Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Lanjet Mock Exams 2021/2022

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper consists of three sections: A, B and C.
  • Answer all the questions in section A and B and any two questions from section C.

SECTION A (30 MARKS)
Answer ALL questions in this Section in the spaces provided

  1. Outline two ways in which agriculture promotes industrial growth in Kenya (1mk)
  2. State four factors considered when choosing a farming system. (2mks)
  3. Give four natural factors that encourage soil erosion. (2mks)
  4. List any four ways in which soil is deprived of its fertility. (2mks)
  5. State four factors considered when selecting a site for a tomato nursery bed. (2mks)
  6. State four reasons for intercropping. (2mks)
  7. Give four advantages of intensive farming. (2mks)
  8. Give four reasons why land should be prepared early in readiness for planting. (2mks)
  9. State four reasons for deep ploughing during land preparation. (2mks)
  10. State two reasons for conserving forage crops. (1mk)
  11. Name two types of labour records kept in the farm. (1mk)
  12. Give two ways in which mulch control soil erosion. (1mk)
  13.  
    1. Define the following terms as used in soil fertility. (2mks)
      1. Macro nutrients
      2. Micro nutrients
  14.  
    1. State four roles of Nitrogen as a macro nutrient in plant nutrition. (2mks)
    2. Give two methods that can be used to detect nutrient deficiency in crops. (2mks)
    3. Name two ionic forms through which element Nitrogen is absorbed by plants. (2mks)
  15. Give four factors considered when classifying crop pests. (2mks)

SECTION B (20 Marks)
Answer ALL questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. The following illustrations show different production function curves in agricultural economics.
    Study them and answer the questions that follow
    Agri LJM PP1 Q1 2122
    1. Identify the production function curves A and B. (2mks)
    2. State the law derived from the production function labelled C. (1mk)
    3.  
      1. Which one of the three production function curves is rare in Agriculture? (1mk)
      2. Give a reason for your answer in (c) (i) above. (1mk)
  2. Study the illustrations below and answer the questions that follow.
    Agri LJM PP1 Q17 2122\
    1. Name the types of grafting labeled A and C. (2mks)
    2. Name any two crops propagated by method C. (2mks)
    3. Give any two tools or materials used in propagation method C. (2mks)
    4. Give four advantages of using grafting method as a method of improving avocado fruits. (2mks)
  3. Calculate the plant population in a 5.4 hectare plot of a bean crop planted at the spacing 45cmx 20cm. Assume one plant per hole. (3 mks)
  4. The diagram below illustrates a feature observed after digging the soil several metres deep Study the diagram carefully and answer the question that follow.
    Agri PP1 LJM Q19 2122
    1. Identify the feature that the diagram above represents in the study of soil. (1mk)
    2. What is the name given to part labeled P (1mk)
    3. Give a reason why part B is also referred to as layer of accumulation. (1mk)

SECTION C
Answer any TWO questions from this section

  1.  
    1. Explain ten ways in which the Kenyan government can improve maize production to ensure food security in the country. (10mks)
    2. Explain six ways in which soil fertility can be maintained. (6mks)
    3. Highlight four reasons for pruning coffee. (4mks)
  2.  
    1. Explain eight cultural methods of soil and water conservation. (8mks)
    2. Explain four ways in which:
      1. HIV/AIDS limits agricultural production (4mks)
      2. Government policy improves agricultural production. (4mks)
    3. Explain the factors considered when choosing an irrigation method in crop production. (4mks)
  3.  
    1. Describe six factors that determine the stage of harvesting crops. (6mks)
    2. Describe the production of carrots under the following subheadings:
      1. Planting (3mks)
      2. Field management (6mks)
      3. Harvesting (2mks)
    3. Describe three importance of agroforestry. (3mks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (30 Marks)

  1. Ways in which agriculture promotes industrial growth in Kenya. (1 mark)
    • Provides market for industrial goods.
    • Provides capital for industrial growth.
    • Provides raw materials for industries.
  2. Factors considered when choosing a farming system (2mks)
    • Aims/objectives of a farmer
    • Environmental factors of soil type
    • Farmers knowledge and skills concerning enterprise
    • Availability of resources of : labour, capital
    • Cultural factors
    • Government policy
    • Market availability
  3. Natural factors that encourage soil erosion (2mks)
    • Steepness of the slope
    • Rainfall amount
    • Type soil
    • Size of watershed/ size of catchment area
    • Rainfall intensity
    • Length of slope
    • Bareness of soil
    • Prevalence of strong winds
    • Soil depth
  4. Four ways in which soil is deprived of its fertility. (2 marks)
    • Monocropping / monoculture.
    • Continuous cropping
    • Change of soil PH
    • Accumulation of salts.
    • Burning.
    • Leaching
  5. Four factors considered when selecting a site for a tomato nursery bed. (2 marks)
    • Nearness to a source of water.
    • Well drained deep fertile soil.
    • Gentle slope.
    • Previous cropping.
    • Secure place.
    • Accessibility
    • Sheltered but not shaded.
  6. Four reasons for intercropping. (2 marks)
    • Maximise production;
    • Maximise utilization of nutrients in the soil;
    • Control weeds;
    • Control pests/diseases;
    • Diversification’/spread risks
    • Maximise labour utilisation/save costs on labour.
    • Improve soil fertility if legumes are included.
    • Maximise utilisation of land.
    • Conserve soil/water (cover cropping);
  7. Four advantages of intensive farming. (2 marks)
    • Increases production per unit area;
    • Farm supervision is easy;
    • Maximises utilization of available land;
    • Ideal for densely populated areas/small land holdings;
    • Utilizes technology to increase production.
  8.  Four reasons why land should be prepared early in readiness for planting. (2 marks)
    • Allow time for weeds to dry and decompose;
    • Allow for proper soil aeration;
    • Allow timely planting / subsequent operations;
    • Allow time for soil clods to disintegrate/soften.
  9. Four reasons for deep ploughing during land preparation. (2 marks)
    • Facilitates aeration;
    • Facilitates drainage;
    • Breaks hard pans/facilitates water infiltration;
    • Bring up previously leached nutrients;
    • Facilitate development of deep rooted crops;
    • Expose lower soil layers to weathering;
    • Expose soil borne pests and disease agents.
    • Remove deeply rooted weeds.
  10. Two reasons for conserving forage crops. (1mk)
    • To avoid wastage in times of planting
    • To ensure enough supply throughout the year
    • To earn income from selling excess forage
    • To ensure good utilization of land.
  11. Two types of labour records kept in the farm. (1mk)
    • Master roll
    • Labour utilization analysis record
  12. Two ways in which mulch control the soil erosion. (1mk)
    • Reduce speed of surface run – off
    • Insulates the soil reducing direct conduct between the soil and the agents of erosion.
  13. Define the following terms as used in soil fertility (2mks)
    1. Macro-nutrients
      • Macro-nutrients are nutrients required by plants in large quantities
    2. Micro-nutrients
      • Micro- nutrients are nutrients required by plants in small quantities
  14.  
    1. Roles of nitrogen as a macro-nutrient in plant nutrition (2mks)
      • Protein formation
      • Forms part of chlorophyll molecule
      • Encourages vegetation growth
      • Increases size of grains/ increases yields
      • Regulates availability of phosphorus and potassium in plants
    2. Methods that can be used to detect nutrient deficiency in crops (2mks)
      • Observing deficiency symptoms
      • Analysis of plant parts
      • Soil analysis/ soil testing
    3. Two ionic forms through which element nitrogen is absorbed by plants (2mks)
      • Nitrate form/ NO3
      • NH4+ /Ammonium ion
  15. Factors considered when classifying crop pests (2mks)
    • Crop attacked /mode of felling
    • Whether field /storage pest/stage of attack
    • Crop part attacked
    • Science classification e.g. insect mite, rodent

SECTION B (20 Marks)

  1.  
    1. Identify the production function curves labelled A and B. (2 marks)
      • A - Increasing returns production function curve
      • B - Constant returns production function curve
    2. State the law derived from the production function labelled C. (1mk)
      • The Law of diminishing returns.
      • If successive units of one variable input are added to fixed quantities of other inputs, a point is reached where additional (marginal/extra) product per additional unit of input declines.
    3.  
      1. Which one of the three production function curves is rare in Agriculture? (1mk)
        • B
      2. Give a reason for your answer in (c)(i) above. (1 mark)
        • Other factors influence / limit agriculture production.

    1. Name the types of grafting labeled A and C above. (2 marks)
      • A - Side grafting
      • C - Whip / tongue grafting
    2. Name any two crops propagated by method C. (2 marks)
      • Pear.
      • Plum.
      • Avocado.
      • Citrus spp
    3. Give any two tools or materials used in propagation method C. (2 marks)
      • Budding knife.
      • Grafting tape.
      • Grafting wax.
    4. Give four advantages of using grafting as a method of improving avocado fruits. (2mks)
      • Plants mature early
      • It is possible to produce crops that would otherwise not be propagated through other means like use of seeds
      • It is possible to use root stock with certain beneficial traits such as drought and disease resistance.
      • More than one type of plant variety can be produced on the same rootstock
      • It makes possible to repair damaged plant parts,
      • Crop variety obtained may have higher /more desirable qualities in terms of taste and size.
  2. Calculate the plant population in a 5.4 hectare plot of a bean crop planted at the spacing 45cm x 20cm.  Assume one plant per hole. (4 marks)
    Plant population = Area of land
                                     Spacing
    1 ha = 10000m2
    5.4 ha. = 54000m2
                =    54000m²  
                    0.45 x 0.2m
    = 600,000 bean plants.
  3.  
    1. Identify the feature that the diagram above represents in the study of soil (1mk)
      • Soil profile
    2. What is the name given to the part labeled p(1mk)
      • Transitional Zone
    3. Give a reason why part b is also referred to as layer of accumulation (1mk)
      • This is the soil horizon in which the leached nutrients accumulate

SECTION C (40 Marks)

  1.  
    1. Explain ten ways in which the Kenyan government can improve maize production to ensure food security in the country. (10mks)
      • Farmers training on improved methods of maize production
      • Provision of extensive services to advice farmers on modern maize production, techniques
      • Provision of subsidies on maize inputs
      • Provision of credit facilities e.g. AFC
      • Imposing high taxation on imported maize and maize products to discourage importation
      • Quality control to ensure production of high quality maize that can attract foreign market.
      • Supporting research into new and improved varieties of maize for high yields
      • Farm input supplies
      • Provision of marketing services
      • Provision of drying and storage facilities
      • Provision of tractor hire services
      • Ensuing effective pest/ disease/ weed control
    2. Explain six ways in which soil fertility can be maintained. (6 mks)
      • Adding manure to the soil to enrich it with nutrients.
      • Using inorganic fertilizers which release nutrients in forms that are readily available to plants.
      • Practicing crop rotation to ensure balanced nutrients use.
      • Using appropriate tillage, for instance minimum tillage.
      • Regulating soil PH though liming
      • Controlling soil erosion
      • Practicing a forestation and reforestation
      • By irrigation which increases availability and uptake of plant nutrients and reclaims saline soil through mulching
      • By weeding to reduce competition for nutrients.
      • By practicing inter cropping preferably with legume to enhance nitrogen fixation.
    3. Highlight four reasons for pruning coffee (4mks)
      • To train the plant so that it can have the required shape
      • To remove the diseased and the unwanted parts of a plant such as extra suckers, leaves, branches, flowers or even stems
      • To control cropping
      • To facilitate picking
      • For ease penetration of the spray
      • To control pest and diseases.
  2.  
    1. Explain eight cultural methods of soil and water conservation. (8 marks)
      • Grass/Filter strips:- reduce speed of flowing water/filter soil;
      • Cover cropping:- prevents surface flow/reduces impact of rain drops/prevents evaporation/volatilization;
      • Contour farming:- creates ridges of soil which hold up water/reduce speed of run-off;
      • Mulching:- reduces impact of rain drops/prevents evaporation/surface run-off;
      • Rotational grazing:- allows grass to recover for soil and water conservation;
      • Crop rotation:- maintain soil cover for protection against erosion/improves soil structure thus increasing infiltration;
      • Inter cropping:- provides adequate cover on the soil;
      • Strip cropping:- the different strips reduce speed of run-off/filter soil;
      • Grassed/vegetated waterways:- slow the speed of water/trap eroded soil;
      • Afforestation/Re-afforestation; Act as water catchments/stabilizes soil/canopy intercepts raindrops/wind;
      • Agroforestry - stabilises soil/canopy intercepts raindrops/act as water catchment/wind;
      • Use of manures/fertilizers; Promotes vegetative growth which covers soil against evaporation and erosion;
      • Correct spacing of crops; Ensure adequate soil cover.
    2. Explain four ways in which:
      1. HIV/AIDS limits agricultural production (4 marks)
        • Shortage of labour;
        • Lack of motivation to invest in agriculture
        • Increased cost of living leading to low investment in agriculture/lack of resources for Agricultural production.;
        • Government and NGOs are spending a lot of time and resources controlling the disease instead of investment in agriculture.
        • Lack of market for agricultual produce.
      2. Government policy improves agricultural production (4 marks)
        • Establishment of national food security policy to supply free farm input to farmers to improve production;
        • Facilitate soil conservation;
        • Imposes laws to regulate quality of agriculture products;
        • Imposes laws to regulate production and sale of agricultural produce to ensure sustainability;
        • Imposes high taxes on imported agricultural products;
        • Providing subsidies on agricultural inputs, e.g. fertilizers;
        • Establishment of government agencies to supply inputs and market agricultural products;
        • Construction of bulky handling and storage facilities for agricultural products;
        • Funding research into new and improved agricultural production technologies;·
        • Ensures control of parasites/diseases/weeds is done effectively;
        • Provision of extension services/education.
    3. State four factors that determine the choice of irrigation method to be used in the farm. (2mks)
      • Topography
      • Capital available
      • Soil type
      • Availability of water
      • Type of crop to be grown
      • Profit margin
  3.  
    1. Describe six factors that determine the stage of harvesting crops. (6mks
      • Concentration of required chemicals
      • Prevailing weather conditions
      • Market demand
      • Attack by pests and diseases.
      • Labour demand/ labour availability.
      • Moisture contents.
      • Intended use of the crop
    2. Production of carrots
      1. Planting
        • Seeds are sown at 1cm depth
        • Firm soil after sowing
        • Apply phosphatic fertilizer at the rate of 200kg /ha
        • Use seed rate of 4kg/ha
      2. Field Management
        • Thin to 5 cm between plants
        • Irrigate when necessary
        • Top dress at rate of 600kgN/ha
        • Keep field weed free by uprooting
        • Earthing up is done
        • Control pests using appropriate herbicides
        • Control diseases (6mks)
      3. Harvesting
        • Carrots mature in 3-5 months
        • Pull off tubers/uproot tubers by use of hand or carrot lifter (2mks)
    3. Describe three importance of agroforestry (3mks)
      • Source of income from sale of tree products e.g. fruits and timber
      • Source of wood fuel
      • Regulation of Micro climates
      • Soil and water conservation
      • Increase land productivity per unit area
      • Recycling of nutrients after decomposition

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