrows between hard layers
  5.                            memo kjhkajd           
    1. What is an ice sheet? (2mks
      1. It is large and continuous mass of ice which covers vast areas mainly in the lowlands.
      2. Factors influencing ice movement (3mks)
        • Gradient of the land
        • Difference in seasons
        • Friction exerted by the valley on which the glacier moves
    2.                                
      1. Processes of glacial erosion
        Plucking sapping/gouging
        • It occurs when the ice at the base and sides/banks of the glacier melts slightly. During winter, the water freezes in the cracks and joints. Ice in rock cracks and crevices tear/pull the rocks as it moves towards the lowlands. It is common in area with well-jointed rocks.
          Abrasion/grinding
        • The ice uses the rocks and debris embedded in it as a tool of erosion. When ice use the rock debris to scratch and polish the rock surfaces over which the glacier moves.
          Nivation
        • It is erosion of the highland areas by freeze and thaw. When the temperature rises, the melt water enters the cracks. During winter, the melt water in the cracks freeze increasing pressure in the cracks/joints. As a result, the not joints are expanded where they break off.
    3.                                
      1. X:tail, Y: crag F
      2. Crag and tail is an erosion feature in glaciated lowlands d
        • Crag - projection of resistant rock which protects a mass of softer rock on the downstream side of the glacier.
        • Moving ice in a glaciated lowland area encounters a rock outcrop made up of a hard rock on the upper side and a soft rock on the downstream side.
        • Cracks develop on the upstream side causing the ice to move and pluck materials from the resistant rock leaving a projection of resistant rock with a steep rugged upstream side called a crag.
        • An elongated feature on the downstream side of the crag formed by material deposited by the glacier on the downstream side and the weaker rock called a tail will be formed.
    4. Benefits of glaciated landscape (4mks)
      • Outwash plains and boulder clay plains have fertile soil which promote agriculture e.g. Canadian prairies.
      • Glacial lakes form natural routes which promote transport and communication and trade between countries e.g. the great lakes of North America.
      • Waterfalls from hanging valleys are ideal sites for the generation of hydro-electric power.
      • The sheltered waters in the fjords provide suitable breeding grounds for fish as well as natural harbours.
      • Glacial erosion exposes minerals making it easier to exploit them. 
    5. A group of students went out for fieldwork to study the action of ice on Mt. Kenya.
      1. Give three methods of collecting data they may have used. (3mks)
        • Observation
        • Administering questionnaires
        • Content analysis
        • Collecting samples
        • Interviewing
        • Taking photographs
      2. State two follow up activities they were involved in.
        • Writing reports
        • Displaying photographs 
        • Playing audio/visual tapes 
        • Giving a talk/lecture
        • Displaying the filled questionnaires
        • Reading further/ further research.
        • Discussions of the findings

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