History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Kapsabet Mock Exams 2021/2022

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES.

  1. This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
  2. Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C.
  3. This paper consists of 2 printed pages.
  4. Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.
  5. Candidates must answer all the questions in English. 

SECTION A (25 MARKS) Answer all questions in this section

  1. Identify one main source of History and Government of the Kenyan communities during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)
  2. Identify two cultural practices introduced by the Cushites in Kenya. (2 marks)
  3. Identify the title given to the war leader among the Luo community. (1 mark)
  4. State one characteristic of a good constitution. (1 mark)
  5. Which other name is used to refer to the Oromo? (1 mark)
  6. State the two levels of government in Kenya today. (2 marks)
  7. Identify one recommendation of Lyttleton constitution of 1954. (1 mark)
  8. Highlight two functions of the governor during the British administration in Kenya. (2marks)
  9. Give two demands of African Elected Members Organization (A.E.M.O). (2 mark)
  10. Name two operation Forts established by the British to enhance political control in Central Kenya. (2 marks)
  11. State two problems that the co-operative movement has faced in Kenya since independence (2 marks)
  12. Identify two elements of the rule of law in Kenya (2 marks)
  13. State two characteristics of human rights. (2 marks)
  14. State two terms of the Heligoland treaty of 1890. (2 marks)
  15. Give two values and principles of the public service according to the Kenya Constitution of 2010. (2marks)
  16. Give one role played by the Public Service Commission in Kenya. (1 mark)

    SECTION B (45 MARKS)
    Answer any three questions.
  17.      
    1. Name three Kalenjin speaking communities that remained in Mt. Elgon region during migration. (3 marks)
    2. Describe the social organization of the pre-colonial Somali community. (12 marks)
  18.      
    1. State three factors that led to the decline of the coastal towns after 1500 AD. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six social impacts of the missionary activities in Kenya. (12 marks)
  19.      
    1. Give five common challenges faced by both the railway builders and settlers in colonial Kenya. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five internal factors that led to the growth of Kenyan nationalist activities. (10 marks)
  20.    
    1. Give three grievances of the white settlers that were presented to the Duke of
      Devonshire in London in 1923. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six positive effects of urbanization in Kenya during the colonial period. (12 marks)

      SECTION C (30 MARKS)
      Answer any two questions from this section.
  21.        
    1. State five non-violent methods of resolving conflicts. (5marks)
    2. Explain five factors that promote national unity. (10 marks)
  22.      
    1. Identify three ways that could be used to amend the constitution in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Explain the process of law making at the National level in Kenya. (12 marks)
  23.      
    1. State five functions of Kenya correctional facilities. (5marks)
    2. Explain five factors that undermine the administration of justice in Kenya. (10marks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1. Source of History and government.
    I. Oral tradition .
    (Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)
  2. Identify two cultural practices introduced by the Cushites in Kenya.
    1. Circumcision.
    2. Age set
    3. Taboo against eating fish.
      (Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)
  3. Identify the title given to the war leader among the Luo community.
    1. Osumba Mrwayi
      (1 x 1 = 1 mk)
  4. State one characteristic of a good constitution.
    1. It should define duties and rights of citizens.
    2. Should define duties and functions of the arms of government.
    3. Should provide for fundamental human rights.
      (1 x 1 = 1 mk)
  5. Which other name is used to refer to the Oromo?
    Galla (1 mk)
  6. Two levels of government in Kenya today
    1. National government.
    2. County government.
  7. Identify one recommendation of Lyttleton constitution of 1954.
    1. A multi-racial council of ministers was constituted. B.A Ohanga was made minister for Community Development and African affairs.
    2. The multi-racial council of ministers was made up of official and non-official members. It replaced the Governors executive council.
    3. The colonial government allowed for the formation of African political organizations but restricted them to the district level.
    4. It led to the establishment of an advisory council to discuss government policies.
    5. African Associations emerged e.g The Kenya African National Congress founded by Argwing Khodek. The government refused to register it because of it’s perceived national outlook. However, a number of district association were formed.
    6. In 1957, elections were held in eight constituencies and 8 members were elected to the Legco i.e Ronald Ngala, James Muimi, Benard Mate, Tom Mboya, Daniel Moi, Masinde Muliro, Oginga Odinga and Lawrence Oguda.
      (Any1 x 1 = 1 mk)
  8. Two functions of the governor during the British administration in Kenya. (2marks)
    • Dealt with foreign affairs
    • Defence of the colony
    • Dealt with internal security
    • Approval of legislation (Any 2 x 1)
  9. Demands of African elected Members Organization (A.E.M.O)
    • Change of the discriminative voter qualification requirements.
    • Demanded the end of the state of emergency.
    • Registration of voters on a common roll.
    • More African representation in the Legco (2 x 1 = 2 mks)
  10. Name two operation Forts established by the British to enhance political controlin Central Kenya.
    1. Fort Hall
    2. Fort Smith
    3. Fort Dagorreti
      (Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)
  11. Problems facing cooperative movement
    1. Political interference
    2. Commodity price fluctuations
    3. Decline in value of Kenyan Shilling
    4. Corruption.
  12. Two elements of the rule of law in Kenya
    1. Principle of legality
    2. Separation of powers of the three arms of government
    3. Equality before the law
    4. Judiciary must work without fear or favour in the administration of justice
  13. State two characteristics of human rights.
    1. They are universal.
    2. They are indivisible.
    3. They have limitations.
    4. They may be suspended.
      (Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)
  14. State two terms of the Heligoland treaty of 1890.
    1. Germany recognised Uganda as a British Sphere of influence.
    2. Germany acquired island of Heligoland in the Northern sea in exchange for Wituland.
    3. Western boundaries of Uganda and Tanzania were defined.
      (Any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)
  15. Two values and principles of Public service according to the new constitution.
    1. Efficient, effective and economic use of resources.
    2. Involvement of the people in the process of policy making.
    3. Accountability for administrative acts.
    4. Transparency and provision to the public of timely accurate information.
      (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  16. Define devolution in relation to the Kenyan government today? (1 mk)
    It is a type of government where the central government delegates certain powers and responsibilities to lower levels of government according to the constitution.

SECTION B

  1.    
    1. Name three Kalenjin speaking communities that remained in Mt. Elgon region during migration. (3 mks)
      Bok
      Bongomek
      Kony.
    2. Describe the social organization of the pre-colonial Somali community.
      • Divided into clans made up of related families.
      • Clan headed by council of elders which settled disputes among other duties.
      • Had age set system made up of circumcised boys played important role in defense of the community.
      • Believed in existence to God – Wak (Waq) creator and controller.
      • Religious leaders existence; mediated between people and God.
      • Had divided duties according to age, religion and social standards / status.
      • Practiced exogamous marriage as well as polygamy.
      • Adapted Islam later.
  2.    
    1. State three factors that led to the decline of the coastal towns after 1500 AD.
      • Disruption of trade by the Portuguese leading to loss of revenue to sustain the towns.
      • Constant warfare and conflicts between the Portuguese and the locals.
      • Invasion of the coastal settlements by the Zimba.
      • Increased conflicts among the city states discouraging traders from the interior to bring trade Goods to the coast.
      • lack of fresh water.
      • Dry spell which hindered farming activities.
      • Rivalry among European nations for the control of trade.
      • The city states lacked unity. They fought each other for purposes of superiority e.g Malindi and Mombasa.
      • The Portuguese conquest of individual city states made them to decline e.g Pate, Mombasa,Kilwa, Mafia, Zanzibar, Sofala, Brava, Solatra and Lamu.
    2. Explain six social impacts of the missionary activities in Kenya.
      • Christianity became widespread: It affected beliefs and practices of African traditional Religion.
      • Missionaries condemned African culture and practice e.g. polygamy, female circumcision.
      • Western education and civilization spread: Mission schools were established.
      • Missionaries, contributed to the provision of medical services: They built hospitals and dispensaries.
      • Rise of independent churches and schools.
      • Led to abolition of slavery and slave trade.
      • Contributed to exploration of Kenya.
      • Improved welfare of Africans
  3.    
    1. Give five common challenges faced by both the railway builders and settlerin colonial Kenya.
      1. Inadequate labour.
      2. Inadequate essential needs.
      3. Hostility from some Africans.
      4. Tropical diseases and pests.
      5. Inadequate infrastructure.
    2. Explain five internal factors that led to the growth of Kenyan nationalist activities.
      1. Return of ex-service men who were informed in world affairs.
      2. The constitutional changes initiated by the colonial government i.e Lytteton, Lennox Boyd etc.
      3. The Mau Mau movement consolidated the nationalist struggle and brought direct confrontation with colonial government giving impetus for nationalist struggle.
      4. Lifting of ban on political organization.
      5. Activities of trade unions promoted growth of African nationalism activity especially in urban areas.
  4.    
    1. Give three grievances of the whitesettlers that were presented to the Duke of Devonshire in London in 1923.
      1. Settlers wanted to retain Kenya highlands exclusively for the whites.
      2. They demanded independence from Britain.
      3. They wanted restriction of Indian migration to Kenya.
      4. They advocated for racial segregation.
        (Any 3 x 1 = 3 mks)
    2.  Explain six positive effects of urbanization in Kenya during the colonial period.
      1. It contributed to national unity as it brought together people of different ethnic backgrounds.
      2. Towns promoted market gardening for communities near towns e.g Kiambu.
      3. It led to the formation of welfare groups / Associations to cater for the needs of Africans.
      4. It promoted cultural interaction through sports and cultural activities.
      5. It led to expansion of industries due to a large population that provided labour and market.
      6. It led to formation of trade unions to fight for the right of workers.
      7. There was emergency of a class of wealthy African who earned their living by selling their Labour.
      8. It led to the formation of political associations to address African grievances.
        (Any 6 well explained points x 2 = 12 mks)

SECTION C (30 MKS)

  1.    
    1. State five non-violent methods of resolving conflicts.(5mks)
      1. Litigation (court process)
      2. Arbitration
      3. Negotiation
      4. Mediation.
      5. Problem solving workshops.
      6. Policing.
      7. Religious action.
      8. Fact finding missions.
      9. Conciliation.
    2. Explain five factors that promote national unity. (10 mks)
      1. The constitution gives all Kenyans equal rights hence fostering a sense of equality and therefore promoting national unity.
      2. The presidency – is a single institution hence promotes national unity.
      3. Education – children from all races and tribes learn freely and use common curriculum.
      4. National language (Kiswahili) enables people from different tribes to communicate.
      5. Trade – use of common currency has promoted interactions among different groups of people.
      6. Intermarriage – enhance co-operation.
      7. Co-curricular activities/sports/games/music festivals bring people from different backgrounds together.
      8. Fair distribution of national resources.
      9. National symbols – give people a sense of belonging.
      10. National philosophies – enable people from different ethnic groups to put their resources together for development. (5x2) = 10mks
  2.      
    1. Identify three ways that could be used to amend the constitution in Kenya in Kenya.
      Through a parliamentary vote that must achieve 2/3 majority support.
      By a referendum in which at least 20% of registered voters in atleast 24 counties should give approval.
      By a simple majority vote by the citizen in a referendum
      (3 x 1 = 3 mks)
    2. Explain the process of law making at the National level.
      1. It starts with the drafting of the intended bill in the Attorney General’s chamber.
      2. The bill is tabled in parliament for the first time and no discussions or voting is made.
      3. The Bill is taken for the second reading in parliament. It is discussed / debated, amended and Proposed and voting is done. If approved it goes to the next stage.
      4. At committee stage, the bill is debated either by the committee of the house or by select committee, amendments are made and taken to the next stage.
      5. The report stage, the committee of the whole house / select committee reports the amended bill to the house. The members of parliament are given the chance to confirm whether the proposals were incorporated.
      6. The third reading, the bill is tabled in parliament for the third reading. It is debated, further amendments are made, and voting takes place. If approved it goes to the next stage.
      7. Presidential assent, this is the last stage the president approves the bill and signs it to become an Act of parliament. It is then published in the Kenya Gazette for the public to see.
        (six well explained points x 2 = 12 mks)
  3.    
    1. Functions of Kenya correctional facilities
      • Takes care of the welfare of the prisoners.
      • Offering the inmates vocational training.
      • Confine prisoners convicted by the courts.
      • Watch over the behavior of suspected criminals i.e. remandees.
      • Execute the court sentences e.g. administering capital punishments.
      • Rehabilitates convicted prisoners. (5 x 1 = 5 mks)
    2. Factors that undermine the administration of Justice in Kenya.
      • Corrupt practices in courts of law may lead to unfair decisions
      • Political interferences may influence judgment made in court
      • Confining suspects in remand for longer period without presenting them in a court of law for prosecution
      • Lack of impartiality during trials may lead to unfair judgments
      • Inability by police to carry out thorough investigations on suspected criminal activities.
      • Inability of ordinary people to meet the costs of prolonged court case.
      • Lacks of knowledge regarding legal procedures hence find themselves implicated unfairly.
      • Inadequate legal officers to handle the many cases
      • Lack of modern technology
      • Lack of one common law derails the effective administration of justice.
        Any 6 x 2=12mks

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