Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Achievers Focus Trial 4 Examination 2021/2022

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  1. Write your name and admission number in the spaces provided.
  2. This paper consists of section A, B and C.
  3. Answer all questions in section A and B and any TWO questions in section C in the spaces provided.


  1. Give four benefits of practicing organic farming.(2mks)
  2. Give four reasons why land should be prepared early in readiness for planting.(2mks)
  3. List three particulars of the land owner which are included in the land title deed.(1 ½ mks
  4. Name three ways of carrying out overhead irrigation in the farm.(1 ½ mks)
  5. Outline four indicators of well rotten compost manure.(2mks)
  6. Give four advantages of rotational grazing.(2mks)
  7. List four ways through which soil PH influences crop production.(2mks)
  8. Give two reasons for carrying out each of the following operations in the land.
    1. Rolling (1mk)
    2. Levelling (1mk)
  9. Give four characteristics of variable inputs.(2mks)
  10. State three ways by which plant nutrients may be lost from the soil.( 1 ½ mks)
  11. Give two activities carried out during hardening off tomato seedlings. (1mk)
  12. List down four types of financial books farmers should keep.(2mks)
  13. Outline four factors that affect the effectiveness of a pesticide.(2mks)
  14. Give four factors that affect the quality of silage.(2mks)
  15. Differentiate between soil texture and soil structure.(1mk)
  16. Give three reasons why seed selection is important in the establishment of crops.(1 ½ mks)
  17. State four factors that affect elasticity of demand.(2mks)


  18. The transaction below shows Mr Mukindias financial position in his farm business for the year 2004.
    Purchase of pesticides 3,000
    Milk sales - 8,000
    Sale of goats 5,000
    Closing valuation 16,000
    Interest payable 1,750
    Veterinary bills 1,400
    Opening valuation 12,000
    Wages 10,000
    Depreciation of machinery 3,000
    Sale of one heifer 1,000
    Prepare a profit and loss account for Mr Mukindia’a farm.(5mks)
  19. The diagram below illustrates crop diseases, study the diagrams carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the crop disease illustrate in the diagrams.
    2. Give the causative agent for each of the diseases illustrated above.
      Q_____________________ (1mk)
    3. State one cultural method used in the control of disease illustrated by Q.(1mk)
  20. Below is an illustration of an activity carried out in agroforestry.
    1. Identify the activity being carried out in the above diagram.(1mk)
    2. State two reasons for carrying out the activity identified above.(2mks)
    3. Name two tools that may be used to carry out the activity in (a) above.(2mks)
  21. The diagrams below illustrate field management practices. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the field practices.
      M___________________ (1mk)
    2. Name a crop that can be managed using management (M) above.(1mk)
    3. Give one reason for carrying out each of the management practices above.(2mks)

    1. State and explain any five cultural method of controlling weeds.(10mks)
    2. Outline six ways in which wind negatively affects agricultural production. (6mks)
    3. Explain four factors that influence the depth of planting crops. (4mks)
    1. Explain eight factors that encourage soil erosion.(8mks)
    2. Describe seven management practices that should be carried out on a vegetable nursery after sowing until the seedlings are ready for transplanting. (7mks)
    3. Describe the harvesting of sugarcane. (5mks)
    1. Outline the characteristics of ideal agro-forestry tree species.(6mks)
    2. Describe the establishment of cabbages under the following subheadings.
      1. Land preparation (3mks)
      2. Transplanting (7mks)
    3. Explain the harvesting of bulb onions.(4mks)



  1. Benefits of practicing organic farming
    • It is environmental friendly/ no pollution.
    • It produces healthy products
    • The produce fetch higher prices in the international market.
    • It uses locally available material/cheap.
    • It is easy to carry out.
    • It is sustainable/ conserves soil.
      4x1/2= 2mks
  2. Reasons for preparing land early.
    • To give vegetation time to dry up and decompose to organic matter.
    • Allow proper gaseous exchange, thus co2 is replaced by oxygen which is necessary for germination.
    • Give enough time to other subsequent operations to be done.
    • Give way to early planting.
  3. Particulars in the title deed.
    • Name
    • Id card number
    • Signature /company seal
    • Condition of ownership eg mortage for loan. 3x1/2=11/2mks
  4. Ways of carrying out overhead irrigation.
    • Use of sprinklers
    • Use of watering cans
    • Use of hose pipes.3x1/2=11/2mks
  5. Indicators of well rotten compost manure
    • Light weight
    • Brown in colour
    • Has the smell of forest soil
    • Original nature of the material is not noticeable.
  6. Advantages of rotational grazing
    • Controls diseases / parasites
    • Better utilization of pastures/ excess forage is conserved / sold
    • Pasture is given time to regenerate.
    • Allows various management practices to be carried out eg weeding.
    • Ensures even distribution of animal waste.
  7. Influence of soil pH
    • Influences the type of crop to be grown in an area.
    • Influence availability of plant nutrients.
    • Low pH influences prevalence of certain diseases and pests eg nematodes.
    • Influences the activities of soil micro-organisms in the soil.
  8. Reasons for
    1. Rolling
      • Prevent small seeds from being blown away by wind.
      • Increase seed- soil contact. 2x1/2= 1mk
    2. Levelling
      • Prevent easy germination of small seeded crops
      • Facilitate uniform germination of seeds.
        2x1/2= 1mk
  9. Characteristics of variable inputs.
    • They are added to fixed inputs during production.
    • Are allocated to specific enterprises.
    • Their cost depends on quality and quantity used.
    • They change in quantity with the level of production.
    • Their cost value is used to calculate gross margin of farm enterprises.
      4x1/2= 2mks
  10. Ways through which plant nutrients are lost
    • Leaching
    • Plant uptake
    • Volatilization /burning (3x1/2= 11/2 mks
  11. Activities carried out during hardening off.
    • Gradual removal of shade.
    • Gradual reduction of watering frequency
    • Reduction of the amount of water used.(2x1/2=1mk
  12. Types of financial books.
    • Journal
    • Ledger
    • Cash book
    • Inventory. 4x1/2= 2mks
  13. Factors affecting the effectiveness of pesticides.
    • Weather conditions
    • Persistence of the pesticide
    • Formulation of the pesticide
    • Mode of action of the pesticide
    • Mode of action of the pesticide.
    • Concentration of the pesticide in relation to stage development.
  14. Factors that affect the quality of silage.
    • Type of forage used.
    • The stage of harvesting the forge
    • Moisture content of forage
    • The leaf – stem ratio of forage
    • Speed of ensiling
    • Degree of compaction
      4x1/2= 2mks)
  15. Difference between
    Soil texture: Fineness or coarseness of soil mineral particles while.
    Soil structure: Is the arrangement of soil particles into groups or aggregates and shapes.
    2x1=2mks (mark as a whole)
  16. Importance of seed selection.
    • Helps to obtain seeds with a high germination potential
    • Reduces the chances of pest disease attack.
    • Helps to obtain high quality yields.
    • Makes it easy to identify seeds that are suited to a given ecological zone.
      3x1/2=1 1/2mks
  17. Factors that affect elasticity of demand
    • Availability of substitutes.
    • Degree of necessity
    • Number of uses a product can be put to
    • Time lag
    • Promotion of a commodity
    • Supply
      4x1/2= 2mks


  1. Mr. Mukindia’s farm
    Purchase and expenses    Sales and receipts
    Opening valuation  12,000 00  Sale of milk  8,000  00
    Purchase of pesticides  3,000  00 Sale of goats  5,000  00
    Interest payable  1,750  00 Sale of one year heifer  1,000   00
    Veterinary bills  1,400  00 Closing valuation  16,000  00
    Wages 10,000  00 Total  30,000  00
    Depreciation of machinery 3,000 00 Loss 31150-30000 1,150 00
    TOTAL 31,150 00 TOTAL 31,150 00
  2. Diseases
    1. P- Bacterial wilt (1x1=1mk)
      Q- Maize smut (1x1=1mk)
    2. Causative agent
      P – Bacteria ( pseudomonas solanacearum) 1x1=1mk
      Q – Fungi ( ustilago maydis 1x1=1mk
    3. One cultural method of controlling Q
      • Crop rotation
      • Field hygiene
      • Rogueing
      • Use of clean planting material/ certified seeds1x1=1mks.
    1. Root pruning (1x1=1mk
    2. Reasons for the activity above
      • reduces root damage during transplanting
      • makes lifting of seedlings easy
      • Encourages the development of short, dense and strong rooting system.
      • Seedlings establish faster.
        Any 2x1=2mks
    3. Tools used
      • Panga
      • Machete 2x1=2mks
    1. M – Trelishing (1x1= 1mk
      N- Earthing up (1X1=1mk
    2. Crops managed using management. M
      • passion fruits
      • Some bean varieties.
      • Thorn melon 1x1=1mk
    3. Reason for carrying out
      M- Provide support of crops with vines using wire or sisal strings.
      N- Improve tuber formation in irish potatoes.
      • Provides support thus prevent lodging in maize.
      • Promotes production of seeds in groundnuts.
      • Improves drainage around the crop in tobacco.
        Any 1x1 = 1mk


    1. Cultural methods of weed control
      • Crop rotation: controls wed that are associated with certain crops eg. Striga in maize fields.
      • Cover cropping -: smoothers weeds preventing their growth.
      • Flooding: controls non – aquatic weeds in rice fields.
      • Timely planting: enable crops to establish earlier thus smothering weeds.
      • Proper spacing: creates very little space for weed growth and forms canopies that suppress weeds.
      • Clean seed bed. It starts off the crop on a clean bed to enable it to compete effectively with weeds.
      • Use clean seed/ planting materials: this prevents introduction of a new weed into the farm.
        Any 5x2=10mks
        Stating – 1mk
        Relevant explanation – 1mk
    2. Negative effects of wind in crop production.
      • Result sin soil erosion/ loss of plant nutrients thus poor crop growth.
      • Results in lodging of cereal crops/ breaking of branches.
      • Spreading of diseases, weed seeds and pests.
      • Disperses rain bearing clouds resulting into lack of rainfall.
      • It encourages transpiration hence wilting.
      • Destroys farm structures eg crop stores green houses etc.
      • Transfers agro- chemical such as herbicides to unwanted areas during spraying.
      • Accelerates the rate of evapotranspiration.
      • Causes stress to crops and young livestock due to chilling caused by cold winds/frost.
        Any 6x1=6mks
    3. Factors influencing depth of planting.
      Soil type – seeds emerge from greater depth in sandy soils that are light than in clay soils.
      Soil moisture content: seeds are planted deeper in dry soils in order to place them in a zone with moist soil.
      Size of seed: larger seeds are planted deeper in the soil since they have enough reserves to shoot and emerge through the soil.
      Type of germination: seeds with epigeal type of germination e.g. beans are planted shallower than those with hypogeal type of germination.
    1. Factors that encourage soil erosion.
      • Lack of ground cover exposes soil to agents of soil erosion/ removal of cover crops.
      • Steep slopes increase the speed of surface run-off hence erosive power of water.
      • Light/ sandy soils are easily carried away by agents of soil erosion.
      • Shallow soils are easily saturated with water and carried away.
      • Frequent cultivation / over cultivation pulvenses the soil making it easy to detach and be carried away.
      • Overstocking leads to overgrazing which destroys ground cover exposing it to agents of erosion.
      • High amount of rainfall increases saturation of soil with water thus increasing soil erosion.
      • Cultivation of the river banks destroys river line vegetation exposing it to soil erosion agents.
      • Ploughing up and down the slopes creates water channels which encourage soil erosion.
      • High rainfall intensity increases impact of raindrop thus encouraging raindrop erosion.
      • Burning of vegetation leaves land bare exposing it to erosion agents.
      • Cultivating soil when too dry or too wet destroys soil structure making soil easily eroded.
        Any 8x1=8mks
    2. Nursery bed management practices.
      • Mulching to conserve moisture
      • Erection of a shade to minimize evapotranspiration.
      • Weed control to reduce competition with seedlings.
      • Pests and disease control to ensure healthy seedlings
      • Pricking out to minimise competition.
      • Watering to ensure adequate moisture supply.
      • Hardening off/ removing shade/ reducing watering to acclimitise the seedlings to conditions in the field.
        Any 7x1=7mks
    3. Harvesting of sugarcane
      • Sugarcane mature 18-20 months whereas ration take 16mths in western. In coast it takes 14months and ratoon crop take 12months.
      • Samples should be taken for quality testing in the factory.
      • If the quality is ok harvesting should start immediately.
      • Cut the cane at the ground level to avoid loss of the yield.
      • After cutting cane the green tops are removed immediately.
      • The leaves should be stripped.
      • Harvesting is done using a cane harvesting matchettes.
      • Harvested cane should be delivered to the factory within the first 24hrs.
    1. Characteristic of ideal agro- forestry tree species.
      • Nitrogen fixing ability
      • Fast growing ability
      • Multipurpose in nature
      • By- products production.
      • Deep rooted with shallow root zone.
      • Should be palatable.
    2. Establishment of cabbages under.
      1. Land preparation.
        • Clear the vegetation
        • Plough / dig deeply to eradicate perennial weeds.
        • Harrow to a medium tilth
        • Prepare land during the dry season.
          Any 3x1=3mks
      2. Transplanting.
        • Transplanting the seedlings at the age of four to six weeks
        • Transplant during a cloudy or cool day.
        • Water the nursery bed thoroughly before transplanting.
        • Lift seedlings with a ball of soil around the roots to avoid damaging the roots.
        • Water the field well before transplanting.
        • Apply a handful of well decomposed organic manure or one table spoonful of DSP per hole.
        • Apply suitable insecticides to control soil borne pests.
        • Plant seedlings at the same depth as they were in the nursery.
        • Firm the soil well around the base of the seedlings.
    3. Harvesting of bulb onions.
      • Harvest after 5 months.
      • Harvest when leaves start drying
      • Break or bend the tops at the neck to hastern withering
      • Dig out the bulbs and leave them to dry under shade.
      • Turn daily to ensure uniform drying.
      • Store in slated boxes.

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Read 5398 times Last modified on Monday, 24 January 2022 13:59
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