History and Government Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Sukellemo Joint Mock Examinations July 2020

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  1. This paper consists of three sections A, B and C. 
  2. Answer ALL the questions in section A, THREE questions in section B and TWO questions in Section C.
  3. Answers to all the questions must be written in the foolscaps/spaces provided.
QUESTION  SCORE  TOTAL 
1-17         
18  
19  
20  
21  
22  
23  
24  


QUESTIONS

SECTION A: 25 MARKS

  1. Give two ways in which the study of History promote a sense of patriotism in learners (2 marks) 
  2. Name two communities that belong to the Highland Nilotes (2 marks)
  3. What was the main reason for the migration of Eastern bantu from Shungwaya during the precolonial period (1 mark) 
  4. State the main factor that led to the collapse of the Portuguese rule along the East African coast (1 mark)
  5. Name two Arab families which ruled the Kenyan coast on behalf of the Oman Arabs (2 marks)
  6. State two political responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen (2 marks)
  7. Identify the first two steps in the constitution making process (2 marks)
  8. State two rights of the Youth in Kenya provided in the constitution of Kenya 2010 (2 marks)
  9. Name the treaty that concluded the partition of East Africa (1 mark)
  10. Identify one system of administration used by the British in Kenya (1 mark)
  11. Identify two ways through which the colonial government controlled the movement of the Africans to the urban centers (2 marks)
  12. What was the main method used by Tom Mboya to protect the African interests against colonie oppression (1 mark)
  13. State the main role of the senate in Kenya (1 mark)
  14. Identify one organ of national security in Kenya (1 mark)
  15. Name one National philosophy used as a development strategy in Kenya since independence (1 mark) 
  16. Name one type of land holding in Kenya (1 mark)
  17. Identify two constitutional offices established to monitor the use of public revenue (2 marks)

SECTION B: 45 MARKS

  1.                        
    1. State five factors for the migration of the Eastern Cushites into Kenya (5 marks)
    2. Describe five aspects of the social organization of the Maasai  (10 marks)
  2.                      
    1. State five factors that led to the growth of towns along the Kenyan coast before the 19" Century (5 marks) 
    2. Explain five factors that led to the decline of the Portuguese rule along the East African Coast (10 marks)
  3.                        
    1. Outline five recommendations of the Devonshire White Paper (5 marks) 
    2. Explain five problems faced by the Settler farmers in Kenya during the colonial period. (10 marks)
  4.                            
    1. In which five ways has the Kenyan government attempted to preserve cultural heritage since independence (5 marks)
    2. Discuss five steps the government of Kenya has taken to enhance industrial development since independence (10 marks)

SECTION C: 30 MARKS

  1.                                
    1. Outline the composition of the National Assembly (3 marks)
    2. Explain six merits of Parliamentary supremacy in Kenya (12 marks)
  2.                          
    1. Name three subordinate courts in Kenya (3 marks)
    2. Explain six challenges facing the Judiciary in Kenya (12 marks)
  3.                              
    1. Identify three domestic sources of revenue for the County governments in Kenya (3 marks)
    2. Explain six reasons why the government of Kenya prepares a national budget annually (12 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A: 25 

  1. Give two ways in which the study of History promote a sense of patriotism in learners (2 marks) 
    • It enables the learners to acquire positive attitude towards their country. 
    • It encourages learners to be responsible citizens.
    • Learners develop positive values.
    • It enables learners to become loyal to their country
  2. Name two communities that belong to the Highland Nilotes (2 marks)
    • Tugen 
    • Nandi
    • Sabaor
    • Kipsigis
    • Maralwer
    • Pokot
    • Keiyo Any /*1=  1mark
  3. What was the main reason for the migration of Eastern bantu from Shungwaya during the pre-colonial period
    • Attack by the Oromo/Galla
      1*1= 1 mark
  4. State the main factor that led to the collapse of the Portuguese rule along the East African coast (1 marks) 
    • The attack by the Omani Arabs and the seizure of fort Jesus. 1*1 = 1 mark
  5. Name two Arab families which ruled the Kenyan coast on behalf of the Oman Arabs 
    • Nabahan
    • Mazrui
    • Busaidi 2x = 2 marks 
  6. State two political responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen (2 marks)
    • Offering oneself for election to an elective post
    • Voting during elections 
    • Taking part in both local and national debates/suggests the best-suited people to lead the country at large
    • Ensuring proper utilization of public and private resources including water and electricity 
  7. Identify the first two steps in the constitution making process (2 marks)
    • Debate over contentious issues
    • Collection of public views 
  8. State two rights of the Youth in Kenya provided in the constitution of Kenya 2010
    • Access to relevant education and training Have opportunities to associate, be represented and participate in all spheres of life.
    • Access employment 
    • Are protected from harmful cultural practices and exploitation 
  9. Name the treaty that concluded the partition of East Africa (1 mark)
    • The Heligoland Treaty/Anglo-German treaty of 1890
  10. Identify one system of administration used by the British in Kenya (1 mark)
    • Indirect rule 
  11. Identify two ways through which the colonial government controlled the movement of the Africans to the urban centers (2 marks)
    • Taking head count of those who were allowed to live in the urban centres
    • Enacting strict rules on migration into the urban centres
    • Ensuring that only those who had specific activities to undertake in the urban centres lived there.
    • Introduction of the Kipande system 
  12. What was the main method used by Tom Mboya to protect the African interests against colonial oppression (1 mark)
    • Trade unionism 
  13. State the main role of the senate in Kenya (1 mark) 
    • The senate represent the interest of the counties at the national level
  14. Identify one organ of national security in Kenya (1 mark)
    • The Defence Forces 
    • National Intelligence service
    • National Police service 
  15. Name one National philosophy used as a development strategy in Kenya since independence (1 mark)
    • African Socialism 
    • Harambee
    • Nyayo
  16. Name one type of land holding in Kenya (1 mark) 
    • Public land
    • Private land
    • Community land
  17. Identify two constitutional offices established to monitor the use of public revenue (2 marks)
    • Auditor General
    • Controller of budget

SECTION B: 45 MARKS

  1.                    
    1. State five factors for the migration of the Eastern Cushites into Kenya (5 marks)
      • Search for pasture for their livestock forced them to migrate to into Kenya.
      • Internal conflicts in their original homeland forced them to migrate into  Kenya
      • War with other communities forced them to migrate.
      • Natural calamities eg. draught and famine in their original homeland forced them to migrate.
      • Popularion pressure in their original homeland forced them to migrate into Kenya.
      • They migrated because of the desire to fulfill their spirit of adventure.
      • Diseases which affected both plants and animals forced them to migrate from their original homeland into Kenya.
    2. Describe five aspects of the social organization of the Maasai (10 marks)
      • The basic social uit was the clan which was made up of related family members.
      • Circumcision of boy and girls
      • The Maasai believed in the existence of God whom they called Enkai
      • They had places of Worship (shrines) where prayers and sacrifices were offered
      • They believed in ancestral spirits who were appeased through pouring libarion.
      • Marriage was polygamous as well as exogamous
      • They had religious leaders such as diviners and seers
      • The Oloibon was a religious leader.
      • The Maasai had several social ceremonies marking birth, circumcision etc.
      • (Any five well explained x 2 = 10 marks)
  2.                          
    1. State five factors that led to the growth of towns along the Kenyan coast before the 19 Century (5 marks)
      Most towns emerged along the coast due to;
      • Trade and commerce
      • Strategic position of the East African coast
      • Islamic religion
      • Existence of minerals such as gold which were used in trade
      • Favorable climatic conditions
      • Existence of deep natural harbours
      • Peace and security in the area.
    2. Explain five factors that led to the decline of the Portuguese rule along the East African Coast (10 marks)
      • Portugal was a small country with a small population hence she was unable to raise a big army.
      • The Portuguese had inadequate personnel compared to the vast East African coast.
      • Portuguese officials were greedy and corrupt who amassed wealth at the expense of administration.
      • They lacked a systematic form of government e.g. there was no attempt to administer the interior.
      • The Portuguese faced constant hostility and rebellion from the coastal people.
      • Decline in trade along the East African Coast.
  3.                          
    1. Outline five recommendations of the Devonshire White Paper (5 marks)
      • The Kenya Highlands was to be exclusively for white settlers.
      • The Indians would elect five members to the legislative council on a communal roll.
      • The European settlers demand for self-government in Kenya was rejected.
      • Racial segregation was abolished/restriction of Indian Immigration was abolished
      • The interests of the Africans were to be given priority.
      • The colonial secretary would exercise strict control over the affairs of the colony.
      • A missionary would be nominated to the Legco to represent African interests.
      • The settler would maintain their representation in the Legco.
        (Any 5x1 = 5 marks)
    2. Explain five problems faced by the Settler farmers in Kenya during the colonial period. (10 marks)
      • The settlers faced constant raids by the local inhabitants e.g. the Maasai raided their dairy farms for cattle.
      • Many Africans were not willing to offer labour which was needed by the senler's
      • Many farmers lacked basic farming knowledge and experience since they had not engaged in farming before.
      • They experienced transport problems due to roads being muddy and impassably during rainy seasons.
      • The settlers lacked adequate funds Icapital which hindered the procurement of farm inputs. machinery and labour.
      • There was lack of market during the inter-war period
      • The settlers lacked the knowledge of the regions they settled in in term of the climate, seasons and soils.
      • There were pests and diseases which affected crops and livestock for example lord Delamere lost cattle and wheat to tropical diseases. (Any 5x2 = 10 marks)
  4.                            
    1. In which five ways has the Kenyan government attempted to preserve cultural heritage since independence (5 marks) .
      • Through the establishment of the ministry of culture
      • Through the establishment of cultural heritage centres Through promotion of art
      • By establishment of Kenya National Theatre Promotion of cultural festivals
      • Inclusion of cultural studies in the curriculum (Any 5x1 = 5 marks)
    2. Discuss five steps the government of Kenya has taken to enhance industrial development since independence (10 marks) 
      • The passing of the foreign investment act of 1964 which allowed foreign investors to repatriate profit.
      • Establishment of the Kenya industrial estate. Through the provision of credit facilities to Africans to start industries.
      • The government has worked on the establishment of processing industries in the country.
      • The government also encouraged the setting up of the Juakali industries in the country
      • The government has also established the food processing industries.
      • The government also embarked in establishment of motor vehicle assembly industry in Thikar. (Any 5x2 - 10 marks)

SECTION C: 30 MARKS 

  1.                                        
    • Outline the composition of the National Assembly (3 marks) 
      • 290 elected members representing constituencies.
      • 47 women elected by registered voters of each county
      • 12 members nominated by the parliamentary parties to represent the special interest groups.
      • The speaker who is an ex-officio member (Any 3x1 = 3 marks)
    • Explain six merits of Parliamentary supremacy in Kenya (12 marks) 
      • It creates harmony as his Executive and the legislative works together. 
      • The system is flexible since in case of emergency, people may choose a leader from among the MPs to handle the crisis.
      • It makes the cabinet act more responsibly as their actions are monitored by the Parliament.
      • It allows citizens to participate in the governing process by electing representatives.
      • It acts as a training ground for future leaders.
      • It allows citizens to reject non-performing MPs and elect other who can perform.
      • It allows for constructive criticism from the opposition hence ensures good governance
        (2x6 = 12 marks) 
  2.                            
    • Name three subordinate courts in Kenya (3 marks)
      • The Magistrate Courts 
      • The Kadhi Courts
      • The Court Martial
      • Tribunals 
    • Explain six challenges facing the Judiciary in Kenya (12 marks)
      • Inadequate personnel, leading to delays in the administration of justice and backlog of cases.
      • External interference in the judicial process by other influential personalities.
      • Corruption in the court of law which results into unfair rulings 
      • High court fees which limit public access to courts
      • Poor terms of service and working conditions of some members of the judiciary make it difficult for them to administer justice.
      • The use of outdated laws leading to miscarriage of justice.
      • Shortage of equipment and facilities hinder administration of justice.
  3.                                      
    • Identify three domestic sources of revenue for the County governments in Kenya (3 marks)
      • Equitably shared national revenue
      • Counties' own revenue
      • Conditional and unconditional grants from the national government
      • Loans from the capital market 
      • Grants from local and external markets 3x1= 3 marks
    • Explain six reasons why the government of Kenya prepares a national budget annually (12 marks) 
      • it enables the government to explain to the public the tax structures.
      • It enables the government to source for revenue for its activities and programmes.
      • It enables the government to identify ways to spend its revenue without wastage.
      • It enables the government to prioritize development needs in the country.
      • It provides valuable information to people interested in investing in the country
      • It creates confidence among foreign countries and financial institutions.
      • It enables the government to assess its performance in the previous year and improve where necessary.
      • It enhances accountability and transparency on the side of the government in the eyes of the public.
      • it ensures there is a balance in the country's revenue and expenditure hence avoiding budget deficit.
      • Enable the government to set aside some funds to use in case of emergencies in course of the financial year.

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